AuschwitzPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, July 05, 2019 11:27:14
Eva Mozes Kor (85 Years Young)
January 31st. 1934 until July 4th. 2019.
"..Getting even has never healed a single person.” Eva Mozes Kor.
Perhaps this was Eva's own independence day, a day she could look upon and know her work was being well formed and delivered to those all too willing to learn her lessons. For a Survivor who had Survived so much and lent her voice, travelling back and forth to where cruelty and destruction continually confronted her, she is a remarkable Woman. For her to deliver to the World, what it can barely comprehend, even to this day, is a monumental undertaking we can barely conceive of.
"..I was given 5 injections. That evening I developed extremely high fever. I was trembling. My arms and my legs were swollen ..huge size. Mengele and Dr. Konig and 3 other doctors came in ..next morning. They looked at my fever chart ..and Dr. Mengele said ..laughingly. ..Too bad ..she is so young. She has only 2 weeks to live." Eva Mozes Kor.
Such was Eva's resilience and strength, she Survived and outlived all those who had condemned her. While this space here is my realm, and I will not sway from the adherence to why I maintain this space, I recognise the appropriateness of those who this space is reserved for. The Holocaust is a matter which should and must confront the World. With that said, there are those of you here who know all too well how profoundly the Catastrophe itself has touched you.
“..Until that moment I had stopped thinking about my family. Maybe it was due to ..bread we ate each evening that supposedly contained not only sawdust but a powder called bromide that made us forget memories of home ..a sedative of some kind. Whatever it was or was not ..I could not feel sorry for myself ..for Miriam ..for anyone. I could not think of myself as a victim ..or I knew I would perish. It was simple. For me ..there was no room for any thought except survival.” Eva Mozes Kor.
I have sought only to insist upon respect for all those who wish to contribute towad the narrative I deliver. With that, and in the hope that all of you are gifted the absolute and factual truth, for me, I still seek to obtain a comprehension of what 6,000,000 Murdered Jews succumbed to and for what all Survivor's know in detail. For many of You. Eva Mozes Kor will mean so much and for many other's, she will be a reference point on the edge of the abyss called The Holocaust.
“..Every night I had nightmares. I dreamed of rats ..size of cats ..dead bodies ..needles stuck into me. After we found out that ..Nazi's had made soap out of Jewish fat ..I dreamed that soap bars spoke to me in ..voices of my Parents and Sisters ..asking me ..why are you washing with us.” Eva Mozes Kor.
Eva's immense struggle to Survive, took this now 11 year old Child away from a harmful place to other' places which continued to harm her because of it. Eva for me, is a Survivor and I am unbounded by an immense respect for all she stood for, her meaning, her valaues and her persistence in telling us her story. While I fundamentally did not agree with her stated forgiveness of all those who perpetrated, particpated or merely looked away from The Holocaust, I knew it was Eva's strength.
“..Mrs. Goldenthal's twin boys ..Alex and Erno ..were our age ..and I discovered that they had been selected at Auschwitz for Mengele's experiments like us. Mrs. Goldenthan had stayed with them ..and I found out later that she had hidden a younger Child ..Margarita ..underneath her long skirt. She had come into ..camp with ..Child hidden in her dress and during her entire stay there ..even in ..Nazi barracks where she had kept Margarita under ..mattress during inspections ..she and ..other Women had helped conceal ..Child.” Eva Mozes Kor.
I sincerely felt though, that it was not her place to forgive for 6,000,000 Murdered Jews who had no way of affording us their own forgiveness for what emerged to consume them. But for Eva, as much as for her Sister Miriam, a light was switched oin when she was delivering to Teacher's and Students who listened ardently to what us lesser beings would have been overwhelmned by. July 4t. 2019, that switch might well have now turned itself off, but the light of example will forwever shine brightly for who Eva Mozes Kor was, is and will be.
“..At Auschwitz dying was so easy. Surviving was a full time job.” Eva Mozes Kor.
Revisiting the PastPosted by P.A. Draigh Thu, July 04, 2019 20:44:49
I have back tracked as I simply have no wish to commence this piece with the words of a man whose whole existence was predicated upon the Jewish People. Not simply and firstly to accost them but continually to abuse and then finally to physically destroy them in the most cataclysmic assault upon the Human senses ever devised. So I will lend my own words to those of a man who is largely forgotten in the terms of The Holocaust and share with you what his meaning could have ensured.
"..Everywhere you went there was a rabble. People who suddenly felt they were someone ..who saw that this was their chance. People who looked on ..Anschluss ..first and foremost ..as an opportunity to get involved in ..witchhunt." Moriz Scheyer.
There are 6,000,000 reasoning's to suggest that if we had listened to the awakening reality that 'Words Do Have Meaning', and confronted their vociferousness, then perhaps the consequences might have been lessened somewhat for the entire 6,000,000 Jews of Europe totally abandoned by us. For any Jew of Europe, who then managed to Survive as a remarkable account of the saving graces of many who found their humanity affixed to a single Jew, we must remember righteousness prevailed, even in its slightest form.
"..We were already in a sort of No Man's Land ..between life and death. ..on ..other side of ..Demarcation Line ..Germans awaited us. There would begin ..a realm of agony. Nor would we be given ..small comfort of being allowed to die together. They would tear us apart. Not a voice ..not a look ..would be allowed to reach us there. Nothing but ..mocking laughter of our executioners. That is why so many ..though still alive ..though still unscathed ..were already wearing their own death masks." Moriz Scheyer.
For Moriz, who sought merely to live his life as a being of Human ancestry and Jewish antecedence, life was an interruption in a game which would result in life being overtaken by death. Of course, the return of the Austrian corporal to Austria signified the commencement along that long road toward where the death mask would be worn by 6,000,000 Jewish People. But perhaps also, that mask of a death warrant is currently affixed to those in History who now choose to ignore the noble words of the many facing extinction ahead of us.
"..What soon gave me cause for very serious consideration were ..activities of ..Jews in certain branches of life ..into ..mystery of which I penetrated little by little. Was there any shady undertaking ..any form of foulness ..especially in cultural life ..in which at least 1 Jew did not participate. On putting ..probing knife carefully to that kind of abscess one immediately discovered ..like a maggot in a putrescent body ..a little Jew who was often blinded by ..sudden light." adolf hitler.
We have to recognise that words have consequences and sometimes the narrative I wish to present falls full square into my lap. I then have an urgent need to express what is my contempt for those in History who do not recognise the very debt we each owe to all of our History. I had just finished a study group, and like minded Historians had voiced their concern that I continually give too much credence to Hitler's predictions, even as I relayed exactly what mein kampf had urged.
"..And so I believe today that my conduct is in accordance with ..will of ..Almighty Creator. In standing guard against ..Jew I am defending ..handiwork of ..Lord." adolf hitler.
Sadly, and I make every effort to ensure I make use of the words of those Jews we have failed to stress my own regard for their loss. The truth in his words, while this Austrian's is writing in that ill defined book is wholly in keeping with his personal hatreds. What is then encapsulated in the emergence of The Final Solution are the words formed into an active and brutal response. That clear resolve, as vehemently expressed, in all too many of the pages of this dirge, engaged in and delivered hatred to the masses.
"..yoke of slavery is and always will remain ..most unpleasant experience that mankind can endure. Do ..Schwabing decadents look upon Germanys lot today as aesthetic. Of course ..one doesn't discuss such a question with ..Jews ..because they are ..modern inventors of this cultural perfume. Their very existence is an incarnate denial of ..beauty of Gods image in His creation." adolf hitler.
The sheer depth of hatred, and all the while still appealing to those who had any form of faith in any god, made Hitler's pronouncements all so much more palatable. Even whilst Hitler had no belief in any god above himself, his deceit was a compounding factor in their acceptance. For The Jewish Question, which had so enraged an emboldened German people, the nation itself focused its sole intention, directly. With such a complicit response, from a supposed civilised nation, the German people had not witnessed itself emerging into the darkness.
"..What we have to fight for is ..necessary security for ..existence and increase of our race and people ..subsistence of its children and the maintenance of our racial stock unmixed ..freedom and independence of ..Fatherland ..so that our people may be enabled to fulfil ..mission assigned to it by ..Creator." adolf hitler.
For those then, who recognise in the words of those promoting the creator, and that The Final Solution of The Jewish Question was to be the wholesale Slaughter of 6,000,000 of the Jewish People., what we have is a truth before words could be acted upon. What Hitler had then fully engendered in those who took up the mantle of a hate filled prospective was, in itself, fully contained within the fuller tenets of The Holocaust as it eventually emerged.
"..From time immemorial ..Jews have known better than any others how falsehood and calumny can be exploited. Is not their very existence founded on one great lie ..that they are a religious community ..whereas in reality they are a race. And what a race. One of ..greatest thinkers that mankind has produced has branded ..Jews for all time with a statement which is profoundly and exactly true. ..Schopenhauer ..called ..Jew ..Great Master of Lies. Those who do not realize ..truth of that statement ..or do not wish to believe it ..will never be able to lend a hand in helping Truth to prevail." adolf hitler.
As History still seeks to debate whether Hitler intended to deliver fully on his most specific words, as they delivered upon the Jewish People, and whether or not he has stolen his hatred from those like Arthur Schopenhauer, we have 6,000,000 very definite reasons to assert what was to be Hitler's fuller intention. What History knows, Hitler's verbal assaults did respond in savage actions to those very violent words he enunciated with passion.
"..In times of distress a wave of public anger has usually arisen against ..Jew ..masses have taken ..law into their own hands ..they have seized Jewish property and ruined ..Jew in their urge to protect themselves against what they consider to be a scourge of God. Having come to know ..Jew intimately through ..course of centuries ..in times of distress they looked upon his presence among them as a public danger comparable only to ..plague." adolf hitler.
The Holocaust then, in its entirety, is as we now contemplate it and with German society's duplicity in the direst ramifications of a descent into ignominy for all of humanity. Thus emboldened, Germany and many collaborator's throughout Europe were prepared to act against their Jewish Community's, in murderous fashion. The obvious words Hitler elaborately faked, were to provoke a response and were precisely deliberate. But the accusations now to be made are be articulated with concern for the veracity of that factual truth.
"..Jew will stop at nothing. His utterly low-down conduct is so appalling that one really cannot be surprised if in ..imagination of our people ..Jew is pictured as ..incarnation of Satan and ..symbol of evil. ..ignorance of ..broad masses as regards ..inner character of ..Jew ..and ..lack of instinct and insight that our upper classes display ..are some of ..reasons which explain how it is that so many people fall an easy prey to ..systematic campaign of falsehood which ..Jew carries on. While ..upper classes ..with their innate cowardliness ..turn away from anyone whom ..Jew thus attacks with lies and calumny ..common people are credulous of everything ..whether because of their ignorance or their simple mindedness. Government authorities wrap themselves up in a robe of silence ..but more frequently they persecute ..victims of Jewish attacks in order to stop ..campaign in ..Jewish Press." adolf hitler.
All too often, missing from the discourse of the history of this period, for all the wrong reasons, is the truthful, reasoning as to why we were not awakened more immediately to the threat and more responsive as they were enacted. That we acted without courage in abandoning these Jews of Europe is to be answered and no such entity as a god will be connected to what is that truth. The temperature of division was raised and heightened so as to ensure a willing audience would endorse the segregating compliance.
"..Look at ..ravages from which our people are suffering daily as a result of being contaminated with Jewish blood. Bear in mind ..fact that this poisonous contamination can be eliminated from ..national body only after centuries ..perhaps never. Think further of how ..process of racial decomposition is debasing and in some cases even destroying ..fundamental Aryan qualities of our German people ..so that our cultural creativeness as a nation is gradually becoming impotent and we are running ..danger ..at least in our great cities ..of falling to ..level where Southern Italy is today." adolf hitler.
However, as we draw our conclusions, whether from the missed opportunity's that were clearly enunciated, articulated and then drawn up, we must truthfully recognise them. Thus is sewn the mentality of us and them, these Jews who remained innocent in all that was presented to them. The words of assault themselves, added to the plunder extracted and the deaths which are to be added, all deliver to the mass Murder of 6,000,000 Jewish People.
"..This pestilential adulteration of ..blood ..of which hundreds of thousands of our people take no account ..is being systematically practised by ..Jew today. Systematically these negroid parasites in our national body corrupt our innocent fair haired girls and thus destroy something which can no longer be replaced in this world. ..two Christian denominations look on with indifference at ..profanation and destruction of a noble and unique creature who was given to ..world as a gift of Gods grace." adolf hitler.
Delivered as they are, and on such an unequalled, unparalleled level, the evisceration of European Jewry from amongst us, has yet to be adjudged properly. As we now become the participating witness to The Holocaust, which has altered humanity forever, we hold a legacy that we must take forward in order to now make sense of the Catastrophe. While Hitler's foul and petrifying language was bought into, and by far too many within Germany at this time, our language was complicit and placating. All too many Germans too, who also saw themselves as better or superior than those they could victimise, thus fell into an abyss of degradation and dereliction without the compassion of human duty.
"..This June 6th. 1944 was not just a day of ..Great Event ..realisation of which we had waited for so long and so fervently. Most important of all was ..total sense of hope that shone through that day. In ..hearts of millions upon millions of human beings. We needed this sense of hope ..so as to be able to hold out a little longer ..so as not to go under at ..last moment." Moriz Scheyer.
These then have to be the last words of this piece, words filled with a hopeful sadness, always recognising that they will leave a bitter taste in the mouth of Humanity. But they are words which emerge away from the malignancy which forced Moriz Scheyer to pen them, upon a D-Day which could not save the close on 6,000,000 Jews who had already gone under. Still, for those Germans who saw no disadvantage in discriminating against these they could stand over, aloof even, but superior in an ill defined racial theory that was neither of religion nor religious, the end of their illegitimate 1,000 year reich was coming to an end. For those who had willingly entered the Death Camps to ensure European Jewry would not Survive, justice would not detain them. For what emerged from the very tome of Hitler's novel, 6,000,000 Jewish lives paid the ultimate price which no justice has ever sought to serve.
"..I feel ..hunger again ..it bites your insides. Concentration Camp for Jews. 1,800 of us at Beaune-la-Rolande. Where are ..my unhappy comrades. What gruesome death awaited them in ..Extermination Camps ..Poland. ..first miracle is that I am not among their number." Moriz Scheyer.
Today there are all too many who witness the saddening discourse of this horrendous time and I felt it required my response and duly write consistently so that we are forged into an alliance to Remember. At a time when I was digesting perhaps too many comparisons, I now choose to bring forth Hitler's total and unequalled contempt for all of Humanity, words that became written with Jewish blood. As Hitler evoked antisemitism way above the hatred he held for both religious order's, his moral probity and ethical conscience descended in to the sewer as an effluent of sustained illegitimacy. For us here, the lesson's to be learned must acknowledge first and foremost the debt we all owe to the memory of these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, who are The Holocaust. For all too long, the defining and steady progress of Hitler's words, which led directly to the Gassing Centres and Killing Sites of Hitler's rampage through Jewish existence, have been gifting to further and future hatreds for far too long. I am here to take them back to where Hitler's words belong, the dust bin of History.
"..In many countries. ..I fear ..Jewish victims will have been 'only' Jews and ..question of their fate will be a Jewish question ...which here means a question without importance. A Jewish Question which one passes over with a shrug of ..shoulders. They are dead ..why waste any more time talking about it. ..other Jewish Question ..is a live one ..for those who have survived but should not have. Because they have ..impertinence ..not just to go on living ..but to want to go on living like everyone else. Yes ..to die like everyone else ..to die a natural death. Instead of doing what they should have ..which was to meet a painful end ..long ago ..in ..persecution camps ..gas chambers ..ovens ..these citadels of Germanic culture and civilisation ..to follow ..excellent example of those 6,000,000 Jews who can never again be accused of wanting anything ..of demanding some kind of position. Not even a grave." Moriz Scheyer.
Anne FrankPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, June 12, 2019 16:57:20
Should Have Been 90 years Today.
On June 12th. 1935, as Anne Frank turns 6 years old there have been anti-Jewish riots occurring in Grodno, Poland and in Berlin, for quite cynical reasons, and unsuited to the aesthetics of World opinion, 'Jews not welcome' signs are removed temporarily from the streets. We accept that with one Child murdered is too costly a penalty for humanity, we recognise in one such Child, set to establish a faith that should lift the spirit above the immoral morass, but has so divided community's we need newer reflections. The other Child who was murdered because of those same divisions, is recognised today as a humanitarian loss. And when that child is Anne Frank, ownership begins to have a more fundamental effect upon us all and we realise the bounds of happiness are impacted upon us from extraneous circumstances and outside influences.
On June 12th. 1937, and while Anne Frank celebrates being 8 years old, Reinhard Heydrich issues a detention order for Race Violators after due process of Law has established Rassenschande, the race defilement decree. In the comparisons to make, ownership becomes a very important factor. We have taken ownership of Christ for ourselves, thus denying Him His own hereditary belonging and moved Him away from His own People and we have used Anne's ownership of her very Jewishness to remove her from our presence. With fear and trepidation, Anne took many steps toward understanding what we have been all too guilty of readily ignoring.
On June 12th. 1940, while the World has been at War for nine months, ever since Hitler invaded Poland, the 11 year old Anne Frank features in a World that has the Bolimow Ghetto created in Poland to fully enclose 4,000 Jewish People. Also, with the Fall of Paris confirmed and the first transports arriving at Auschwitz from Tarnow, the World is sinking deeper into a darkness Anne will not Survive. But Anne Frank might yet afford us the way forward if we remember that our very existence is dependent upon the Children we share a total responsibility for ensuring they survive today.
Saturday March 28th. 1942.
“..If you did not finish your work properly,
And lost precious time,
Then once again take up your task
And try harder than before.
If others have reproached you
For what you have done wrong,
Then be sure to amend your mistake.
That is the best memory one can make.”
Signed, in memory Anne Frank.
Here, while this poem recognises Anne as not yet 13 years of age, it is in her innocence that is lost that we judge the final deficit of its ownership. But this poem by Anne Frank has just become available to History, and to the Public 74 years after it was penned but it will be sold to the highest bidder regardless of the essential conscionable need at stake for those who would learn most from it, our Children and their future. What truly makes this Poem of Anne's the keepsake of a World in need of tolerance and understanding is clearly understood by those who fight to maintain her memory and ensure that 6,000,000 of her fellow Murdered Jewish Men, Women and Their Children of Europe can never be bargained over.
On June 12th. 1942 Anne Frank is 13 years old as 10,000 of Tarnow's Ghetto Jews are murdered within Belzec over a 2 day period. Elsewhere, Adolf Eichmann has been planning the deportations of Belgian, French and Dutch Jews while further a field, 3,000 of Theresienstadt's Jews are taken to Birkenau and are so brutally 'murdered.' Anne should not merely, of course, be canonized by what she stands for as she was only a Child who grew into a very young Woman in the very few years she was deprived of such noble goals as nurturing, Tolerance and a way forward that remained blocked to her.
Saturday June 20th. 1942. "..My Father ..most adorable Father I've ever seen ..didn't marry my Mother until he was 36 and she was 25. My Sister Margot was born in Frankfurt am-Main in Germany in 1926. I was born on June 12th. 1929. I lived in Frankfurt until I was 4. Because we're Jewish ..Father immigrated to Holland in 1933 ..when he became ..Managing Director of ..Dutch Opekta Company ..which manufactures products used in making jam. Mother ..Edith Hollander Frank ..went with him to Holland in September ..while Margot and I were sent to Aachen to stay with our Grandmother. Margot went to Holland in December ..and I followed in February ..when I was plunked down on ..table as a birthday present for Margot." Anne Frank.
For me it is essential to attempt to imagine the future expectations of those 1,500,000 Murdered Jewish Children, let alone contemplate the promise of the entire 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, who are The Holocaust, who are removed from all existence at the whim of an insignificant little man. Indeed, who knows what Anne Frank might well have gifted us, if she had been allowed to live! The loss of innocence is not just to Anne Frank, but as we search back to these bleak days and look for any light which might penetrate the darkness, we recognise the blighted innocence of those kept deliberately impeded and kept motionless in that hate filled darkness.
Friday June 12th. 1942 "..I hope I will be able to confide everything to you ..as I have never been able to confide in anyone ..and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support." Anne Frank.
For those individuals, so removed from our own vision of humanity that they sought Anne's very destruction, we announce their inhuman criminality. So begins Anne Frank's recognised tome on that Friday and for those who dealt in the extremist terms of a hate filled reference point, that Anne could barely conceive of at this time, we clearly recognise it as it is still evidenced and its mark is felt. Today, as the antisemitic hatred which survives to this very day is as recognisable now as it would have been to Anne, little has altered that should have been altered by such a calamity as The Holocaust.
Friday October 9th. 1942. "..Today I have nothing but dismal and depressing news to report. Our many Jewish friends and acquaintances are being taken away in droves. ..Gestapo is treating them very roughly and transporting them in cattle cars to Westerbork ..big camp in Drenthe to which they're sending all ..Jews. Miep told us about someone who'd managed to escape from there. It must be terrible in Westerbork. ..people get almost nothing to eat ..much less to drink ..as water is available only one hour a day ..and there's only one toilet and sink for several 1,000 people. Men and Women sleep in ..same room ..and Women and Children often have their heads shaved. Escape is almost impossible ..many people look Jewish ..and they're branded by their shorn heads. If it's that bad in Holland ..what must it be like in those faraway and uncivilized places where ..Germans are sending them. We assume that most of them are being murdered. ..English radio says they're being gassed. Perhaps that's ..quickest way to die." Anne Frank.
Clearly, as we search and research for our progress through her time, Atrocity heaped upon Atrocity is laden upon those Jews of Europe she lives with and beside. For the whole of Western civilisation, critical of those very Jews Anne shares a Nation with, we bury our heads in shame for allowing to happen what submerges our humanity in this atrocity for the Jewish People. Clearly too I recognise the terrifying effect War has upon all people's in all nation's, but the systematic and sought after destruction of the entire Jewish People is unequivocal.
Thursday November 9th. 1942 "..In ..evenings when it's dark ..I often see long lines of good ..innocent people ..accompanied by crying
Children ..walking on and on ..ordered about by a handful of men who bully and beat them until they nearly drop. No one is spared. ..sick ..elderly ..Children ..Babies ..pregnant Women ..all are marched to their death. We're so fortunate here ..away from ..turmoil. We wouldn't have to give a moment's thought to all this suffering if it weren't for ..fact that we're so worried about those we hold dear ..whom we can no longer help. I feel wicked sleeping in a warm bed ..while somewhere out there my dearest friends are dropping from exhaustion or being knocked to ..ground. I get frightened myself when I think of close friends who are now at ..mercy of ..cruellest monsters ever to stalk ..earth. And all because they're Jews." Anne Frank.
For those Jews, which Anne so secretly hides alongside, in an annexe which is so secret, Anne is all the while trapped still within a Continent now seeking 11,293,300 Jews just like her and all those she knows, for extinction. The number of these Jews, clearly recognised by Hitler from the Wannsee Conference, stands in cold relief, against a World thrown into a World War which clearly evades the stark truth of what the Jewish People within the continent of Europe are enduring.
Tuesday November 10th. 1942. "..Great news. We're planning to take an 8th. person into hiding with us. Yes ..really. We always thought there was enough room and food for 1 more person ..but we were afraid of placing an even greater burden on Mr. Kugler and Mr. Kleiman. But since reports of ..dreadful things being done to ..Jews are getting worse by ..day ..Father decided to sound out these 2 gentlemen ..and they thought it was an excellent plan." Anne Frank.
Our natural defence of those in need is both negligent and abandoning of a People in crisis, and that crippling inertia is an indifference not borne of compassion nor concern. For Anne Frank, a Child of our time, who was born on June 12th. 1929 in Frankfurt am-Main, Germany, no longer sides amongst us. While we clearly recognise that she has died, and this is sometime in February or March 1945, and in a place known to infamy as Belsen Concentration Camp, to our shame the only marker to that awful tragedy for us, is a small monument that is placed within the confines of a space shielding all too many lives from view, including both Anne's and Margot's.
Thursday January 2nd. 1943. "..I continued to sit with ..open book in my hand and wonder why I was filled with so much anger and hate that I had to confide it all to you. I tried to understand ..Anne of last year and make apologies for her ..because as long as I leave you with these
accusations and don't attempt to explain what prompted them ..my conscience won't be clear. I was suffering then ..and still do ..from moods that kept my head under water. figuratively speaking ..and allowed me to see things only from my own perspective ..without calmly considering what ..others ..those whom I ..with my mercurial temperament ..had hurt or offended ..had said ..and then acting as they would have done." Anne Frank.
On June 12th. 1943, as Anne Frank celebrates her 14 years on this planet, and while Himmler orders the liquidation of all Ghettoes in Poland,
Anne is still safe for the time being. But truly never secure in the Secret Annexe, this home from Home which has become her sanctuary is prey to discovery or uncovering from the stray happenings of People so rendered helpless by their predicament. Of course, we have now come to recognise that we who are alive today live in an unequal world. Then, when it comes to the most precious assets of any World, its Children, and especially their loss to us, we are never quickest as to when we neglect that overriding obligation.
Wednesday January 13th. 1943. "..This morning I was constantly interrupted ..and as a result I haven't been able to finish a single thing I've begun. We have a new pastime ..namely ..filling packages with powdered gravy. ..gravy is one of Gies & Co's products. Mr. Kugler hasn't been able to find anyone else to fill ..packages ..and besides ..it's cheaper if we do ..job. It's ..kind of work they do in prisons. It's incredibly boring and makes us dizzy and giggly. Terrible things are happening outside. At any time of night and day ..poor helpless people are being dragged out of their homes. They're allowed to take only a knapsack and a little cash with them ..and even then ..they're robbed of these possessions on ..way. Families are torn apart ..Men ..Women and Children are separated. Children come home from school to find that their parents have disappeared. Women return from shopping to find their houses sealed ..their families gone. ..Christians in Holland are also living in fear because their Sons are being sent to Germany. Everyone is scared." Anne Frank.
Here, we exemplify the difference felt that emerges between all people's of all nation's whose Sons and their Daughter's are sent to Germany for enforced labour. Only the Jewish People, catapulted up the selective rankings, so that they are delivered immediately toward eradication, evisceration and annihilation in the x6 Death Camps made ready by Hitler for them in Poland, can we recognise the inequality that persists and the unique nature of the Jewish position in Hitler's Europe and Weltanschauung. Just how we know that such is the precious worth of all People is learned from the hard experience of those who suffer most, while we endure less and under more favourable terms.
Thursday November 11th. 1943. "..that evening ..when my fountain pen still hadn't turned up ..we all assumed it had been burned ..specially because celluloid is highly inflammable. Our darkest fears were confirmed ..next day when Father went to empty ..stove and discovered ..clip ..used to fasten it to a pocket ..among ..ashes. Not a trace of ..gold nib was left. ..I'm left with one consolation ..small though it may be ..my fountain pen was cremated ..just as I would like to be someday." Anne Frank.
However, when we are already dealing with the debilitating effects of bringing Children them into the World, and then are struggling to maintain them there, the Jewish position is further exacerbated. Also, the neglect and abandonment of European Jewry and even their Murder on such an unprecedented, unparalled and unequal level, clearly places upon Us, History and Civilisation a rebuke we will never emerge from. History will hold the evidence of our failings and provide the testimony of atrocity upon such an offensive scale for an eternity that will coexist alongside 6,000,000 Jewish losses.
Wednesday December 29th. 1943. "..Hanneli ..you're a reminder of what my fate might have been. I keep seeing myself in your place. So why am I often miserable about what goes on here. Shouldn't I be happy ..contented and glad ..except when I'm thinking of Hanneli and those suffering along with her. I'm selfish and cowardly. Why do I always think and dream ..most awful things and want to scream in terror. Because ..in spite of everything ..I still don't have enough faith in God. He's given me so much ..which I don't deserve ..and yet each day I make so many mistakes. Thinking about ..suffering of those you hold dear can reduce you to tears ..in fact ..you could spend ..whole day crying. ..most you can do is pray for God to perform a miracle and save at least some of them. And I hope I'm doing enough of that.” Anne Frank.
As we look back in an anger raged against such an appalling treatment of those Children, our most deserving of human protection, we adjudge our own humanity which states emphatically that ALL Children are the best of the rest of us and must be protected at all costs. So if we are to take the example of this single Child called Anne Frank, then just this one Child, who will share the same fate as 1,500,000 other Jewish Children, so judges us deliberately and accusingly. Anne's accusation against those who accosted the Jewish People, and similarly abused and mistreated them, accosted and then Murdered them with impunity, simply because they are Jews, must confront us also for what was in our domain to know and to challenge.
Tuesday March 7th. 1944. "..I don't think Mother's advice can be right ..because what are you supposed to do if you become part of ..suffering. You'd be completely lost. On ..contrary ..beauty remains ..even in misfortune. If you just look for it ..you discover more and more
happiness and regain your balance. A person who's happy will make others happy ..a person who has courage and faith will never die in misery." Anne Frank.
This is where Anne Frank becomes more significant in the tale of those Children in this World, and perhaps more so than many other's because of the fact that she was so ritually abused and incarcerated, even if she felt her hidden status was self imposed. Here too though, while we can learn so much about inequality in a World wrenched free from the demands of care and concern for the weakest and most vulnerable, we look in from the outside at the wretchedness of inhumanity towards our very humanity. But, while we tacitly admit that this particular Child is recognised as possibly the most famous Child in all of History, then perhaps we can recognise what is wrong in any wrong doing so forcefully murderous that was pitched against her.
Tuesday April 11th. 1944. "..None of us have ever been in such danger as we were that night. God was truly watching over us. Just think ..police were right at ..bookcase ..light was on ..and still no one had discovered our hiding place. ..Now we're done for ..I'd whispered
at that moment ..but once again we were spared. When ..invasion comes and ..bombs start falling ..it'll be every man for himself ..but this time we feared for those good ..innocent Christians who are helping us." Anne Frank.
Perhaps it is only after so called 'christians,' who so abysmally failed to recognise what emanates from the birth of an infant Child called Jesus Christ, that we make a simple ethical deduction about what was a christian failing. Here at such an affront to us all it is possible we can make such a comparison as to what forms our moral code and ethical efficacy have been corrupted. That labels are affixed to People while the prevalent form of christianity stands aside, a treacherous belief system which could demand the exculpation of a People because of their religious difference, this is a belief not worthy of any religious form. So when considering the very fate of so many of these 1,500,000 Murdered Jewish Children, many of Anne's words seem almost and are indeed prophetic, even if it did emanate from the evisceration of her beloved fountain pen.
Tuesday April 11th. 1944. "..We've been strongly reminded of ..fact that we're Jews in chains ..chained to one spot ..without any rights ..but with a thousand obligations. We must put our feelings aside ..we must be brave and strong ..bear discomfort with out complaint ..do whatever
is in our power and trust in God. One day this terrible war will be over. ..time will come when we'll be people again and not just Jews. Who has inflicted this on us. Who has set us apart from all ..rest. Who has put us through such suffering. It's God who has made us ..way we are ..but it's also God who will lift us up again. In ..eyes of ..World ..we're doomed ..but if ..after all this suffering ..there are still Jews left ..Jewish People will be held up as an example. Who knows ..maybe our religion will teach ..World and all ..people in it about goodness ..and that's ..reason ..only reason ..we have to suffer. We can never be just Dutch ..or just English ..or whatever ..we will always be Jews as well. And we'll have to keep on being Jews ..but then ..we'll want to be." Anne Frank.
But now that we have sight of these two Children, who are at opposing ends of the Historical spectrum, we realise that they have so much more in common than mere comparison can illustrate. It is not merely in their fame we recognise them, or that remains but one aspect of the lives that shares such similarities, but in the choices we seek to pin to their former lives. For one Child, whose fame has spread a divisive word of antisemitism, that still divides us to this day, there is the other Child who spreads a message that sorely confronts us for not having the accepted understanding that is written into moral law and compassion.
Tuesday June 6th. 1944 "..This is D Day ..BBC announced at 12:00. ..This is ..day. ..invasion has begun. This morning at 8:00 ..British reported heavy bombing of Calais ..Boulogne ..Le-Havre ..Cherbourg ..Pas de Calais. Further ..as a precautionary measure for those in ..occupied territories ..everyone living within a zone of twenty miles from ..coast was warned to prepare for bombardments. Where possible ..British will drop pamphlets an hour ahead of time. According to ..German news ..British paratroopers have landed on ..coast of France. ..British landing craft are engaged in combat with German naval units ..according to ..BBC. Conclusion reached by ..Annex while breakfasting at 9:00 ..this is a trial landing ..like ..one two years ago in Dieppe. BBC broadcast in German ..Dutch ..French and other languages at 10:00 ..invasion has begun. So this is ..real invasion. BBC broadcast in German at 11:00 ..speech by Supreme Commander General Dwight Eisenhower. BBC broadcast in English ..This is D Day. General Eisenhower said to ..French people ..Stiff fighting will come now ..but after this ..victory. ..year 1944 is ..year of complete victory. Good luck. BBC broadcast in English at 1:00 ..11,000 planes are shuttling back and forth or standing by to land troops and bomb behind enemy lines ..4,000 landing craft and small boats are continually arriving in ..area between Cherbourg and Le-Havre. English and American troops are already engaged in heavy combat. Speeches by Gerbrandy ..Prime Minister of Belgium ..King Haakon of Norway ..de Gaulle of France ..King of England and ..last but not least ..Churchill. A huge commotion in ..Annex. Is this really ..beginning of ..long awaited liberation. ..liberation we've all talked so much about ..which still seems too good ..too much of a fairy tale ever to come true. Will this year ..1944 ..bring us victory. We don't know yet. But where there's hope ..there's life. It fills us with fresh courage and makes us strong again. We'll need to be brave to endure ..many fears and hardships and ..suffering yet to come. It's now a matter of remaining calm and steadfast ..of gritting our teeth and keeping a stiff upper lip. France ..Russia ..Italy ..and even Germany ..can cry out in agony ..but we don't yet have that right. Oh ..Kitty ..best part about ..invasion is that I have ..feeling that friends are on ..way." Anne Frank.
Who cannot imagine the euphoria in Europe, let alone for these 8 struggling Jews who are still feeling that the system, which has practicably failed in excess of 5,000,000 Jews already, might well still fail them and not release them from their turmoil. Who cannot begin to imagine the release of the pent up frustration and fear which has impeded their mortal lives for the past 2 years. Who will not now afford these 8 Jews of Europe the final chance to grasp at the breath of freedom that they so richly deserve.
Tuesday June 13th. 1944. "..fact that in Childbirth alone ..Women commonly suffer more pain ..illness and misery than any war hero ever does. And what's her reward for enduring all that pain. She gets pushed aside when she's disfigured by birth ..her Children soon leave ..her beauty is gone. Women ..who struggle and suffer pain to ensure ..continuation of ..human race ..make much tougher and more courageous soldiers than all those big mouthed freedom fighting heroes put together. I don't mean to imply that women should stop having children ..on ..contrary ..nature ..intended them to ..and that's ..way it should be. What I condemn are our system of values and ..men who don't acknowledge how great ..difficult ..but ultimately beautiful women's share in society is." Anne Frank.
Tragically, History has taught us too well the answer to this and less than a week later, on June 12th. 1944 when Anne Frank is 15 years old, Germany launches its first V-1 rockets at England and the murderous efforts of Hitler meets the Jewish population of Corfu. Here, some 1,800 of Corfu's Jews will be transported to Auschwitz to quell the suspicion that anything has changed for what remains of the Jews in Europe. What History will eventually conform to dealing with is the failure to acknowledge the very detail of what was certainly known in favour of what was not to be done to save even more of the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe so ritually Slaughtered.
Saturday July 15th. 1944. "..It's a wonder I haven't abandoned all my ideals ..they seem so absurd and impractical. Yet I cling to them because I still believe ..in spite of everything ..that people are truly good at heart. It's utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos ..suffering and death. I see ..world being slowly transformed into a wilderness ..I hear ..approaching thunder that ..one day ..will destroy us too ..I feel ..suffering of 1,000,000's. And yet ..when I look up at ..sky ..I somehow feel that everything will change for ..better ..that this cruelty too shall end ..that peace and tranquillity will return once more. In ..meantime ..I must hold on to my ideals. Perhaps ..day will come when I'll be able to realize them." Anne Frank.
Also, another of the x6 Death Camps which Hitler had established in Poland, Chelmno, will rejoin the efforts at Birkenau and resume its killing operations. Here, 3,000 more of Lodz's Jews will be 'resettled,' innocent Jews further confined at Chelmno for eternity. For me it remains essential that the message is not lost from amongst those who propose a belief for any christ who should have left to the World what it would be like to truly unite all people. Sadly there are still those who see in an intolerance, which so divides us and allows what differs us from each other to further divide us from the message of the other Child, the one which Anne who seeks to secure in acceptance for All. The comparable differences broaden even further when we approach their ethnic, religious or fundamental backgrounds. You see, we are talking about two of the most famous Jews ever! Here too we approach a reasoning with Anne which places us as the 'others,' those of us now watching from the outside in.
Tuesday August 1st. 1944. "..A voice within me is sobbing ..You're surrounded by negative opinions ..dismayed looks and mocking faces ..people ..who dislike you ..and all because you don't listen to ..advice of your own better half. ..Believe me ..I'd like ..to listen ..but it doesn't work ..because if I'm quiet and serious ..everyone thinks I'm putting on a new act and I have to save myself with a joke ..and then I'm not even talking about my own family ..who assume I must be sick ..stuff me with aspirins and sedatives ..feel my neck and forehead to see if I have a temperature ..ask about my bowel movements and berate me for being in a bad mood ..until I just can't keep it up anymore ..because when everybody starts hovering over me ..I get cross ..then sad ..and finally end up turning my heart inside out ..bad part on ..outside and ..good part on ..inside ..and keep trying to find a way to become what I'd like to be and what I could be if ..if only there were no other people in ..world." Anne Frank.
Anne Frank's Diary finishes here, but her story continues to breathe and up until today it is a remarkable work of steely determination filled with a hope that persisted until the very last day, when her words had ended months before she died. The saddening fact is, that that unknown day does not have a corresponding date, nor a burial site for which to grieve the loss of a Jewish Child. Anne Frank, who was caught up in the conflagration which consumed 6,000,000 of her fellow Jews of Europe has a tribute in the form of a Diary which stands as a memorial to her passing.
"..It did not end with ..betrayal ..I believe that my father blackmailed Otto Frank." Anton Ahlers.
Also, and what we know is that on August 4th. 1944, the 8 Jewish People who had been in hiding in the Secret Annex were betrayed and arrested. A truck took them away and delivered them to Gestapo headquarters at Euterpestraat. Their eventual removal to the prison on Weteringschans took place the following Morning, Saturday August 5th. 1944. Then, on Tuesday August 8th. 1944 they were all again moved toward Amsterdam's Central Station where along with 72 other's, they were embarked on the next stage of their journey, this time to the Westerbork Concentration Camp.
At Westerbork detention camp they are assigned to hut 67 and bide their time until a transport, which took Anne and her fellow Annexe survivors toward Auschwitz. Their's was amongst the last Dutch transports to leave and indeed, their own transport on September 3rd. 1944 was the final transport of some 83 such resettlement transports, which took some 106,000 Dutch Jews toward extinction. With their arrival on the night of September 5th. and 6th. 1944 at Camp of Auschwitz, they were soon sent forward toward Birkenau. Having been sealed into a cattle car for some 48 hours, they were amongst 1,019 Jews on this SD Transport of 498 Jewish Men, 442 Jewish Women and 79 Jewish Children.
Immediately a selection was made and of these, 258 Jewish Men were selected for a momentary reprieve as were 212 Jewish Women, a selective service for the demands of the SS overseers. For all of these other 549 Jewish People of this transport, these were immediately gassed. On October 28th. 1944 a major selection from amongst the remaining Jews of Auschwitz sees 8,000 deported toward Belsen and amongst these Anne and Margot Frank. Anne was transported away from Auschwitz and brought to the Belsen Concentration Camp near Hannover in Germany.
There was a typhus epidemic which broke out shortly thereafter, and as the lack of any humanitarian concern for those interned there took hold, 1,000's of lives were ravaged by disease, hunger and starvation. Included in these were Margot Frank, just a few days before Anne too succumbed to the same debilitating effects. It is uncertain when Anne actually died though this is more likely to have been sometime toward the end of February or the beginning of March. With some testimony's giving the specific date for Anne's death as March 31st. 1945, We will never know.
Both Anne and Margot Frank's bodies are interred somewhere in a mass grave, in a field where no marker can be erected to show exactly where either of them are buried. The History of another time might pick an archaeological moment to seek them out and provide the DNA answer to where they should be finally laid to rest! The Belsen Concentration Camp was finally liberated on April 15th. 1945 by the British Army, far too late for Anne and Margot and the some 13,000 who had died as they lay. The end of the dying for those who were finally liberated did not end here.
On June 12th. 2019 Anne Frank should have been 90 years old. I have shared with you what Anne's last thoughts were as she penned her very final entry into her Diary. Of course Anne had no inkling that her long respite and the sojourn had finally come to an end, nor that the Secret Annexe had remained a secret no more. It is not for me here to speculate what the fearful and even frightened Anne might have written to add to those pages she has gifted the World. Needless to say. A Child her age witnessed the most brutal and devastating Crimes ever to permeate the human consciousness. So perhaps what the World has not learned from any christ, it should perhaps learn from what Anne Frank still delivers to and for us. What is terribly certain is, Anne Frank went to Sleep not realising she was to become everything she wanted to be, without living to know it!
"..I fall asleep with ..strange feeling of wanting to be different than I am or being different than I want to be ..or perhaps of behaving
differently than I am or want to be." Anne Frank.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, May 13, 2019 12:30:06
My Boulder for Erica.
In keeping with Jewish tradition, and due to the fact that I cannot be there in person, here is a pebble, a stone, a boulder of words for Erica' s worth to us all. The stones, when we see them at places like Treblinka, these Boulders, Rocks, Stones and the tiny individual Pebbles, a collective alongside these Monoliths to Memory, we share in their purpose to Remember. The very intricate gathering of the display always urging us to take the memories back from these dark places and shed light upon what it meant for those Jews Murdered here. From all too many Community's of Europe, these Jews who are eternally confined to spaces not of their choosing, speak to Erica of past memories she has enjoined with those she herself has brought forward. These Stones and Pebbles whether small, tiny or large, they are all piled in such a way that seems without form but always with a sense that a Community has come together to pay tribute to the best of us all and for us Always to Remember, Never to Forget.
"..power that comes from daring to continue to be vulnerable." Erica van Beek.
Erica was a vulnerable human being as some of us know her, and even while many have yet to experience the great loss of a Mother, what Erica deliver's to us is an acute pain of loss and deprivation. There are certain people, just like Erica, who need to be Remembered for what they stand for and in her search for a Mother who was so cruelly taken from her, she offers up her vulnerability. Erica van Beek also stands for the Survival of World Jewry, as it is to be presented by her and on from her to us all. Erica presents her memory also for The Jews of all of Europe as she is a testifier to what happened, not only to her but to her Mother Olga also. Erica also relates to those of Jewish Holland, and even an Austrian Jewry no longer able to urge us forward, as she emerged from Austria to Survive in Holland.
"..at ..time. At each address it must look as if I belonged. And a child who complains about when Mutti was returning ..was a danger for her surroundings. ..questions and even ..memory was so very quickly suppressed and eliminated by ..mental and physical coercion from outside. And ..multitude of impressions ..all relocations and new environments and ..induced fears ..memories indeed disappeared. Nobody ..apart from my Father ..had ever talked with me about my Mother." Erica van Beek.
Erica's Mother, Olga Bock, was born in Vienna on Tuesday November 19th. 1907 to Erica's Grandmother, Jozsefa, nee Karpfen, and her Grandfather, Armin Bock and these are Erica's Fraternal Grandparents. Here, Erica entrusted me with the very intimate detail of this revisited portion of her life and her lifelong and painful coming to terms with the deeply embedded trauma over her Mother's destruction. For Erica clearly, she never gave up hope of that reunion with her Mother, even though she knew that hope had been dwindled so far down, it was barely flickering. There is such a loss for her that is so overwhelming, which lesser beings would not have been able to continue to function let alone would they have endured. Erica would not have Survived all that she was put through without the resilience of a Woman who had been imparted with the values of conviction and strength.
"..I am aware that ..where this story began as a personal process ..it is now my Mother's story. I think it is ..fact that I want to know these things ..she could have told me if she had not ..been killed." Erica van Beek.
Erica was simply born to Survive and was driven relentlessly forward so as to ensure her course met ours. She proved tireless in reminding me of what was required Remembering, and she sent me details of the struggle History should not be having with The Holocaust on a constant basis. It seemed to us both that we have moved too far away from learning what should be learned toward adapting the lessons we should not now use against an other. I wish I now had the time to say to Erica, you have touched the soul of another so deeply, it has moved a colossal space to become more filled. There is all too often times when more should have been said and they were not said, but I am certain Erica grew to know the esteem in which I held her. Between 1935 when Erica was born, Thursday August 1st. 1935 and the intervening years till 1938, there was such an influx of Jews, escaping persecution within Poland, that Holland resounded to a differing air of Jewish sounds.
"..If I have ever had ..illusion that humanity has become wiser and better ..it is now absolutely over. ..I still had hope. Ethnic ..Nationalist wars ..in ..civilized ..Europe have broken out ..make me realize ..humanity has learned nothing." Erica van Beek.
Such was the influx of Polish, German, Austrian and other Jews, the diversity of Amsterdam, previously a metropolis for most European Jews, extended its cosmopolitan status. In all the moments of shared communication, I found Erica's long search, for the answers she clearly sought, to give me continued reason to hope I would find the form of comprehension to this travesty for the Jewish People I had always sought. Erica's never failing desire to greet us with a Mother she longed to embrace, held her in a perpetual drive to remind us of what loss truly means. We now find loss has moved her on toward a reunion I hope in all earnestness, greets her well. I know her growing disillusionment with the failures to learn left a bitter taste for her. Considering what she has Survived, it is completely understandable that she was irritated by the World we still inhabit.
"..From Vienna I remember little or nothing. A large ..gray ..barrack like building where all voices sound very hard. A big garden like a park. ..There I also have an Omama ..that in my memory is very big and stately. ..As I dive into ..past again without clear memories ..without images. ..feeling of very fine porcelain. ..scents of earl grey tea ..bergamot ..roses ..scent of certain perfumes ..from freesia’s. ..scents of Mutti." Erica van Beek.
But for Erica, her resolution and positive mindset was such, that she fully hoped to find that goodness in the World and in more and more of us. Slowly, as she limited more and more of her own accusation to fewer and fewer of those who were actually responsible for the rise of more and more hatred's, she recognised she could learn to relax more. But she never quite adjusted to what The Holocaust had been responsible for, and so back in history, we sought meaning from answers that had no resolution. As the devastating effects of a World's inability to resolve a Jewish Refugee crisis, the Cruise ship St. Louis landed in Antwerp on Saturday June 17th. 1939 after its failed bid to land in America or Cuba. But nations of Europe did respond, with Britain taking 287 of these Jewish passengers, France taking 224 of these Jewish passengers, Belgium taking 214 Jewish passengers and Holland taking 181 of these stranded Jewish passengers.
"..I feel again at one with ..persecuted ..oppressed ..that is where I belong. Among ..Jews ..Jewish Marx ..as well ..all oppressed peoples that come up in revolt who flash through my mind." Erica van Beek.
The plight of these Jews, having left Hamburg for Cuba a month earlier, these 934 Jewish passenger refugees were physically stranded between unconcern for their well being and a total indifference to their plight. A whole Month, 4 weeks on the open Seas, abandoned by Nations of the World and while 6 of these Jews did land in Cuba, having jumped overboard, the fate of a further 22 of these Jewish People is unknown. On Saturday August 26th. 1939 and while The Times of London's Literary Supplement alighted the entire World to Hitler’s intention of an impending Holocaust for its Jews, and we recognise what could have been done to alleviate a small portion of the plight of these Jews, Hitler guarantees the neutrality of Holland. Of course, history has taught the World already that words spoken by herr Hitler have no equivalence in truth or honesty.
"..What else do I need to get past ..letting myself be. Not everything has been worked out ..on paper or in my head." Erica van Beek.
From the remnants of Jewish Europe, the people who are these Jewish Survivor’s, they will continually beat themselves up about the reason why they are the ones to have Survived and why 6,000,000 other's were forced to die. At the time when Anne Frank was in hiding and Etty Hillesum was still in full view, all Jews in Holland were being monitored, identified for transportation East and for many of them, with a knowledge in some degree as to what was coming for them. Etty Hillesum, by no means a victim, though victimised sees in affording assistance to her fellow Jews in Westerbork, a gift which gives us the very taste of what Olga herself would soon experience. Anne Frank’s Diary, which would offer Erica clues as to what life in hiding was like for the Jews in fear for their lives, is a monument to what Jews feared and fretted over, Survival.
"..victims Jews ..in ..Netherlands ..mounted to 100,000 less than 2% of ..Final Solution of ..Jewish problem. In ..process ..Dutch Jewry was put outside ..law ..isolated ..robbed of all ..possessions ..deported ..cut down with near scientific precision." Dr. Jacob Presser.
For this transit Camp at Westerbork, identified all too often with Dutch Jewry, was the common denominator for any of those Jews found in Holland. Westerbork was the transit hub toward which they were directed and either Birkenau or Sobibor was where annihilation awaited the vast majority of them there. Around 140,000 Jewish People, according to census figures, lived in Holland as Hitler's forces poured across the Dutch border on Friday May 10th. 1940. It is no coincidence therefore, given that some 2 years later when Hitler's statisticians came up with the figure for The Wannsee Protocol, as 160,800 Jews within Holland’s border's, accuracy is obviously endorsed by Hitler's clear demands to know where his resolve for these Jews would be met. Of course, some of these Jews were from the St. Louis, and while many of these had crossed many borders to reach comparative safety from Poland and Austria, Olga indeed was amongst them.
"..2 issues from my earliest childhood are still ..flight from Vienna to Amsterdam ..and ..abrupt divorce of my Mother. From ..time ..to ..end of ..hiding I can figure out ..facts ..a predominant feeling of darkness and cold. Except for a few sunny memories from Hoorn." Erica van Beek.
The sense of a guaranteed safety did not last long for any Jews in Europe, let alone in Poland after 1939 or in Holland after Wednesday May 15th. 1940. Holland had fully capitulated within 5 days and had surrendered its ability to protect its Jewish Community for what now loomed. Four days later, on Sunday May 19th. 1940 Arthur Seyss Inquart is appointed Reich Commissioner over Holland and following on from that on Tuesday October 22nd. 1940, all Jewish businesses in Holland are to be registered. A deep and penetrating darkness has descended upon the Jews of Europe, and here in Holland as elsewhere, the escalating terms of the anti-Jewish bias, bigotry and hatred is mounting. On Monday November 4th. 1940 all Jewish Civil Servants are dismissed from their positions in Holland. Then, on Friday January 10th. 1941 the closer identification of the Jewish People is brought to bear as all Jews in Holland are to be clearly identified and registered.
"..my own traumatic life ..has made me aware of and empathetic to ..trauma ..fears ..and ..world of others. ..if I can do something with it ..surely that is a bonus. ..I sometimes get ..feeling I am found to be ..a voice in ..wilderness. ..if I keep quiet ..I feel ..responsible. ..I have my own way to express my dismay about ..horrors of our time. ..maybe too emotional ..but that is ..way I happen to be." Erica van Beek.
During the months of February, June and September 1941, a number of Dutch Jews are rounded up and transported to both Buchenwald and Mauthausen Concentration camps and are to be Murdered there. Following on from The Wannsee Conference Tuesday January 20th. 1942, while the escalating terms of The Final Solution had been underway, we see on Tuesday February 3rd. 1942, in Holland these terms binding all of German Society in Hitler's fatal resolve for the Jewish People, delivered by SS Gruppenfuhrer Dr. Wilhelm Harster to his officials dealing with The Final Solution in Holland. If ever there seemed a moment of safety for Erica and her Mother Olga, that moment of safety for all Jews remaining in Holland had come to an end. By Monday June 1st. 1942, with all Jews forced to wear 'The Jewish Star,' the Mogen Dawid, throughout Holland, the brutalising of the Jewish People intensifies.
"..Friday July 3rd. 1942 ..this new certainty ..that what they are after is our total destruction ..I accept it. I know it now ..I shall not burden other's with my fears. I shall not be bitter if other's fail to grasp what is happening to us Jews." Etty Hillesum.
Most of the Jewish People arrested in Amsterdam were first taken to the former theatre Hollandse Schouwburg. Here they were assembled alongside those Jews brought in on transports from the remainder of Holland proper. Some 400 Jews were detained in the Theatre and this became the eventual assembly point in Amsterdam for the transports East, beginning in July 1942. Sadly this is the fate that awaited Olga and while I never got to meet any of these Jewish Women of Holland, either Anne or Etty, nor those like Erica van Beek who convinced me of her great resilience and resolve, they had this dreadful trauma in common, though Erica was spared the final detail. I did learn to know Erica as an extraordinary Warm, Cultured and Understanding Human Being. I had planned to meet up with Erica, the next time I was in Amsterdam, Holland yet this was not to be.
"..Friday August 21st. 1942 ..so many houses are being searched for hidden bicycles ..Mr. Kugler thought it ..better to have a bookcase built in front of ..entrance to our hiding place." Anne Frank.
That hoped for meeting was very important to me as I sought to learn everything from Erica and those whose anguish would mark my opinion of the very culprits who forced Survival upon Erica and the other Survivor's. It is clear from what Etty knew, and what Anne would learn from Radio Broadcasts, these Jews in Holland, those like Olga and a further 106,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children would all add to the Slaughter in Hitler's resolve to end all Jewish existence on the Continent of Europe. So far, I have been introduced to Olga Bock, the Mother Erica lost, for whom no amount of words could console her, and through that pain, I gained an impression of the Person Erica was and the humanitarian he is. Back then, when Olga was picked up by a Dutch policeman and detained in a Dutch house on the Amstelveenseweg, we can barely speculate Erica's deeply emotional loss.
"..I have never taken leave or said goodbye. ..Mutti was gone." Erica van Beek.
In what was eventually seen by Erica as part of an on-going quota system of search and detention of all Jews, for a 7 year old Child there could be no figuring out why Olga had not returned, nor come home and was no longer there for her. As the inevitable street raids on individual Jews was common, this however was before the systematic scouring operations of entire Streets and Areas came into being. The timing of this was in August 1942 and we learn that it was assumed by Olga that her Sister Hilda was looking after Erica. This was clearly borne out in the letter dispatched just before Olga had reached camp Westerbork. Erica has informed us that, from an almost illegible note which her Mother wrote as she was transported toward Westerbork, of Olga's permanent concern for Erica. Though the letter is addressed to her Sister Hilda, it is full of Olga's concern over her removal to Westerbork and for Erica's newer predicament.
"..Mama's love had always been ..kind that acted itself out with soup pot and sewing basket. But now that these things were taken away. ..She loved ..people she saw in ..street ..and beyond ..her love took in ..City ..land of Holland ..World. And so I learned that love is larger than ..walls which shut it in." Corrie Ten Boom.
With this emotive scrap of paper too, Erica learned not to be closed in by walls and while the note itself remains a last personal attachment, which Erica eventually obtained from her Aunt, Erica had embraced a World which had sought her out. That actual document, an artefact, is in the Resistance Museum in Amsterdam. Erica can now identify with what I find in Emmanuel Halverstadt's description. It is his vision of a Westerbork all Dutch Jews who travelled through it and Survived would recognise. For Erica to know a little more of what Olga was forced to endure, the description will not lessen the pain. Nothing would. Nothing ever did. However, the process as it would greet every Jewish Person within Holland, forced to remain in Westerbork Camp until final Deportation, would be similar to this in every detail and would alert Erica to what her Mother met along the way. Of course, that final capture for Olga, which brought her hiding to an abrupt end, suggests she too was possibly taken, eventually, from within the theater Hollandse Schouwburg, Amsterdam to Westerbork.
"..Westerbork ..Barrack 60. ..military police entered ..barrack was sealed off. We had to pack everything ..put on transport to Auschwitz. ..We travelled 2 days and 3 nights. One night we stopped at a train station. ..next morning we left in daylight. ..stopped once more during ..day ..we could leave ..train under heavy escort. ..Gruenen polizei ..tried to take our watches gold jewellery. I did not give it to them. When we arrived at Auschwitz we stopped some 5 kilometres before ..Camp. We had to throw all ..luggage off ..train. After this ..SS came and beat us out of ..train wagons." Emmanuel Halverstadt.
From Westerbork, for the eventual transport to Birkenau there were some 57,800 Jews on 65 transports who went directly there, the vast majority to the Gas Chambers. For the removal Westerbork to Sobibor, there were some 34,313 Jews on 19 transports. This final stage on Olga's delivery to Birkenau was on Tuesday September 8th. 1942 when she was taken from Westerbork and on toward extinction. As with all the Murdered Jews of The Holocaust, though we may know the exact name of and even the place of Death, all too few of these Jews of Europe will have been availed of a personal grave site. It is evident that all such Killing Sites and Death Camps had open mass graves solely for the interring of those Jews delivered to them. The vast majority of these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews are to be recognised as Murdered, Interred, Exhumed and then their traces Obliterated.
"..Olga ..died in Auschwitz. .. journey lasted 3 days. This is true according to all ..information that I have ..official and informal. So that should be accepted. She fortunately only suffered for a short time. And now I am able to bury her ..to give her a grave and a Page of Testimony ..YadVashem in ..Hall of Names ..Jerusalem." Erica van Beek.
From all x6 Death Camps Hitler had built in Poland, in the containment Ghetto's of Poland and Eastern Europe and from amongst a multitude of places all too numerous to recount, the evisceration of the Jews of Europe took place. There are no records which specifically recognise accurately enough to know where the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews are. In each grave yard though, in every killing site or Death Camp, whether they are Dutch Jews, or the Jews from every nation within Europe, Hitler's resolve to destroy them all has filled an enormous space with the loss of human existence. Constantly, there is this exact same disregard for the humanity that was all too clearly abandoned there, resurfacing to deny them their final, though ambiguous resting place. It is for Erica, with the continuous saga of her tragedy sees her inability to lay to rest the memory of a Mother she did not have the time to say goodbye to. Added to that, and though Olga's final resting place is in Birkenau, amongst 1,100,000 other Jews, the space for her interring is both communal and unidentified.
"..National Institute for War Documentation. When Olga was arrested and held prisoner and deported to Westerbork ..I can maybe find something about it there." Erica van Beek.
On Thursday September 10th. 1942 the Transport from Westerbork arrived at the siding inside the Extermination Centre Birkenau, Poland. The ramp had been established to take the weight of numbers and to place them immediately before the Gas Chambers. Here, from this Transport, 874 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children, were disembarked and 614 of these Dutch Jews are immediately selected to be Murdered. Olga's fate is not immediately sealed, though it was to be confirmed within Birkenau only a matter of days later. It is uncertain why, but while Olga Survived till Monday September 14th. 1942, she too was subsequently Murdered here within Birkenau. For Erica, the continued search is an endless array of places and institutions to contact for the next snippet of information. Though, as we approach the end of the Year and as 1942 rolls relentlessly on, Wednesday October 14th. 1942 strikes more indelibly at the Jews in Holland as they are virtually outlawed from amongst their former neighbours and community.
"..white ceramic jar with lid, wherein sits a packed piece of stone from Auschwitz, that a friend of Renco, my ex-husband, specially brought for me. That now can get an honorary place. Will I be able once again to visit there, as in Vienna, or at Yad Vashem, there to find my mother's name. First search in Westerbork barracks 41/0." Erica van Beek.
Then, on Thursday December 17th. 1942, as the Allied nations seek to condemn Hitler's Extermination of the Jews, and there is a pledge that is made by America, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, French National Committee, Greece, Holland, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Russia and Yugoslavia as the transports roll relentlessly on, pushing East. Here, with an officially termed condemnation of Hitler's aktionen, retribution will still not deliver all those guilty to any future meaningful punishment. Hitler's Nazi's, in the meanwhile, accumulate their assortment of rolling stock and as these Transport's continue to roll on and into Birkenau, there is no similar call to stem the flow of Jewish loss from Pope Pius II. There is no call from the Pope to cease the Murderous activity against Europe’s Jews. As a 'christian' of sorts it is with deep sadness that I am writing for Erica, who will be a massive Loss to me, to You all and to what the World will now be deprived of, as her life has been so dealt a blow at the hands of an ostensibly christian people. I am truly sad. I am completely shocked and I am so sorry I missed an opportunity to finally meet up with her!
"..Monday May 29th. 1944 ..Do you know where ..Jews of Austria ..and of Germany ..Holland ..Czechoslovakia and France. ..in Poland ..taken in cattle cars ..70 into each car. What happened to them I do not know ..I can only guess." Eva Heyman.
My loss is a great tragedy, as Erica was one of those People who could inspire anyone to make a difference. As Eva Heyman was scribing these words, as 106,000 of Dutch Jewry, all Men, Women and Children of them, including Erica's Mother Olga, were Murdered in one of x2 Death Camps in Poland and other camps throughout Hitler's greater Reich, the staggering assessment of loss requires measuring. For more than 34,000 Murdered Dutch Jews in Sobibor or the 60,000 Murdered Dutch Jews in Birkenau, Erica had a special space in her heart for them all. They were a part of her continued search for Olga which never ended. For those 12,000 other Dutch Jews who were Murdered either in Situ, Amsterdam, Westerbork, various Camps across the Reich and Greater Reich or in the many of the Dutch areas still attempting to conceal Jews from the Transports, Erica contemplated the what if's?. Unfortunately for Erica, Olga's fate was finally sealed within Birkenau and it would take Erica years to discover the whole truth. As Erica forms part of that Viennese Jewry which fared little better, with as many as 43,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children being Murdered, it is essential to recognise where Erica had fled from.
"..after 1945 ..every Jew stood alone ..bereaved of ..Parents ..Children ..Family ..Friends ..Acquaintances ..deprived of everything that once made up ..life." Dr. Jacob Presser.
As the World woke up to find that 6,000,000 Jews were expendable, we recognise so pervasively that what ended is a humanity which could not civilise us. As the world focused its attention on the War, 6,000,000 Jewish People had been routinely slaughtered, under the gaze of free standing powers. Entire nations, a World of indifference remained so unconvinced of the Jewish tragedy, there became no need to save a single one of these 6,000,000 Jews. On Saturday May 5th. 1945, as Hitler's forces surrender in Holland, and as this brings Erica so little relief, her search enters a new phase. It is to be sometime later, 18 years, that Erica is reconciled with the fact that her Mother will never return and will remain lost to her. Olga’s was Murdered while War distracted attention away from Hitler's personal aim, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, The Holocaust of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, Olga’s amongst them.
"..Only in 1963 was I ..suddenly ..confronted with my past. I received from ..Red Cross proof of her death. A Wiedergutmachungsgeld from Germany." Erica van Beek.
Erica's Father, Jacob (Jaap) died on Sunday November 28th. 1976 and this ended a passage for Erica which had been temporarily filled with at least one Parent she could look to. Regardless as to how a Jew in Europe felt themselves to be, secular, Hassidic, Orthodox and apathetic to all, the tenets of a 3,000 year old hatred was extracted and enacted upon every single one of them so as to define a person for Slaughter. The clothing of a Carmelite Nun could not prevent Edith Stein from being Murdered as a Jew, no matter how convinced she had been of her conversion. This status too would have applied to Erica, as she would have suffered the same fate, even as a Child of a non-Jewish Father. Olga would have been the defining Parent in the muddled legislation which affixed the sentence of death to all Jews. This of course would only have availed Hitler of a further victim if Erica had been discovered and history has given much to us to be thankful for Erica.
"..life of Jews in ..Netherlands. ..A book. ..All ..pages reveal ..this history is also mine. ..despite my not ..believing but still a real Jew. ..biological provability ..to be a child of a Jewish Mother still being Jewish." Erica van Beek.
Tragically, Erica passed from us this year 2019, a Saturday May 4th. and she will be sorely missed by those who knew her, those touched by her and by those yet to experience what Erica had so much to deliver. For me, it is reprehensible to be delivering this in the past tense. I have informed Erica that I considered her a Friend above everything else we sought to share. I come to the table with nothing to offer but the words I hope to make a difference with. My Books intrigued her, and I was to deliver a Book to her when I eventually saw her. What is there for me to say now that she has passed, and we are left bereft of a word that might make the difference to all those now lost moments. Erica, you have become a treasure to many. I will ensure that Treasure is spread far and wide. This World, which might not have known you too well, will know You more than it deserves.
"..knowledge of ..past ..of all that misery ..leading to fear ..significant uncertainty ..anxiety ..that leads to depression does not help. ..realized that again today. Will that also get better. It hinders my real development ..it keeps me in 2nd. or 3rd. place. Not that I'm ambitious. But it's a false modesty ..and resulting from fear to really stand out. It's something from ..hiding." Erica van Beek.
For those Survivors who emerged from the gravest tragedy ever to infect this world, how can a person be not wounded by such an experience. To suddenly be thrust into a World alone, fearful of being found out for who you are, as opposed to what some might consider what you are. To then place a blank page across ones memory so as to forget the past, so that it should not hinder the growth toward a future, was an obstacle to knowing. And then to measure this all with Erica's profound sense of loss for what happened to Olga, her Mother, I have only my own personal experience to suggest, I have insufficient suffering to suggest Erica's. Erica was one amongst some 35,000 Jews of Holland who managed to Survive so how can we detail, Ever, the understanding that should come from an atrocity so immense, we title it The Holocaust.
I have known you- and not known you my child
I have a picture of you, that is called Jacob;
An image of rebellion, fury and suffering
That binds you to my past.
I have built a picture of you, my child,
That put his arms around me and held my hand.
Not the boy who destroyed his life
But one who finds life fearful and unliveable.
That scared and angry and on the run
in life never found a shelter
and disbanded from his fear by his death
I loved you, my child that we knew.
And powerless, I watched how you
have wounded yourself so deadly.
Who wants to hear how trumpeter grief
Who will not run away for my nocturnal crying.
Hear how the land shakes under my feet thumping looking crying
Screaming for my children their hunters continue to be injured
And flee for my boundless grief
About him and his name can turn around
Flights as I approach come seeking solace
I want their names not know him forget
Never love again no more do not be complicit
Do not come closer I liked you even trust
Again memories should be to what was." Erica van Beek.
Message from Yessica Erica's Daughter.
First of all, I have to lose a bit How lame. I believe I have called that the funeral is coming and where it is, but I think I ended up completely forgetting to pass the date and time. Have E-mailed a lot of you, who were in Erica's address book. So it was mistakenly the assumption that I would have reached all of you. Apologies!
Monday, May 13th. 13:30 pm In the Aula of Crematory the New Ooster Kruislaan 126 Amsterdam.
After the end, there is an opportunity to pay condolences in the salon of the crematorium. To stay close to the Jewish tradition, we ask you to take one small pebble to put it on the chest.
I have an urgent request: If you want to come, do you want to let it know as soon as possible via:
email@example.com That is necessary due to the space, catering, etc. If you have already e-mailed that you are coming, then don't want to e-mail again, I'll count you double
And then a personal note: I see in the rushing a lot of fine, beautiful, heart warming messages pass by. I haven't gotten to it myself yet to sit down to read them and react. But know that I will do that at a later and calmer moment.
Finally from ME! My past has always been willing to accept the many wrongs in People, but I see the gravest wrong against an innocent People for being Jewish continually perpetuated, so I have always made it a point, when I meet with Survivors, to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For the whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration, Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get the opportunity to greet you in person, I apologise to You for the inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust, who cannot direct their appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved. In each of you the World entire has been saved.
Patrick Dempsey - Erica's Friend.
Revisiting the PastPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, April 30, 2019 22:02:36
"..When I came to Warsaw ..I found many restrictive laws that had already been proclaimed by ..Germans against ..Jews ..order for wearing ..badge or ..Shield of David ..marking of ..shops with ..Shield of David ..a ban on possessing foreign currency or property in excess of 2,000 zloty ..a ban on purchasing working tools ..a ban on medical aid Jewish doctors could give to non-Jews and vice versa. ..curfew ..which was a general one also for ..Polish population ..was advanced by 2 hours for ..Jews. ..It may be said that ..in ..first days of my reaching Warsaw ..I felt ..and other Jews in ..Ghetto felt ..that in essence we had been placed beyond any law ..and that any German could do whatever he pleased. However ..apart from these restrictive regulations ..many other decrees were issued within a short time ..business establishments were taken from Jews ..homes were taken from Jews ..they were forbidden to ride in ..trams ..forbidden to travel on ..trains ..forbidden to trade. ..apart from ..legal prohibitions ..from ..first days we became outlaws in matters of life and death ..and ..any German could do with us as he pleased. I will give you an example. In ..early days of ..Ghetto a Polish policeman was looking for a certain Jew to take vengeance upon him ..to arrest him. ..Jew drew a pistol and killed ..Polish policeman. As retribution for this ..Germans ..following morning ..entered ..courtyard of Nalewski 9 ..removed 50 Jews from among those living in this courtyard and from those who happened to be there by chance. They were taken away ..and didn't return to their families. This was done for deterrence. Hence in ..early days there prevailed this fear of being collectively responsible for ..acts of each individual Jew ..and if anyone lifted a finger ..or it would be even sufficient if any German or Pole mentioned that any Jew spoke out against ..Germans 100's of Jews paid for this with their lives ..for ..sake of deterrence. I remember another instance. One of our friends from before ..War ..a cultured Jew ..an important engineer ..had a Ukrainian friend ..who related that this Jew had reported a German. They came to him at night ..removed him from his bed without saying a word to his family ..only half a year later word reached his Wife that her Husband had been taken away ..and if she would pay ..she would be able to get ..ashes." Zivia Lubetkin.
I have a wish to remind any of those who read these few words, the necessity to carefully note that I single out Zivia Lubetkin clearly. Zivia Lubetkin is Remembered as a Woman, Recalled as a Jewish Woman and given the status as a spokesperson for all manner and forms of Jewish Resistance. Here, following on from what I wish to say about her, and those very many just like her, are her words for Memory to bring her ever forth to admonish those who damned her People and recognise she was a Giant amongst her Jewish People.
"..Immediately upon ..occupation of Poland by ..Germans ..Polish intelligentsia were arrested ..and ..in a special action ..Jewish intelligentsia ..leading public workers ..doctors ..engineers ..according to lists prepared beforehand ..were seized at night and taken to an unknown destination ..and even notice of their death did not reach their families. ..economic prohibitions ..were not only economic ..but ..aimed at degrading and depressing us ..and ..restrictions in ..field of cultural and social life. Right at ..beginning they issued a ban on ..opening of schools. Only primary school up to four grades was permitted. A prohibition was issued on ..holding of prayers in ..synagogue ..a prohibition ..on ..maintenance of public bodies ..Jewish political parties. A decree was issued dealing with ..closing of libraries ..and ..well known institute of Jewish Studies at Tlomackie 5. ..we became ..objects of anarchy. And if there had only been these laws and these restrictions ..intended to depress us ..to degrade us ..to bring us to ..ignominy of starvation ..we thought ..nevertheless ..Jews would somehow have been capable of circumventing ..restrictions and carrying on with their lives. But life did not turn out this way ..since ..we had been placed beyond ..law. ..I recall a day when I went out in ..morning to attend to matters ..streets ..full of Jews hastening to their work ..to seek a source of livelihood. Suddenly a column of Germans passed by in a hurry ..and without any reason they fired in all directions ..without distinction ..and we were left lying prone on that day ..at that hour ..as I saw it ..scores of People ..Women ..Children ..Men ..without knowing for what or why. When this thing happened day after day ..we realized that this was a means of frightening us ..of terrorizing us ..so that we should be afraid. ..indeed ..Jews feared they would pay with their lives. ..beyond ..scope of any law ..kidnapping for forced labour. A person would leave his house in ..morning ..would never know when ..and if he would return. ..formations of Germans were able to come in by day ..in ..morning ..or ..evening ..close a street ..and with screams of such a nature that it would be difficult today to describe them as actually being human voices ..they would first of all collect People by shooting ..and without taking note of age or sex ..seize people and take them off to work. Some of them ..on their return ..related that they had never engaged in any work ..there were those who simply carried stones from place to place ..there were those who dug holes and filled them in again. Again it was clear that this was a method of torture ..of terror ..of making our lives worthless." Zivia Lubetkin.
For Zivia personally, recognised by the custodians of all of History as a remarkable Human Being we accept that she alone, for her obvious ability to see with clarity what Hitler was set to achieve, she was present and was able to note what Poland was unprepared to prevent. Escaping the flames of Resistance, For Zivia to then identify for us, while Poland and the rest of the World stood so idly by and allowed all of this to happen to her People as Zivia too is an accusation which all too many now seek to circumvent.
"..In general ..number of Jews in ..city of Warsaw until ..Second World War was estimated at approximately 350,000. It is difficult for me to assess ..number of Jews at that time. Some of ..Jews moved to ..East ..a number of ..Jews were killed in ..bombings in ..are between Poland and Germany. ..I believe that at ..beginning of ..liquidation of ..Warsaw Ghetto ..there were about 500,000 Jews there. ..a flow of refugees ..from ..Warthegau. ..Jews from ..smaller towns and villages ..naturally attracted to ..larger city ..so that during ..times of The Holocaust ..which everybody knew was coming closer to realization ..they could be together with Jews. ..when ..Ghetto in Warsaw was already in existence ..Germans brought a number of Jews from ..nearby villages ..about 100,000 ..into ..Ghetto ..already crowded ..ultimately ..number of Jews was estimated to be 500,000. On ..Day of Atonement 1940 we heard an announcement on ..radio that there had been a declaration of ..establishment of a Jewish quarter. ..order stated that ..because disease had spread amongst ..Jews ..they must be put into a section of ..city ..for the sake of preserving ..health of the Aryans. ..secondly ..lives of ..Jews had ..been devoid of any protection ..had not been organized and not well ordered ..in this way ..Jews ..concentrated in special streets ..a special quarter ..where they would be able to live their lives in greater tranquillity ..enjoying cultural and social autonomy. It was stated thus in ..order ..in ..announcement. Within a few days ..Jews were obliged to leave their homes ..their places of residence .and to move to ..quarter designated for them. ..Jews ..placed in an area ..inadequate for ..150,000 ..over 300,000 ..put there. ..in ..course of a few days one could see scenes in ..streets ..Jews ..their families ..their possessions ..on hand carts ..abandoning ..houses ..apartments ..endeavouring to take with them ..property ..accumulated during 10's of years ..passing by ..moving in ..direction of ..quarter without knowing where to find shelter and what would be done with them. ..for whole days ..by day and night ..Jewish families stood in ..streets with nowhere to go to. Having no alternative ..Jews crowded together. ..in every room there dwelt 8 persons on ..average. ..this ..still before ..flood of refugees from ..country towns. ..entire City of Warsaw became ..a city of refugees. ..Out of ..blue ..beginning of November ..Jews got up in ..morning and everyone hurried to his work and his source of livelihood ..and suddenly was confronted with ..fact ..Ghetto was closed ..closed with gates ..German ..Polish guards ..standing at ..gates. This happened suddenly. If ..refugees ..uprooted from their homes and had not been able to take all their possessions ..suffered from starvation ..they were ..able to go out to ..Aryan side ..to work ..to trade ..now ..all this was over. ..Ghetto ..with its 100's of 1,000's of Jews became converted into ..huge prison ..in which each person ..throughout ..months ..years ..received 125 grams of bread ..a kilogram of jam per month ..a little soap substitute and some kilograms of coal waste for cooking and heating ..rooms. ..in prisons too ..there are ..rules. In this prison ..Ghetto ..there were no rules. Despite ..announcement that ..Ghetto would be a place where Jews would be able to live in greater tranquillity ..they would be able ..to put their lives in order ..misdeeds of ..Germans ..instead of stopping ..increased ..Germans who ..I had no doubt about it ..not then and not today ..had a single aim ..to torture us ..to degrade us ..to crush us." Zivia Lubetkin.
Zivia Lubetkin is a remarkable person of outstanding human quality, a soldier of courage and a human of such dimension, and while she was presented with such deep inhuman darkness she has shed such light on our own inability to see the near total destruction which Hitler sought to wreak upon her People. Perhaps though, and seduced by the fact of German civilisation, she too could not fully foresee what 6,000,000 Jews would be consumed within.
"..environs of ..Ghetto were guarded by ..Schutzpolizei ..Gestapo ..SS. Inside ..Ghetto ..even before it was closed off ..SS men ..Gestapo men ..made their rounds. ..people of Warsaw remember ..young German pilots ..blond hair ..strong young men ..and ..people of Warsaw were very well aware of their strength and their cruelty ..when they used them against helpless persons ..people of Warsaw remember ..Schutzpolizei ..people of Warsaw also remember ..ordinary soldiers who were able to enter ..Ghetto ..to loot ..to destroy ..to torture ..to kidnap ..to do whatever they pleased. We didn't know then that this was intended for a particular purpose ..but ..Germans issued an order that Jews were no longer to be left in ..small towns. Again they gave ..reason that their lives in ..small towns were more chaotic ..disorganized ..without means of subsistence. Therefore it was important to concentrate ..Jews in ..large towns ..together they would learn in ..larger towns how to organize their lives ..how to arrange their affairs ..and ..also how to work for ..Germans. ..on ..strength of this order about 100,000 Jews were moved to ..City of Warsaw from ..neighbouring towns within a few days. These were already death marches. Any weak person ..old Person ..Child ..anyone who groaned ..anyone who appeared to any German whatsoever to bear an expression that was more insolent ..was shot on ..spot. In this way 10's of 1,000's of people came into ..City of Warsaw ..carrying in their hands a small bundle ..and that was all they possessed. ..Ghetto in Warsaw was already ..terribly overcrowded ..and ..Jews of ..City of Warsaw had already been wandering around for days and weeks without a roof over their heads ..then you will understand that these 10's of 1.000's of Jews who entered ..Warsaw Ghetto were in actual fact without any means of subsistence ..of earning a livelihood ..without a penny in their pocket and ..homeless. ..Jews ..Jewish organizations ..tried to assist to ..best of their ability. To my great regret ..they weren't in a position to save ..situation. It could be taken for granted that in such terrible congestion there could be no sanitary facilities. At ..beginning there was not even water in ..Ghetto ..nor ..electricity. Later on ..matter was attended to. But since in one room near to me ..or we ourselves lived 12 to 15 persons in a room measuring 5 by 5 ..and these were already years of hunger in ..Ghetto ..obviously serious sickness broke out and claimed many victims. I want to point out ..particularly ..sanitary condition of these refugees. Owing to ..lack of space ..these refugees were placed in special houses ..occupants of which had been somehow evacuated. These were ..worst conditions of all in ..Ghetto. Once I entered such a refugee home ..a refugee shelter ..in order to look for a family I knew. I knew them before ..War as a well off family. He was a Teacher ..she was a Doctor. They had Children in ..Youth Movement who studied at school. They were ..normal type of people. When I came inside to look for them ..I found them on ..floor ..one on top of ..other. They were in a corner ..but I couldn't reach them ..for there was not a spare inch of floor where it was possible to place one's foot. There was no toilet in this house ..but in order to relieve themselves ..on 4th. floor they had to walk down to ..courtyard. There was no water in this house. In this way people sat there ..in this way 10's of 1,000's sat there and went from bad to worse ..since they did not have any chance of obtaining work. Under conditions of starvation ..under such sanitary conditions ..it was obvious that ..typhus which broke out in ..Ghetto started in these houses. It was impossible ..although they tried ..to keep ..sick separate ..and sometimes even ..dead who died from hunger ..particularly Children in their Mothers' arms." Zivia Lubetkin.
For us involved in History, caught up in the trauma that is The Holocaust, 6,000,000 Murdered Jews must capture for us what we can barely imagine. However, what will be the inevitable fate for these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, 3,000,000 Polish Jews of whom would be destroyed within the boundary of a land they assumed was their's also, lost a battle few of them knew they were in. However, levelled by stealth and confusion, those all too many Jews who then emerged into the light of realisation, just as the doors to the gas chambers swung closed or at the edge of a bloody ravine where their fallen had gone before them, recognised finally their fate.
"..when Ghetto was closed off ..most Jews were left without any means of subsistence ..without work and a source of livelihood. And then hunger began to take its toll of many victims. These were ..normal scenes to which we had already become accustomed ..to see in ..streets of ..cities whole families ..Father ..Mother ..Children ..families of 8 to 10 souls ..sitting in ..streets ..swollen by hunger. It was hard to say that they had a human appearance. Especially well I remember ..in ..evenings ..after ..curfew ..when silence prevailed in ..Ghetto ..everyone would hide in his corner ..voices of ..little Children ..a stikele broit ..a piece of bread ..and ..no one who could throw them a piece of bread ..for only a few of us ..had a piece of bread. ..they reached such a stage that they burrowed in ..garbage containers in order to seek potato peels. ..those days in ..Warsaw Ghetto there were times when 300 funerals took place each day. These were people who had died of starvation ..from diseases ..without help. ..at ..beginning there were 2 Ghettos ..a small and large one. Between ..2 Ghettos ..link ..by ..bridge ..built. This was ..notorious bridge in Warsaw. Many Jews passing over it paid with their lives. Police used to pass under .. bridge and Jews passed over it. German guards stood near ..bridge and watched lest Heaven forbid ..Jews should mix with ..Germans. In order to cross ..bridge one had to remove one's hat. Many young Jews did not remove their hats and naturally were shot to death on ..spot. ..any movement ..any sound ..without ..reason at all ..Jews were shot at ..bridge. Since there were ..people with family ..in both sections of ..Ghetto ..Jews could not forgo crossing it ..and thus ..day after day ..Jews crossed over there ..and day after day they paid with their lives. It can be said that ..Jewish Youth movements did not cease their activities from ..first day of ..outbreak of ..War. ..they continued ..in different ways ..until ..last Jew that remained alive in ..Warsaw Ghetto. Jewish Youth movements adjusted their works to ..new reality. Right from ..beginning ..when it appeared to us that ..German policy was to degrade us ..to depress us ..to starve us ..by closing libraries ..closing schools ..apart from 4 grades ..to change us into a nation of slaves ..ignorant people ..lacking culture ..we still believed that this was not total destruction. ..consequently our activities during that period ..until news of ..Extermination reached us ..we concentrated on ..war against these restrictive laws. If ..we thought that these prohibitive laws were intended to wipe out ..human image ..then our battle was to preserve ..human image ..to develop a spirit of revolt against these evil decrees. ..when I say revolt I do not refer at present to a particular rebellion but rather to preserve ..human ..social ..cultural character of ..youth. All our strength lay in ..fact that we were organized in communes. When I crossed ..border from Russia ..when I returned to Warsaw ..I had been sent there by ..headquarters of Hehalutz for 2 purposes. We said ..Jews have remained ..even though we heard about ..evil decrees of ..Germans ..Jews have remained there and ..Halutz movement has to be with them. Kovel ..a town which at that time was under Soviet rule. ..town of my birth was also in that region ..called Bytom. I left my parents there. But in that town of Kovel I was also together with a group of comrades ..we set out together from Warsaw. There we started activities. We sent people to Vilna so that they should be able to reach Palestine ..for a route had been opened up from there. ..second purpose ..was to encourage ..departure of ..Jews from ..German area and to direct them to ..territory of Lithuania. For at that time there were rumours ..and it was also true ..many were rescued and are to be found today in Israel ..that it was possible to reach Palestine from Lithuania. I arrived at a house called Dzielna 34. This had been ..until ..War ..building of ..headquarters of Hehalutz. When we ..were commanded by ..Polish authorities to leave and to travel to ..East ..this building rapidly became filled with people who had moved to Warsaw." Zivia Lubetkin.
For all of these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, from Lithuania to Warsaw, Bytom, Kovel and Vilna. all of these who are now consigned to our keeping for us to Remember them, we do so willingly. From the passages of time, knowing how badly they were let down by this World, we admonish such cruelty as indifference does behave. For the Jews themselves, almost immediately upon realisation, when the Killing Site or Gas Chamber shared its deadly secret, none of these Jewish People had a place to turn.
"..First of all ..refugees who arrived from ..Warthegau ..but not only they ..many Jews gathered in Warsaw out of a feeling that ..somehow ..Jews being together might be able to overcome this period. And when I came there ..to Dzielna 34 ..right away in ..first months ..when ..Jewish street was already gripped by fear and terror of ..Germans ..and each Jew stood by himself in this very difficult struggle for his existence ..for a slice of bread for ..continuation of his life ..alone against this mighty War machine ..I ask you to remember that when a Jew saw a single German in ..Ghetto ..he knew that he possessed ..power ..that huge army that had occupied Europe and to which great nations had surrendered ..and he knew that there was such power behind him. And he stood alone ..by himself. Our strength lay in ..fact that we did not stand alone. I already found ..at this Dzielna Street house ..180 young Men and Women who did not stand alone when at ..time of ..bombings ..shared one glass of water between them ..for there was no water. And if one of them found a potato in ..camp ..he shared it with 6 others. Concentrations like this existed in Warsaw for all ..Youth movements 5 or 6 ..and these were concentrated there ..from where they radiated to Warsaw and beyond. At ..beginning ..when ..Ghetto was open and it was possible to travel ..we travelled to ..Jews and established contacts with them. ..afterwards ..when ..Ghetto was closed ..we sought other ways. ..main aspect of our activity was organization ..to organize ..Youth ..in order that it could preserve ..human and ..Jewish image ..to promote within themselves ..despite ..degradation and ..depression ..a feeling of Jewish self respect ..so ..they could stand firm against these decrees. ..indeed ..it was ..Youth ..when ..day came ..when it became clear to them that this was Extermination ..also took up arms. We also dealt with food smuggling ..although I must point out ..there were more professional people involved in it than we. One of our problems ..and there is no doubt that this was a national ..or could I say elementary human ..essential ..a holy activity ..smuggling of food into ..Ghetto. ..smuggling ..proceeded in various ways. ..commonest and most tested methods was ..bribing of Germans. No German unit ..SS ..Gestapo nor ..others ..abhorred Jewish money. ..through bribery it was possible to bring food into ..Ghetto. ..on more than one occasion it happened that ..guard duty of ..Germans who had taken ..bribe was changed in ..meanwhile and fresh guards arrived who had not received ..money ..and seeing that ..Jews sometimes ..came late ..10 minutes after ..guards were changed ..they paid for that with their lives. In ..worst periods of ..starvation there were whole families whose main breadwinners were Children aged ..7 to 11 ..since a Child aged 12 was regarded in ..Ghetto as an adult person. How did they support their parents. They used to assemble ..group by group ..near ..gates ..waiting for ..opportunity when ..Germans would turn away ..when ..Germans would light a cigarette ..and ..in their masses ..cross into ..Aryan sector. ..Germans always used to be quick in opening fire ..and there were always victims. But ..Children were nimble and ..hunger gave them courage ..and they used to scatter in all directions ..and to run around ..streets of Aryan Warsaw in order to gather bread crumbs ..potatoes ..and they used to return immediately with their prize so that they could bring it to their Parents ..Sisters ..Brothers. Many of these Parents waited in vain ..for ..Children did not come back ..as they had been killed in ..streets of Warsaw ..or on going out of ..gate or on entering ..Ghetto." Zivia Lubetkin.
Likewise, there was nothing to enable these Adult Jews to consider past what the Children, the Elderly or the infirm Jew could possibly achieve left to their own devices and their Murder was imminent. In all of this of course, we still have live Jews fending off the trauma, the brutality and seeking solace in their hoped for survival past another day. Clearly, as Zivia speaks for this individual bravery open to barely a few Jews, those who are unable to arm themselves, she too cannot foresee the distinct possibility of a Poland without its Jews.
"..It was understandable that ..Youth looked for us and found us. ..Its importance lay in ..very fact of our getting together ..when this getting together was forbidden. Its importance lay in ..fact that we conducted an intensive cultural activity. ..included ..secular movements and ..religious movements. ..There had been seminars such as this in No. 34 Dzielna. ..a short time before ..declaration about setting up ..Ghetto. Scores of Boys and Girls from 24 Towns ..Villages in Poland assembled ..and ..remained ..for 6 weeks. ..in Dzielna ..under conditions of hunger ..cold ..this was wintertime ..we studied ..Torah ..Pentateuch. ..value of ..seminar was very important both for ..Students and ..lecturers. ..Jewish intelligentsia in ..Warsaw Ghetto ..were amongst ..first victims because they didn't know how to conceal themselves ..they suffered from starvation ..for ..tremendous cultural potential with which this large community was endowed there was no way to express itself. ..when we were able to obtain only some 10's of them ..Professors ..Teachers ..Public Figures who ..during these confusing days ..were able to teach ..Torah ..and ..talk about faith in Man ..about our faith as Jews ..and ..teach ..history ..chapters of Jewish suffering and chapters of Jewish heroism ..and thereby to educate ..Young generation ..this was of great encouragement to them ..Students and ..us. These students would go out throughout ..towns of Poland to bring their message ..words of encouragement ..words to mould ..character ..words of revolt against ..Nazi oppressor that rose up to Exterminate us. ..We organized ..Youth ..one of ..things which enabled us at that time ..under such conditions ..not to lose ..human image. And this wasn't difficult. I don't know if any of you are aware what it is to experience starvation ..or more accurately semi starvation. ..when a person does not eat for days ..and ..is swollen from hunger ..he doesn't feel anything. But a person who has lived for months and years on a slice of bread and a plate of soup ..is not capable of thinking about anything in ..world except about a slice of bread. ..if ..we succeeded in inspiring this youth with ..spirit of life ..despite ..fact that their thoughts during ..day were centred on slices of bread ..then that was a great achievement. These seminars ..this cultural activity ..encompassed 1,000's of ..Youth in ..Warsaw and beyond it. There was another matter which was of great value. There was an underground press. ..underground newspapers ..included all ..Jewish organizations ..and first and foremost ..Jewish Youth Movements ..from right to left. From ..first days it was forbidden to listen to ..radio ..apart ..from ..German station. This was a decree for both Poles and Jews. ..we had a secret radio and listened to it. We issued bulletins. We passed on news about what was going on in ..world at large ..for we were cut off from ..world at large. At ..beginning this provided much encouragement. For some reason ..Jews believed that ..Russians would advance and defeat ..Germans ..and possibly ..end of ..War was approaching. In general it isn't difficult to understand that a person who is in trouble clutches with faith at any small thing ..perhaps. I myself did not belong to ..optimists in ..Ghetto. ..I believed in complete faith that ..end of ..forces of evil would come. But I knew we would have to stand up to this for years. ..those were ..years when ..Germans occupied ..whole of Europe. And we also believed with ..outbreak of ..war between Germany and Russia ..and with ..chaos that would be created with ..German retreat ..as usual there would first of all be massive outbreaks of violence against ..Jews. And then we set up an organization ..this was not yet ..Jewish fighting force ..whose function was that ..if there should be such outbreaks of violence ..it would resist. At that time there were still no arms. It was a matter of sticks and anything that we chanced upon." Zivia Lubetkin.
So while all too many of these Polish Jews have to become prepared so as to deliver their own ultimate sacrifice in order that they can deliver the last moments of compassion and love to their own, they have to secretly hold back their own fears and anxiety's. However, with approaching stealth and a well devised plan of subterfuge, there still remained a creeping sense that something incomprehensible was being waged. For all too many Jews, who could not see the deliberate nature of Hitler's true hatred and clinical resolve, a Final Solution was in the fuller sense, progressing.
"..We tried to establish contact with ..Armia Ludowa or more exactly with their political organization. During this period ..Polish underground was only beginning to be formed and did not carry out acts of actual war ..its activity consisted of getting themselves organized ..closing ranks and encouragement. But this was not yet ..period where they used arms. We set up ..organization called ..Anti Fascist League. This organization ..owing to ..fact that contacts with ..Polish underground were weak ..and meanwhile matters developed in a totally different way ..and this body was already in existence ..was of great value for several months ..for it trained people to use sticks. ..it was not so important that people should know how to use sticks and anything else that comes to hand ..but rather that it hardened ..spirit and prepared ..Youth for ..days to come. ..Meanwhile ..Germans advanced ..and ..occupied large areas populated by many Jews ..Vilna ..Lithuania ..Volhynia ..Polesie. ..places of close Jewish settlement. With ..advance of ..army ..we decided to establish contact with these Jewish centres. Since these were ..first months of ..War and there was great confusion on ..roads ..we decided for ..first time to send a certain Pole whose name was Heniek ..a member of ..Polish scouts with whom we were in touch from ..first days. I use this opportunity to mention ..name of ..Woman who was ..head of ..Polish scouts ..Irena Damowitz ..who from ..first day of our life in ..underground ..helped us ..and more than once .. risked her life. ..We sent Heniek to Vilna without knowing what was happening there ..but in order to inform us what was happening there ..how ..Jews were living and what was ..state of ..movement. He was given addresses ..for in Vilna there was a large concentration of youth who were planning to set out for Palestine ..but not all of them managed to get away. This we knew. 100's of halutzim ..who were unable to leave ..remained there. ..route there and back took him several months. In order to reach Vilna from Warsaw one had to cross 3 borders. ..on ..way to ..Baltic countries. Even a Pole who wished to reach Vilna in those days needed a great deal of courage ..a sense of orientation and a lot of luck. He was lucky." Zivia Lubetkin.
For what had so far been constantly denied the Jewish People, here within Poland and across the breadth of Europe, all of this stands as an immense measure of the Resistance to all that these Jews, abandoned and alone, could not Survive. Zivia Lubetkin, who remains a colossus amongst generations, and not just for Jews, inspires us still and now for me on this day, to write about what about her contribution to what is essentially, a Jewish Day of Mourning. With a greater sense of the shame that has been omitted from the World through inaction, and for what a World allowed to happen, I write in memory and for the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews in words much more relevant and delivered to us by Zivia.
"..already autumn or ..beginning of winter ..we had an agricultural farm outside Warsaw ..Czerniakow was its name. Apart from ..fact that it represented ..for ..Jewish Youth ..an honourable source of livelihood ..this place served as a starting off point for our Male and Female messengers whom we used to send out from ..Ghetto. ..it was a farm situated outside ..Ghetto ..and we also worked on a farm belonging to a Polish farmer ..as Jews. Our messengers roamed around ..Aryan streets of Warsaw. Any flicker of an eyelid of theirs could expose them to mortal danger ..lest someone ..would recognize that this was a Jew or a Jewess. They had this base which enabled them to come to ..farm by night and to arrive as Jews. This was something great. We maintained there a stock of newspapers ..and ..a store of arms. We received a phone call in ..Ghetto from ..farm at Czerniakow to ..effect that Heniek had arrived ..asking us to come to a meeting. We rejoiced at ..news. At that time we had various ways of leaving ..Ghetto ..despite ..efficient guard system. ..out of ..Ghetto we removed ..Shield of David from our persons ..and we would go about as Aryans. Many of us were killed. But nevertheless many kept up ..contact. When I reached Czerniakow at nightfall ..we sat in a hut. ..no electricity ..and Heniek told his story. ..for ..first time we heard that they were transporting ..Jews of Vilna in their 1,000's and their 10's of 1,000's to Ponar where Children ..Women ..Babies ..were put to death. ..already at the end of 1941. At ..beginning of 1942 a Jew escaped from Chelmno and came to Warsaw. ..he told us that ..in Chelmno ..Jews were being driven out of ..city in trucks and put to death by gas. This Jew reached Warsaw ..but on ..way went into a town ..to ..Rabbi ..told him ..story. ..Rabbi was convinced ..Jew had gone crazy ..and didn't believe him. After we had heard ..account from Vilna ..and ..story of Chelmno ..we believed that this was being done systematically. I must say that in ..previous years ..even we could not picture to ourselves that a nation in 20th. Century would indeed execute a death sentence on an entire people. We asked ourselves more than once: They are degrading us ..they are suppressing us ..are they truly thinking of destroying all of us. We did not believe it. ..doubt was gnawing at our hearts all ..time. We had been living in this way for years. ..when we received this information from Vilna and Chelmno within a short time ..when we sent our messengers to towns and villages in Poland and tales of disaster began to arrive from each place ..of course ..under a different disguise ..in Vilna because ..Jews were cooperating with ..Communists ..in Chelmno they did not disclose at all that this was extermination. We put all these incidents together ..and on ..same day we heard Heniek's testimony ..this was a decisive moment in ..life of ..Jewish underground movement. We stopped our social activities ..schools about which I haven't managed to tell you ..Hebrew Gymnasium ..drama groups and ..rest of our cultural activities ..all our efforts were now devoted to active self defence. But ..Jews didn't believe it. ..hard to imagine that in fact an entire people would be Exterminated. ..ordinary Jew didn't believe it ..nor did ..Jewish leadership. If you were to ask me why we believed it ..was this because we were wiser. Were we greater heroes. I would not say so. What stood us in good stead was our Halutz education that in normal times ..we were not afraid to face ..fate of ..Jews ..and to see it for what it was. That same youth believed it ..due to its world outlook and its personal education. I have no other explanation ..for there were many wise Jews in Warsaw ..heroes also ..did not believe it." Zivia Lubetkin.
I have sat through many meetings and for years of hoping to justly Remember the Jew's of The Holocaust, utilising in what for me was an appropriate date, January 27th. 1945. This date, recognising the arrival of Russian forces in Poland for the liberation of Auschwitz, is fundamentally an epoch moment for the future Survival of what was left of Polish Jewry and The European Jews. On this Liberation Day, and though the Surviving Jews of this space did not yet know it, full and future Survival in Poland was to be a gift of non-Jewish Poles that was not too willingly given.
"..In July 1942 ..liquidation of ..Warsaw Ghetto began. It started suddenly one day ..although there had already been rumours some days before ..and there was much concern amongst ..Jews. ..we were informed suddenly one day when we got up in ..morning ..by means of notices from ..Germans ..that it had been decided to transfer to ..East Aussiedlung nach dem Osten ..those Jews who were not working here ..who had no source of livelihood. Exempted from ..deportation were ..Jews who were working ..obviously first of all in German places of work in ..Ghetto ..which included ..Jewish organizations ..those that were legitimate ..Judenrat ..Jewish police ..members of their families ..various organizations of social welfare of all kinds ..hospitals. ..then ..Jews came to ..conclusion that ..this was only a small percentage which was destined for deportation. ..reasoning was ..these are Jews who don't have their source of livelihood here ..they were ..living under difficult conditions ..Germans would transfer them to a place ..East ..a place where they were required for labour ..and ..they would even receive good conditions. ..close to one of ..gates in the approaches to ..Warsaw Ghetto ..there was a railway track ..there was a large field there ..Umschlagsplatz ..where ..Jews were commanded to assemble ..and from that point they were loaded on ..wagons. This involved 70,000 to 100,000 Jews. To ..Extermination Camp ..Treblinka. ..beginning of ..deportation ..announced that Jews possessing foreign nationality ..neutrals .had to gather at a certain place and they would be taken out of ..Ghetto. ..concentrated in ..central prison of ..Ghetto ..Pawiak ..most of them were shot. I knew many of them. Amongst them ..workers for ..Joint ..American citizens ..Neustadt ..Segalowitz ..others ..who were shot and did not stay alive. ..Czerniakow ..head of ..Judenrat in ..Warsaw Ghetto. When ..became clear to him ..this was ..Extermination ..that it meant death ..he committed suicide. In view of ..fact that ..announcement concerning ..deportation was accompanied by an order that all those who worked would remain alive ..each Jew tried to find employment for himself and then workshops they were called Shops sprang up like mushrooms after ..rain. Jews used to walk along with a machine on their back ..as if it seemed to them that this was their ticket for staying alive. ..Germans organized workshops and ..Jews worked in them and they were given Kennkarten certificates that they were working in this particular Shop ..and it is a fact that in ..first deportation these Jews were not taken away. This operation of deportation ..from ..first day to ..last ..was disguised in an exceptional way. When ..hunger grew more severe at ..time of ..deportations and ..Angel of Death stalked ..Ghetto for 2 months ..100's of 1,000's of Jews were taken away ..also ..people were dying of starvation. Nobody went out and nobody came in. A kilogram of bread cost more than 100 zlotys ..and even this was impossible to obtain. Then ..Germans announced that anyone coming to ..Umschlag of his own free will would receive 3 kilograms of bread and 1 kilogram of jam ..Jews came there with their meagre bundles in order to receive ..3 kilograms of bread." Zivia Lubetkin.
Here though, while this date was supposedly signifying the end of the tragedy for Polish Jewry and of the Jewish presence in Europe, there was an abhorrent rise in antisemitic hatred bolstered by greed and avarice turned against a returning Jew looking for solace in a place they had known as home. For me, with the continued dilution of the term, The Holocaust, with its referencing in Holocaust Memorial Day toward other Genocide's, this had signalled a sea change in any form of reverence I thought should be wholly attributable to the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, who are The Holocaust.
"..transferred to Treblinka ..to ..Death Camp. ..Men ..Women ..Children. There were those familiar pictures of ..procession of Children from orphanages ..who walked in their shabby clothes towards ..Umschlag ..Children who walked with their Teachers ..Janusz Korczak ..who had made a name for himself ..and whom ..Germans wanted to release ..but he would not agree. ..beginning of September 1942. Within a few hours ..Jews were ordered ..all those who still remained and had not been deported ..to gather in 2 or 3 streets of Warsaw. ..120,000 Jews assembled. ..Jews were told to assemble in these streets in ..course of a few hours. ..ordered to assemble by 10 a.m. ..and anyone found elsewhere after this hour would be shot. Every Jew was obliged to leave all his possessions at home ..and to leave his apartment open. ..at that time ..a special unit which collected all Jewish property and sorted it ..furniture ..jewellery ..shoes ..and so on. ..Jews were ordered to leave their homes open. ..in order to maintain ..camouflage they were told to take with them a parcel limited to 10 kilograms and to bring it to Mila Street. It was impossible to enter ..houses. ..action ..lasted Week ..6 days. In ..course of this week ..60,000 Jews were removed from these streets. Many Jews were there ..and ..Shops were also there ..for ..Jews thought they would come together with ..Shops and with their documents ..and they would be taken off to work. In one street men of ..SS and ..Gestapo were standing at a table ..indicating by a movement of ..hand who was to go to ..right and who to ..left ..who was to live and who was to die. ..of course ..those chosen for death were Children ..great enemies of ..German Reich ..Children ..Women ..Aged ..Sick. .. healthier ..still allowed to live ..by means of a motion of ..hand to ..right. ..families would be separated. There were those terrible scenes ..since ..despite it all ..whole families were still going together. They knew what ..fate of ..Children would be ..and a Mother would attempt to make her Son look a little bigger ..paint ..cheeks of her Daughter ..to give her shoes with higher heels ..but all this was to no avail ..and they went ..same way as their Brothers. In ..course of a few days ..50,000 Jews were taken away. This action in ..Warsaw Ghetto was completed on Yom Kippur 1942 ..with ..liquidation of part of ..Jewish police ..concerning whom we were so sure at ..beginning of ..deportation that their lives would be spared. Their loyal cooperation with ..Germans did not help them ..they ..too ..taken to Treblinka with their families and on Yom Kippur 1942 ..out of 500,000 Jews in Warsaw ..about 60,000 Jews remained within ..Ghetto walls." Zivia Lubetkin.
Where once we contemplate 500,000 Jews of Warsaw reduced to 60,000 Jews, we have the incomprehensible value that 6,000,000 Annihilated Jews, Murdered solely for being Jews, brings forth an atrocious degradation of all humanity. So while this reduction in Human value stands before us, I wonder why it is necessary to withdraw a Jewish relevance from the term which wholly encompasses all that was measured against them. The Holocaust term has so been eroded by claims to recall all those dead through Genocide, it does not form the marker by which 6,000,000 Murdered Jews are registered as the intentional victims of Hitler's resolve for The Final Solution of The Jewish Question.
"..April 18th. 1943 was ..eve of Passover. 2 days before ..Gestapo's liaison officer ..Brandt came to ..Jewish Council office and said ..Council was not sufficiently concerned about ..Jewish Children. There was no greenery in ..Ghetto ..not sufficient food ..he proposed setting up kindergartens ..where Jewish Children would be able to play and also to laugh. ..he was certain that those Jews who remained in Warsaw were productive people and there was no danger of deportation threatening them. We had already learned from experience ..and we knew if there were such rumours and such a promise ..this was a bad omen. ..in recent days there had been various strange rumours circulating in ..Ghetto ..that on ..approach of Passover ..Germans were planning to destroy ..Warsaw Ghetto. ..immediately after these rumours ..others came along saying that they had heard from one German or another ..information that this was not true ..that ..Jews ..in ..Ghetto would remain there. ..18th of ..month ..during ..day ..a policeman of ours ..a Jew ..also a member of ..Jewish fighting force came to us at our headquarters ..and said that Polish policemen had told Jewish policemen ..there was no doubt that something was going to happen that night. ..Jewish fighting force ..was in existence and was organized inside ..Ghetto and had fighting units ..each unit having its own post ..prepared in advance. An alert was declared within ..units ..movement ceased ..everyone was to take his arms to his post ..to ..fortifications ..each officer and his men. At ..about midnight ..this policeman came to headquarters and informed us that ..Ghetto was surrounded. ..between January and April ..even before then ..Judenrat was no longer in charge of ..Ghetto. ..Ghetto as well as ..Judenrat acted in accordance with ..orders and instructions that we used to post up in ..streets of Warsaw. This was a time when ..Jews obeyed us ..obeyed us in everything. We dispersed among ..fighting units. I was at 23 Nalewski Street ..where ..officer in charge of that unit was Secharia Artstein. Mordechai Anilewicz and ..rest of my comrades were dispersed in ..other strong points. Mordechai Anilewicz came to ..post at 29 Mila Street. What did we tell ..Jews that night. We told them that anyone who possessed arms should come out to fight. Not only ..Jewish fighting force but ..ordinary Jews as well had arms. ..we advised those who did not have arms ..Women ..Children ..Babies ..should go down into ..bunkers ..and at ..first opportunity ..go over to ..Aryan sector ..break through and make their way to ..forest ..some would survive. ..we had no need to issue orders to ..fighting units ..those Boys and Girls had been waiting for months for ..moment ..they would be able to shoot at Germans. ..indeed ..moment had come. When ..day dawned ..I was standing in ..upper part of this building ..at 23 Nalewski ..I saw ..1,000's of Germans ..surrounding ..Ghetto ..with machine guns ..cannon ..1,000's of them ..with their weapons ..as if they were going to ..Russian front. ..there we stood opposite them ..some 20 young Men and Women. ..our weapons. ..a revolver ..a hand grenade ..entire unit had 2 rifles ..and ..homemade bombs ..primitive ones ..fuse ..had to be lit by ..match ..and Molotov Cocktails. ..strange to see ..some Jewish Boys and Girls ..confronting this enormous enemy with all his weapons ..were joyful and merry. Why were they joyful and merry. We knew that our end had come. We knew beforehand that they would defeat us ..but we also knew that they would pay a heavy price for our lives. ..they did. It is difficult to describe ..there will surely be many who will not believe it ..that when ..Germans came near ..foot of one of our strong points and passed by in formation ..and we threw ..bombs and ..hand grenades ..we saw German blood pouring in ..streets of Warsaw ..after so much Jewish blood and tears had previously flowed in ..streets of Warsaw ..we felt ..great rejoicing and it was of no importance what would happen ..following day. ..great rejoicing amongst ..Jewish fighters. ..behold ..miracle ..great German heroes withdrew in tremendous panic in ..face of ..handmade Jewish hand grenades and bombs. ..1 hour later ..a German officer was spurring ..soldiers on to go to battle ..to go out and bring in ..wounded ..and not one of them moved and they abandoned their wounded men whose weapons we subsequently collected. And so it happened ..that on ..first day we ..few ..with our scant arms ..drove ..Germans out of ..Ghetto. ..they came back. They were not short of ammunition ..bread ..water as we were. And they returned. They returned that day ..for a second time ..in greater strength ..with field guns and tanks ..and we with our Molotov Cocktails also set a tank on fire although this was not at ..post where I was but in Mila Street ..with another fighting unit. That day ..in ..evening ..we each reported. We had seen that ..with our meagre arms ..number of those killed in our ranks was negligible ..2 in all. ..a number of wounded. ..we knew that ..on that day 100's of Germans had fallen ..killed ..wounded. ..by chance ..I ..met a German on ..Aryan side ..a year after ..Warsaw Ghetto revolt ..posing as an Aryan ..and he had only one eye ..he told me that on that very day ..at 23 Nalewski ..he had lost his eye in a battle with ..Jews and that it was a big fight and we paid for it with many casualties ..I did not know then how to appreciate this. But if one may evaluate this years later ..when I saw my people proceeding on its final journey ..this was some slight consolation." Zivia Lubetkin.
As far as I am concerned, and translation cannot alter any intention otherwise, die Endlosung der Judenfrage speaks exclusively for what Hitler intended would be the total eradication of the Jewish People from within Europe. In accordance with the protocol established at The Wannsee Conference, this would account for 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, All Men, Women and Their Children to be systematically sought out for Slaughter and Murdered, in situ or in carefully prepared Killing Sites and the Gas Chambers. Firstly though. all of these Jews would be marked out for close attention, segregated and then marked for removal, firstly from their former homes and their own community’s, as they are finally removed from all existence, life itself.
"..battle continued for a number of days at ..same pace. ..Germans could not subdue us and on each occasion retreated from ..Ghetto. ..not all ..days were like ..first day. We paid with more losses and also killed less Germans. But ..in ..days following ..Germans changed their tactics and tried also to change our tactics. From street fighting in places we had prepared for ourselves ..we changed to a method of fighting in small groups. We split up into several groups who at night would find for themselves houses and strong points ..simply hid ..waiting for ..Germans. ..Germans ..no longer came into ..Ghetto in large numbers ..but in small units. ..like us ..we had rags on our feet so that they should not hear our footsteps ..they had rubber boots so that we should not hear their footsteps ..and each side sought ..other. In these days ..also ..we had ..upper hand ..we knew ..terrain ..houses ..prepared for ourselves places of refuge in attics and cellars ..not known to ..Germans. It continued in this way for days. It is difficult for me to describe life in ..Ghetto during that week ..and I had been in this Ghetto ..years. ..Jews embraced and kissed each other ..although it was clear to every single one that it was not certain whether he would remain alive ..or it was almost certain that he would not survive ..reached ..day of our taking revenge ..although no vengeance could fit our suffering. At least we were fighting for our lives ..and this feeling lightened his suffering and possibly also made it easier for him to die. I also remember that on ..second day ..it was ..Passover Seder ..in one of ..bunkers ..I came across Rabbi Meisel. There had been contacts between us and him ..since ..days of ..Halutz underground in ordinary times as well. ..Halutz underground ..in its operations ..had not always had an easy time on ..part of ..Jewish population ..they did not always accept us." Zivia Lubetkin.
It is a further catastrophe then as to which part of this atrocity does the world need to now dissolve let alone resolve while The Holocaust term becomes continually diluted. I am fully aware of the significance of YomHaShoah and it is that specific day in Israel right now, May 1st. 2019 that it is both poignant and reverential to all Jews wherever they are. As such, perhaps it is time to ensure the Jews know best how to mark what we seek to remember is a Jewish Catastrophe above and beyond all other's and ask the World to concentrate its attention on the debacle of The Holocaust, as a unifying act of Remembrance on this one day. With The Holocaust, there is this unique blend of legality, complicity, duplicity and the sheer scale of the atrocity which is all aimed exclusively at the Jews whose murder this present to us.
"..There were those who thought that we were bringing harm to their lives ..collective responsibility ..fear of ..Germans. ..this time ..when I entered ..bunker ..this Jew ..Rabbi Meisel ..interrupted ..Seder ..placed his hand on my head and said ..May you be blessed. Now it is good for me to die. Would that we had done this earlier. ..fighting went on ..for days. ..already from ..first day ..had been seeking liaison with ..Aryan side. We had many comrades on ..Aryan side ..Yitzhak Zuckerman ..among them. Their main activity in ..first days was ..acquisition of an additional supply of arms. ..after many endeavours this was achieved. But there was a problem of how to transfer it. In ..first days we had another link by means of ..telephone ..but apart from telephone contact ..connection still existed through ..Burial Society. Our cemetery was beyond ..boundaries of ..Ghetto ..and since ..Burial Society had its hands full ..it had ..to go out of ..Ghetto and to come back into it. And in this way we received a message from Yitzhak Zuckerman ..that he had received a number of rifles which we would be able to obtain ..through ..Burial Society ..we smuggled letters outside ..amongst them ..letter from Mordechai Anilewicz ..which has since been published. But this link ..too ..was soon cut off. ..We began to look for possibilities of sending out a number of comrades for ..purpose of obtaining help. We had a small number of comrades on ..Aryan side who were able to organize help and arms for us ..or food ..or later on to look for a place where a person could stay in ..event of his remaining alive. We thus began searching for a way of getting a number of people out. We were told that there was a bunker in a particular place ..near ..Ghetto wall. From ..bunker there was a canal leading to ..Aryan side. Afterwards it became clear to us ..Apart from ..Jewish fighting force ..which included ..all ..various ideological forces in Jewish public life ..left to right ..there existed a group of Revisionists ..in Muranowska Street. They had prepared this exit for themselves. ..several days of difficult and daring battle ..they decided to go out to ..Aryan sector. We encountered one of them who had been saved. All ..others had been caught and were killed. Without being aware of this ..we sent 2 of our comrades in this way to seek contact with our comrades on ..Aryan side ..Simha Ratajzer ..and another ..no longer alive. When they reached ..Aryan sector and a Polish policeman saw them ..he thought that they were Poles and said to them ..Why are you wandering around here. Do you know what happened here an hour ago. ..he told them about ..fight in ..Ghetto ..that ..entire quarter was full of SS ..and Gestapo ..and ..they were not allowing anyone to come out or to go in. Nevertheless ..due to their courage and ..perhaps ..also their good fortune ..they succeeded in passing by ..German sentries and establishing contact with Yitzhak. They represented an important reinforcement to ..tiny group ..many of whose members fell in ..first days of our fight in ..Ghetto in various actions on ..Aryan side ..to provide substantial aid ..which we subsequently broadened to help ..fighters inside ..Ghetto to assist in taking them out and to help any activity of ..Jewish underground ..which continued until ..liberation. We could not engage in open warfare. ..Germans set ..Ghetto on fire. ..impossible to fight against fire and conflagration ..they did not have to battle against us ..fire fought us." Zivia Lubetkin.
All of what Hitler aimed for, which makes this a particularly Jewish tragedy, and that is an unparalleled and an unprecedented atrocity in all time, wonders at why the World cannot allow the Remembrance for these Jews to be their's. For me then, and I speak here personally, as a non-Jew, if back then I had been a non-Jewish pole, barely surviving during the crime of the catastrophe for Polish Jewry and European Jews, I would have felt compelled to resist any and all of Hitler's clear intentions. Poland was at war with Germany, and all of Hitler's direction should have brokered an all out response by all of Poland to what was happening to its Jewish Community. It is reprehensible that Poland did not act in accord with its christian principles nor of its catholic dogma. The fact too that this would have created the ideal CV for anyone acting with human compassion would have seen a non-Jewish Pole who had taken a Jewish Family of 7, or even 70 from a extended Jewish Family, to the Woods and then assisted in the building of an underground bunker.
"..Scenes of Women ..Children ..Men are well known. We had previously told them ..called upon ..Jews to hide themselves ..those who did not have arms ..to hide in ..bunker. ..when ..building was suddenly set alight ..when ..smoke entered ..bunker ..it was no longer possible to get out. ..there were ..scenes ..from 4th. ..5th. and 6th. floors ..People jumped from a building enveloped in flames ..in most cases with Children in their arms. There were also scenes of People who jumped from fire into gunfire. ..German machine guns which surrounded ..wall did not miss them. Every such Jew in sight was shot on ..spot. They looked for hiding places in other bunkers. Many of them entered ..sewage canals for want of another way out. ..several People found shelter in ..ruins of ..burnt houses. ..Germans seized many of them and took them ..no longer to ..Umschlag ..but to Treblinka. There was no chance of defeating them in battle. That was clear. This was still in April 1943. ..victories of ..Red Army were only beginning. ..it was plain to us that we had no chance of winning in ..accepted sense of ..term. ..in ..military sense or ..accepted sense of today. ..believe me ..this is no empty phrase ..despite their power ..we knew that ultimately we would defeat them ..we ..weak ones ..because in this lay our strength. We believed in justice ..in humanity ..and in a regime different from ..one which they glorified. ..May 8th. 1943 ..When ..principal bunker of ..Jewish fighting force at 18 Mila was destroyed with Anilewicz and another 120 fighters ..quite by chance I was not there ..for on ..previous day I went on a mission to another part of ..Ghetto and returned after this had happened. I found no traces of ..bunker or of people ..only a small group of fighters who succeeded in getting out of there through some kind of side route ..at ..very last minute. They related their experiences." Zivia Lubetkin.
Here in such a bunker, where they would have Survived till the Russians had saved them, they would have been written my opus for me, a page in their History to be proudest of. Who could not be proud of such an act of saving lives, when all about Poland the stench of destruction infiltrated the very air poles breathed. For me it seems, humanity would have been keenly felt and a moral bridge would have been crossed. But none of this is as it should have been. The heroism of Parents, unable to assist the fight, struggling to ensure their Children did not know what awaited them, and as they succumbed in desperation to what Hitler intended and Poland did so little to stop, and as a World stood too idly by, they passed into History.
"That night we decided ..there were only a few of us left ..without food ..without water ..almost no weapons ..at any rate without bullets for ..revolvers and rifles ..to send a group of comrades to ..sewage canal ..so that they might cross to ..Aryan sector and see what could be done. These comrades ..on ..way to ..sewage canal ..encountered a delegation of our friends. One of them was ..same Simha Ratajzer ..who had gone out to Muranowska. This delegation had been sent by our comrades on ..Aryan Side in ..company of a Pole who showed them ..way ..to bring ..surviving fighters through ..sewage canal to ..Aryan side. We walked in ..sewage canal for 48 hours. .on May 12th. ..on a clear day ..when ..in spite of ..desire of ..Polish underground to come to our aid ..they did not have ..power to do much ..apart from several people who assisted us in carrying out ..operation ..and when it became clear to our comrades that they would not get any assistance ..they hired 2 trucks saying that they were required for moving furniture from one place to another. When they reached ..street where we were standing in ..sewage canal ..our comrades drew out revolvers ..aimed them at ..drivers and said ..This is not furniture but people ..and if you make even ..slightest noise ..you will endanger your lives. ..so they remained silent. ..sewage canal was opened and we came out of it ..about 50 fighters ..if I am not mistaken ..and we were loaded onto ..trucks. We drove through ..streets of noisy Warsaw ..naturally with weapons in our hands ..and ..reached ..Lomianki forest ..7 kilometres from Warsaw ..since we did not have anywhere ..where we could go to. ..We had a special sector of ..Jewish fighting force within ..Polish revolt in ..ranks of ..Armia Ludowa." Zivia Lubetkin.
As the remnants of Polish and Warsaw Jewry sat in bunkers, in attics or hidden in rooms, the flames of an unholy conflagration surrounded them. Many of these distraught Parents, People on the edge of this insanity, took hold of everything that was dear to them, their Children, comforted and relaxed them before signalling their intention to defy Hitler's marauder's and resisting finally that lasting resolve to accomplish what 3,000 years of History had failed to do. Outside the Ghetto, the city of Warsaw was bustling with non-Jewish life, looking on with a regard that has not entered mainstream History. So the scenes, as Zivia could relate them, have been secured for posterity to future accuse this Warsaw, this Poland and this World for what was left behind in the Jewish World. When Jews need to know what Resistance meant so as to know it definitively, or hear it, or re-listen to its retelling, then listen and learn from what Zivia Lubetkin relays and teaches us all.
"..August 1944. ..Poles decided to give themselves up and be taken prisoner ..our group did not do so. Having no alternative ..we remained in a bunker in one of ..places in Warsaw ..and this was now in Aryan Warsaw ..for Jewish Warsaw was no longer in existence at that time. But even in Aryan Warsaw ..Poles ..too ..were prohibited from being there at all. So we went into some house ..where there was a cellar ..a group of Jewish fighters ..carrying arms and we did not really know what to do with ourselves ..until we sent off a number of comrades ..mostly Girls ..to look for contacts on ..Aryan side. ..they found them and they returned with a delegation of ..Red Polish Army who made out as if it was known that there were sick people there ..typhus patients. Those fighters amongst us who had pronounced Jewish features had their imaginary wounds bandaged so they would not be recognized and were taken out as typhus patients. In this way we crossed into ..Aryan sector and in a village near Warsaw liberation came to us at ..hands of ..Russians." Zivia Lubetkin.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Thu, April 11, 2019 11:17:51
August 13th. 1943 "..In view of the tragic existence of the Jews, where the life of the individual depends on chance, and the life of the community as a whole has long been on the brink of cessation, one must, more than ever, see the situation comprehensively. An individual point of view - everyone will surely understand that now - is of no significance today. As individuals, we are all lost. The likelihood of staying alive is minute. Broken and alone there is not much we can expect of life. Dying together with Polish Jewry we must clearly visualize for ourselves the historic character of this time and tell ourselves with courage that our death does not spell the end of the world. The record of humanity and of the Jewish people will continue at its own speedin the future, even after we are safely under the ground. The numerical balance-sheet of the Jews will be sad when peace finally comes to the world after the historical blood-bath. This is indeed not the first defeat of a defenseless people scattered over the face of the earth. Slaughter, murders, confiscation of property, and the burning alive of people all these have been known to us for generations as the essential elements of our martyrology. But there has never been such wholesale extermination. Never did a situation develop like this, where there is no way out. Never before did great numbers of people armed with the most modern technology move against the Jews. Of 16 million Jews in the world, we shall scarcely reach 9 million after the war. And, most important of all, the Jews of Europe will no longer be there, those who up to now made up the healthiest part of the nation. Nobody held out a helping hand to the Jews who were being destroyed, nobody made any effort to helpthem to the extent that they could escape from the danger of extermination. They looked on our destruction as on the death of maggots, and not as the loss of a nation with high cultural values. When the question of the Jews came up even the hatred towards the Germans lessened. There was a solidarity with the enemy in the joy over the fall of the Jews. Only a few retained any degree of humanity, and even theydid not dare to give this public expression. The truth of aloneness was again confirmed. We shall carry the heavy burden of this isolation until the end of our days, and it points to the fact that the only proper approach is that of self-liberation: We have nobody on whom to depend except ourselves. All other political concepts will lead us astray. We have paid the highest possible price because we were lulled asleep by the prosperity of Europe, or guided by false hopes of rescue that would come from outside. We lost our sense of reality and instead of planning our independence we scattered invaluable forces in alien fields. Who knows what would have been the future of the Jewish people if there were no Yishuv (Community) of half a million in Palestine, that built its foundations before the war broke out and which has now reached a million souls? Only this nucleus of a Jewish State now offers assurance for thesurvival of the people. It makes us believe that an independent Jewish nation will rise again, a wellspring of profound spiritual values, as always. It is easier to die, therefore, in the knowledge that a genuine Jewish life still throbs there, that in that one small corner of the wide world we were not undesirables, lonely victims. There would be no sense in our death but for the feeling that, after we have gone, they will be the only ones who will think about us with genuine emotion. Therefore, despite certain death, we join them in their struggle for the future. Every one of our deeds paved the way for freedom, and furthers the building of an independent homeland. Our revolt is a protest against the evil that is engulfing the world. To counter the terror that has crushed our people, we shall stand prepared for the struggle for justice and freedom that should light up the life of humanity as a whole. We are willing to die in order that the shame of death in slavery shall not burden the future of the Jews, and that these Jews shall not have to recall the Jews of Europe with shame because they allowed themselves to be led unresisting to slaughter, and they had not the spirit and courage to defend themselves against destruction. As we had not been allowed to make our contribution to the creative work of building, we shall at least fulfill our historic duty here: it is we who must raise up the name of the lost people, to wipe away the mark of shame of slavery, and to place it among the ranks of people free in spirit.
Cracow Fighting Pioneer Underground Newspaper.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, March 05, 2019 12:32:17
“..All around ..submerged sounds ..groaning ..choking ..sobbing of ..people not dead yet.” Dina Mironova Pronicheva.
All passages used here are from Babi Yar - A Jewish Catastrophe and they formed part of those presentations to Students, Tutors, Educator's and School Groups who shared an interest in the work I was doing. As each book has been Published I have written a draft presentation for those I will then speak to as to why I write. Contrary to what many see, as the need to write, mine is of that effort which is affixed to a more important element in my work, Remembering those I care to write about.
"..If ..statistic of atrocity at Babi-Yar is as true as it is accurate ..and Dina Mironova Pronicheva was ..only survivor ..fact that ..statistic at
Babi-Yar was not 33,772 must be considered." Patrick Dempsey.
Back in 2005, when Babi Yar came out, I did what I had done previously and written what it was I wished to state to all those who were prepared to listen. That drafting was so constantly tweaked, as I wished there to be differences for each and every presentation, delivering words which were constantly overlapping of course, but finding subtlety's to deliver individual presentations to each and every audience. I started writing on The Holocaust some 5 or 6 years previously and could so easily have written Babi Yar prior to this. But I could not forgoe the need to ensure what those Survivor's I had been talking to were lamenting, us allowing for them to be forgotten.
“..soldiers came ..firing bullets ..into any which appeared to be still living.” Dina Mironova Pronicheva.
The tragic fact, and it is a truth direct from those Survivor's who supplied me with the essential title to my first Book, that it was indeed the grave loss of those whose Memory was crucial to our search that required securing and a continued emphasis. That guarantee to secure their memory, while their own memory was continually fading, rang all too true every time I was informed that a Survivor had passed on. So I was in a constant race against time, a rush for that comprehension of the bestial atrocity that still eluded us, and as we were still coming to terms with its detail.
"..I use ..word hate very advisedly ..to counter ..feeling of horror that wrenches at my own understanding of ..lost meaning of humanity. Truly
..when I read passages as Dina Mironova Pronicheva describes ..can I know that humanity was lost." Patrick Dempsey.
Therefore, I could not arrive at the gates of Babi Yar without acknowledging the immensity of loss that the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe presents to us all. These many Jewish People, who are The Holocaust, are now being contained in a term being continuously diluted of them and for whom must never become lost within the vagaries of that fading memory. This Book then would provide me with a need to express, for the terror of an atrocity contained within the horror of an atrocity, a passage which fully secured for posterity a glimpse of what 33,771 Murdered Jewish losses presents.
“..after ..massacre of ..Jews ..Germans combed apartments ..houses. If they found children of ..Jewish mother they killed them.” Dina Mironova Pronicheva.
Nor could I realise, that I would not reach the outskirts of this particular atrocity, which is Babi Yar, without expanding on the vile force, der Einsatzgruppe, that would become established to ensure 1,250,000 Jews of Europe would be Murdered, and amongst these, the 33,771 Jews of Kiev. Here then in Babi Yar, these Jew of Kieve would be Murdered in that x2 day orgy of destruction, September 29th. till September 30th. 1941. It became essential then to ensure, that as much first hand evidence as could be found would deliver a more rounded and truthful detail as my search demanded. Dina Pronicheva formed an immense part of that demand.
"..Dina Mironova Pronicheva is reputed to be amongst ..only Survivors of ..two day atrocity to meet ..Jews of Kiev in Babi-Yar. And while we look to ..example and expression of such heroics that she exemplifies ..we are also witness to ..cowardly action against ..Jews of Kiev that was enacted." Patrick Dempsey.
I mention here Dina Pronicheva quite deliberately for it was her testimony which gave her the evidence as having survived, and this is a reminder of that draft I had written some 14 years ago which is lost in a Computer which blew up and a back up LapTop which I had not the sense to back that up also. I have rewritten many drafts of those presentations and still never conclude what is in essence the missing piece from the overall requirement. Forever missing will be the 6,000,000 Jewish souls whose vibrant and essential being has been torn from our own humanity.
“..scraping ..sand off ..scarcely daring to breathe ..used what strength ..left. ..got ..out from under ..earth.” Dina Mironova Pronicheva.
Sometimes, I do feel I tarnish the memory I wish to preserve by the mere mention of those whose perptration has delivered the very need to describe the atrocity. But such is the name of Paul Blobel, an SS Standartenfuhrer who was Kommander of Sk4a which delivered the full spectrum of this atrocity to us. But his name cannot be removed from identifying with what remains after he sought to destroy the very existence of these Jewish People. Here at Babi Yar, what still stands as the single most, individually encountered atrocity conceived against the Jews in The Holocaust, is to tarnish our History in perpetuity.
"..Blobel does not stand tall alongside ..likes of People like Dina Mironova Pronicheva ..or next to ..33,771 Jews of Kiev ..most of whom are as yet unnamed." Patrick Dempsey.
When we look to excesses completed in Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or Treblinka and when based upon the Murders of 16,885 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children on any one given day, we find no comparison with Babi Yar. It was never my intention to seek comparison's, though within the period allocated to The Holocaust many such comparison's are indeed consistent, the Jewish People were Murdered here at Babi Yar in the most unpallatable, unique, unprecedented and unparalledled atrocity ever accomplished in all of our History. But I leave you with the words of such majesty, the sheer essence of Jewish Resistance, from a Daughter who was unable to leave the side of her Mother until it almost added her, Dina Mironova Pronicheva, to the Catastrophe that is Baby Yar.
"..I could not leave my mother alone. I embraced her ..burst into tears but was unable to leave her." Dina Mironova Pronicheva.
The Full Transcript of her evidential Testimony is presented here.
My name is Dina. Dina Mironovna Vasserman. I grew up in a poor Jewish family. I was brought up under the Soviet regime in the spirit of internationalism. Thus, it is not surprising that I fell in love with a Russian guy, Nikolai Pronichev, married him and lived with him in love and happiness. That is how I became Dina Mikhailovna Pronicheva. My passport said I was Russian. We had two children: a boy and a girl. Before the war I worked as an actress at the Kiev Children's Theater. On the second day of the way my husband joined the Soviet Army, and I was left with two children and my old sick mother.
Hitler's troops seized Kiev on September 19, 1941, and from the very first day they started plundering and killing Jews. Terrible stories about the treatment of Jews were circulating in the city. We lived in terror. When I saw announcements posted in the streets, ordering "all the Jews of the city of Kiev to gather at Babi Yar" (a place we had no idea about), I felt trouble was coming. I started shivering. I say that nothing good was awaiting us there. That is why I dressed my children, three and five years old, packed their stuff in a small bag and took them to my Russian mother-in-law. Then, following the order, my sick mother and I went along the road to Babi Yar.
"..Jews were walking in hundreds and thousands. Besides me there was an old Jew with a long white beard. He had on a tallis ..and teffilin. He was mumbling. He prayed exactly as my father did when I was a child. A woman was walking ahead of me. She was carrying two children and a third one was walking alongside ..holding her skirt. Sick women and elderly were riding in carts among piled up bags and suitcases. Small children were crying. Old people ..having trouble walking ..sighed and trudged on in their mournful journey. Russian husbands were walking with their Jewish wives. Russian wives were walking with their Jewish husbands. When we approached Babi Yar I heard shooting and inhuman shouting. I started to grasp what was going on but did not say anything to my mother. When we entered through ..gates we were ordered to turn in our papers and valuables and undress. A German came over to my mother and tore a gold ring off her finger.
Only then mother said ..Dinochka ..you are Pronicheva ..you are Russian. You should survive. Rush to your children. You should live for them. But I could not flee. We were surrounded by fascists with submachine guns ..Ukrainian policemen ..and ferocious dogs who were ready to tear a human being to pieces. And then ..I could not leave my mother alone. I embraced her ..burst into tears but was unable to leave her.
Mother pushed me away and yelled ..Hurry! I went to a table at which a fat officer was seated ..showed him my passport and said quietly ..I am Russian. He was contemplating my passport when a policeman came over and barked ..Don't believe her.. she's a Kike. We know her. ..German told me to step aside and wait. I saw groups of men ..women ..children ..elderly undress. They were taken to an open pit and shot by soldiers.
Then another group would come. I saw this horror with my own eyes. Even though I was not standing close to ..pit ..I could hear awful shrieks of terrified people ..weak voices of children ..crying ..Mother ..mother. I saw all that and was unable to understand how people could kill others because they are Jewish. And I concluded that ..fascists were not humans ..they were beasts. I saw a young completely naked woman feed her naked baby with ..breast when a policeman came to her ..took ..baby ..and thrust it into ..pit. ..mother rushed after ..child. A fascist shot her dead ..she fell into ..pit. Had someone told me this ..I would not believe it. It is impossible to believe. ..German who had ordered me to wait took me to his superior ..gave him my passport and said ..This woman says she is Russian ..but a policeman says she is Jewish. ..officer studied my passport for a while and then said ..Dina is not a Russian name.
You are Jewish. Take her! ..A policeman told me to undress and pushed me to ..edge of ..pit where another group was waiting for its fate. ..It was getting dark. ..They lined us up on a ledge which was so small that we couldn't get much of a footing on it. They began shooting us. I shut my eyes ..clenched my fists ..tensed all my muscles and took a plunge down before ..bullets hit me. ..before ..shooting started ..I driven by terror ..fell into ..pit. It seemed I was flying forever. But I landed safely on ..bodies. fell on dead bodies. At first ..I could not understand anything ..where was I ..How did I get there ..I thought I had gone mad. But when people started falling on me ..I came to my senses and understood everything. I started checking my arms ..legs ..abdomen ..head. It turned out I was not even wounded. I pretended to be dead.
Under me and above me there lay ..killed and wounded. Some of them breathed ..others moaned. Suddenly ..I heard a child cry ..Mommy! It seemed like it was my little daughter. I burst into tears. ..execution went on ..and people kept falling. I was pushing corpses away in fear of being buried alive. But I did this in a way so that ..policemen would not notice. All of a sudden everything was quiet. After I a while ..when ..shooting stopped ..I heard ..Germans with submachine guns were ..climbing into ..ravine ..killing those who had been wounded. They started finishing off all those who were not dead yet ..those who were moaning ..hiccuping ..tossing ..writhing in agony. They ran their flashlights over ..bodies and finished off all who moved. I was lying so still without stirring ..terrified of giving myself away.
I felt someone was standing above me ..pretended to be dead, no matter how hard it was. I felt I was done for. I decided to keep quiet. They started covering ..corpses over with earth. I closed my eyes to protect them. They must have put quite a lot over me because I felt I was beginning to suffocate. But I was afraid to move. I was gasping for breath. I knew I would suffocate. Then I decided it was better to be shot than buried alive. I stirred but I didn't know that it it became completely dark and quite deadly quiet in literal sense I opened my eyes and, having made sure no one was around and watching me. ..Using my left arm I managed to move a little way up. I dug myself out of sand that was covering me. Then I took a deep breath ..summoned up my waning strength and crawled out from under ..cover of earth. It was dark.
But all ..same it was dangerous to crawl because of ..searching beams of flashlight and they continued shooting at those who moaned. They might hit me. So I had to be careful. ..I saw the ditch filling with thousands of killed. I got scared. Here and there earth was moving ..half alive people were breathing ..I looked at myself and got scared. ..undershirt that was covering my body was all bloody. I tried to get up and could not. ..I said to myself..Dina ..get up ..leave ..run from here ..our children are waiting for you. Suddenly ..I felt something was stirring behind me. First I got scared and decided to wait for a while. I turned quietly and asked ..Who are you. A delicate ..scared child's voice answered ..Don't be afraid. It's me.
My first name is Fina. My last name is Shneiderman. I am 11 years old. Take me with you. I am very afraid of ..dark. I moved closer to ..boy ..embraced him and started crying. ..boy said ..Don't cry. We both started to move quietly. We reached ..edge of ..pit ..got some rest and continued climbing ..helping each other. We had already reached ..top of ..pit ..stood up to run away when ..suddenly ..I head a shot and understood that they noticed me. a shot was fired. We fell on ..ground instinctively and waited.. For some time we were quiet ..being afraid to speak. Having calmed down ..I moved closer to Fimochka ..touched him and asked in a whisper ..How are you doing ..Fimochka. There was no answer.
In ..dark I could feel his legs and arms. He did not stir. No signs of life. I got up a bit and looked in his face. He was lying with his eyes closed. I tried to open them but understood that ..boy was dead. Probably ..shot we heard had taken his life. I caressed his cold face ..said good bye to him. Without getting up ..I started moving toward ..high hill that surrounded ..pit. ..I was lucky enough to crawl up one of ..high walls of ..ravine ..and straining every nerve and muscle ..got out of it. I got up ..on my feet ..and ran. All was quiet. Having made sure that I was far from ..terrible place called Babi Yar ."
I decided to approach a house that could just about be seen in the dark. Shivering, I came to a window and knocked. In a few minutes a sleepy woman lifted up a curtain and asked:
"..Who is it? What do you want?"
I answered her:
"..I escaped from Babi Yar"
And then I heard her angry voice:
"..Go away. I don't have anything to do with you."
I left. I ran, because the day was breaking and I knew that they should not see me there. But there was no place to go, so I approached a second house and knocked. The door opened, and an elderly woman appeared on the porch. When she saw me in the undershirt she crossed herself and recoiled.
"..Who are you? Where have you come from?" she asked.
"..Don't be afraid ..dear. I am not a devil. I'm human."
And then I lied for the first time in my life.
"..I'm Ukrainian. I saw my friend to Babi Yar and barely escaped."
The old lady took my hand and let me in. Then she told me to wash myself, gave me a clean shirt, a blouse, a skirt, and old shoes. I looked at myself and got a shock: a real Ukrainian! My hostess gave me a glass of hot milk with home made bread and told me to get some rest. I ate with gust, went over the old lady, embraced her, kissed her, and burst into tears. My saviour also cried. But having wiped her tears with an apron, she said,
"..Daughter ..I know who you really are. But we are all alike for God. We have one God. Because I have helped you ..my two sons will come back from ..war alive. But my place is not safe for you. Police hounds search here every day. They are looking for Jews. These beasts pay money for Jews. Now ..go get some sleep. I'll give you some provisions and try to get to our people. May God help you."
I felt relieved because there were good people on earth who were ready to help others. The old lady made my bed and left. I slept for a while but could not sleep long. The images of the previous day were passing in from of my eyes. I believed I heard shots, shouting, and children crying somewhere. Who knows where my children are? Did my mother-in-law manage to save them? I did not have time to think. I was aware that the old lady could suffer because of me. And I decided to go. I looked in a mirror and was terrified to see my hair grey.
"..This is from last night" I thought.
I put some soot on the face to seem older, wrapped my head in a kerchief, as was done by old Ukrainian women, and said goodbye to my dear hostess and set out for the Daritsa. My friend Natalia, with whom I had played in the theatre, lived there. At first glance Natasha did not recognise me. When she did , she got scared. She told me take off my clothes and get some rest. But I felt something unnatural in her attitude toward me. There was some alienation. Once we had eaten, she said to me:
"..Dina ..I should tell you ..truth. You can't stay here for a long time. My husband Andrei deserted from ..Red Army. He hates ..Soviet power and ..Jews who invented it. I'm afraid he'll inform on you. You'd better leave."
And I left.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Sat, March 02, 2019 15:21:47
Do we insist, in the case of a single Jewish Woman, raped continuously till death by a horde of wehrmacht and ss, that not all are guilty? Not all should be indicted? Not all should be tried? Or not All should have been executed! That incidence of Rape is not limited to just one single Jewish Woman, but to 1,000's of Jewish Women and Young Girl's so abused, that Death awaited them like a comforting blanket. I do not in any sense imply nor believe that Death was other than imposed, forced upon them, but it stalked the Jewish People and awaited them all, because they were Jews.
"..Americans ..British ..fly in these regions. ..Why did they not drop ..bombs on ..horrible tomb ..sixty kilometres from their Northern Frontier. They could have wrecked SS barracks ..ramps ..crematoriums ..roads ..rail track. Why didn't they." Alfred Wetzler.
In Escape from Hell, Wetzler lets us know from inside Auschwitz and Birkenau what was minutely detailed by those outside all Death Camps in Poland, all Ghettoes, Killing Sites and places were Jewish life was being extinguished clearly knew. So within my own Book, Babi Yar - A Jewish Catastrophe, which records the single most devastating Slaughter of 33,771 Jews of Kiev, that knowledge was known immediately to Allied powers. This incident then illicit's in the Einsatzgruppen Trial, though not exclusively for these Jews Murdered in a Ravine, the crime of not punishing the Crime. How do we then measure the Justice abstained here, by indictment of a force capable of Murdering 1,250,000 Jews from Europe? You might not want to own them, these Books of mine, which are for the Jewish Remembrance Never to be Forgotten, but if you read them carefully and know why I transpose such words to mean the Jewish People, you will know why 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, who are The Holocaust, must Never be Forgotten.
"..I hope I do not lack ..valid compassion ..proportional to ..Survivors ..for my words to offer an apology which has been so lacking in ..years preceding all that I describe." Patrick Dempsey.
In my Book, der Einsatzgruppe and The Destruction of European Jewry, which barely weaves through the trial of those all too few Einsatz indicted in Nuremberg Case No. 9, room is not immense enough. In what I acknowledge as a 'very short chapter', and because I am so disgusted with the term trial, the case against the Einsatzgruppe, auxilliaries and waffen ss and wehrmacht participants, requires a more expansive response. But that said, the entire Book is an indictment of a Worlds abject indifference to the whole sale Slaughter of more than 1,250,000 Jews, if truth breaches the dsarkness. In that way, all my Books are, in part, an accusation of a judicious system all too swift to ameliorate the toleration of such a catastrophe by those who perpetrated this, The Holocaust.
"..Many of ..personnel of ..Einsatzgruppe are well known to scholarly disciplines ..but ..make up of these formations has been lost to us due to ..cross over exploitation of other personnel ..and ..inclusion of various militia in ..detail of ..slaughter. It was only with a hollow victory ..once ..War had been lost ..and once ..trials of ..main protagonists and murderers was undertaken ..could ..wider world piece together ..exact nature of ..crimes we were then forced to at least attempt to comprehend." Patrick Dempsey.
All of my Books, and der Einsatzgruppe as it stands, explore the reaches of a an atrocity which becomes a travesty of missed intervention and reasoning. To stem the flow of Jewish Blood, war was provoked as the only reason to move forward ahead of the catastrophe clearly unfolding as the World watched on. All of my Books likewise, accuse all in the World whose clear and unequivocal knowledge bears down heavily on the indifference shown. What is seen over the immeasurable intolerance wreaked upon European Jewry, is that the Allied and Axis nations are a witness to this atrocity from day one.
“..Jews were compelled to establish relations with an alien ..hostile government that regarded them as subhuman ..fit only for exploitation and extermination. ..human values in which they believed and on which they had built their lives tottered and collapsed. In this cruel reality ..Vilna Jewry struggled to survive and seek rescue. ..daily struggle was for life itself ..survive in ..face of hunger ..disease. Jewish Vilna embodied
..majority of hardships ..torment ..European Jewry ..underwent during The Holocaust ..its responses sum up most of ..options ..available to ..Jews during this tragic epoch. Vilna Jewry was a microcosm of ..fate of all Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.” Yitzhak Arad.
While Arad has delivered some of the most brilliant exposing tomes on what we know of The Holocaust, Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka and Ghetto in Flames in particular, to have Survived to write with such acclamation is beyond the capacity of mere historians to write. While Bauer was writing his Book, Jews for Sale, we recognise that it was not termed so that he sought to sell the Jews but clearly acknowledge and admonish the World for allowing Jews to be sold toward extinction.
"..People seldom learn from history. Can we be an exception." Yehuda Bauer.
For Raul Hilberg, who is a pre-eminent in the field of The Holocaust, his x3 Volume set on The Destruction of the European Jews is an art in research and deliverance. For my own search, I have spoken to some of the finest minds on The Holocaust who know and accept this fact attributed to Hilberg. But there are Survivor's who have written what I could never approach in detail, let alone deliver to posterity the intensity of one single incident in which the Survivor has a personal knowledge of. Now I will not bore you with the details of all the names of those I have written to, spoke to and acknlowedge with respect, for they are already detailed in all I seek to do, but they have not found my own effort unworthy of the remembrance for the 6,000,000 Jewish Murdered I present.
"..When in ..early days of 1933 ..first civil servant wrote ..first definition of non-Aryan ..fate of European Jewry was sealed." Raul Hilberg.
Like them all, it is for me too that we become the witnesses, the custodians and the testifiers to what those like Arad, Bauer, Hilberg, Losinski, Lanzmann and Wetzler have articulated, researched and amplified. Their pathway through the most unparalleled and unprecedentedly unique atrocity ever perpetrated against a People is for us to acknowledge and learn from. I note here too that a preference for the use of the term Shoah is widely referenced, so I will give you an idea of who I am by informing You of a salient point I am consistent with in relation to The Holocaust term.
"..Had I foreseen what it would become ..I might not have written The Painted Bird. But ..book ..like ..boy ..has weathered ..assaults. ..urge to Survive is inherently unfettered. Can ..imagination ..any more than ..boy ..be held Prisoner." Jerzy Kosinski.
I will not accept the further degrading of The Holocaust term. I know full well the narrative being driven is to deny these Jews their presence in the term. Emerging from The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, the term itself gave an original residence to the Jewish displacement. Its dilution, which is a further intolerance toward the residing principle given over to 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, is not acceptable for the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews and is not acceptable to me, personally. That personal approach could not be made without having understood the relevance of Kosinski's The Painted Bird, whose 'weathered assaults' did not save him from eventual collapse, before a still seemingly indifferent world, I extol the virtue of those who know exactly what it is I seek too to know of.
"..Incredulous ..I read ..reread this naked ..bloodless text. A strange force seems to have filled it through and through ..it resists ..it lives its own life. It is ..writing of ..disaster ..for me ..another mystery." Claude Lanzmann.
Here, with Lanzmann's Shoah in support, the art of the narrator is clearly not just in what is known but in how he allows a 'bloodless text' to elaborate what was and is the most disastrous and bloodied path through our times. It is an essential for those of You to know my work and for any of you to go out and find any one of my Books, marks my achievement before 6,000,000 plundered lives. For me to then find out what I know of the Jewish pain, and the suffering of their 6,000,000 People, has not stifled my own contempt for those who allowed this all to happen. There, in each and every passage of those Books to be read are the signals to where my Heart and Soul is etched across what 6,000,000 Murdered Jews have lost. For what we have subsequently lost, and it is my concern for the loss to Their Memory that is contained in each and every page of those works and for which I deliver here.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Sat, February 23, 2019 16:57:00
Anita Lasker-Wallfisch MBE is a Survivor of both Auschwitz, from 1943 and Belsen from November 1944 and was born in Breslau in 1925. She came to Britain in 1946 and has inspired many to look more deeply at themselves for what those, like Anita suffered to Survive. I have none of the insite nor trauma from which I build a very disheartening narrative within a framework of words.
There are sentences that can be borrowed, that are regularly conveyed and are infinitely concerned with the lessons Anita and other Survivor's deliver. We are afforded a testimony that is in favour of all of those who were so systematically denied even the slightest of care or compassion. I hope, in all of this, the words I use are meaningfully constructed and which must always deliver the factual truth of what is The Holocaust.
Its very integrity and its remembrance of the 6,000,000 Jews destroyed within its reach is an imperative which cannot be allowed ever to be forgotten. What I do not do, and for those seeking to afford forgiveness on behalf of the Jewish People, for all those who were so totally destroyed, I do not offer any forgiveness. It is neither my place to do so, nor is it right to consider it so.
For the 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish Men, Women and Their Children, they have no opportunity to now deliver any fragment of that anticipated forgiveness. I am equally certain, that for those seeking to reconcile with the past, no part of this reconciliation can be achieved without forgiveness for the grave wrongs done to those of that past. For these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, ill disposed to ever Forgive, The Holocaust will be an unforgivable stain upon us all for an eternity.
Survivors too, who have the right to forgive what was done to them during this period, must do so if that is their wish. But! Neither they nor I have the right to forgive for what was achieved against any one of those Jews who did not Survive. I, detached from incidence, immediacy or the reality of The Holocaust, clearly have not be personally touched by The Holocaust and those certainly desttroyed.
Such immediacy as a Survivor would have, or a relative should have, even they have no right to afford any forgiveness for other than the hatred that was conducted against them. What transpired against the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, will stay with their remains. There are many Survivor's too who could not address their Survival without the guilt for having done so.
Whatever it was that mapped out their Survival, be it Luck or Fate, they hav secured a World entire for having done so. Whatever trick life played upon them to allow them their Survival, they owe it to themselves to fully recognise that they defeated the greatest technological slaughter house in history, be that Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka or where ever Hitler's reach sought them.
"..I swore that I would never set foot on German soil again. I was consumed by a boundless hatred of anything German." Anita Lasker-Wallfisch.
But Anita, who afforded us an Inherited Truth, did return, and in some way went toward reconciling her own feelings for what an ostensibly German nation did to her and 6,000,000 others of her fellow Jews. On Wednesday January 31st. 2018 Anita was once more in Germany and, before the Deutscher Bundestag, she gave an imassioned plea to the World. This is the body of that speech given by The Holocaust Survivor, Anita Lasker-Wallfisch.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Dear Friends and Family,
Thank you for inviting me to say a few words here in the Bundestag. I am one of the rapidly dwindling number of eyewitnesses to the catastrophe which befell us all those years ago.
No other genocide is as comprehensively documented as the Holocaust. There are hours of interviews with survivors, countless reports that you can read, should you wish to. And yet there are still the deniers, people who claim that all the accounts are fabricated and that the Holocaust never happened. They even send someone to Birkenau to scratch at the walls in the ruins of the gas chambers in order to produce proof that none of this is true. The reality is different. In January, 73 years ago, Auschwitz was liberated and the crimes against innocent people way beyond imagination gradually came to light. The scale of the catastrophe simply defied comprehension.
Six million is a number too big to grasp. it is easier to identify with an individual fate. So if I may, I would like to describe, in a few key words, our career as survivors of Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. Renate and I were born in this country, so we are German. Our father was a lawyer and notary at the Oberlandesgericht the Higher Regional Court and our mother was a gifted violinist. We were three daughters, and we all learned to play a musical instrument. I played the cello with great enthusiasm. My sister Renate with somewhat less enthusiasm the violin.
There were some family rules which, as a child, I did not understand at all and, to be honest, found rather stupid. On Sundays, for example, we would only speak French. On Saturday afternoons, my family would come together to read the classics and my father would recount his experiences of fighting at the front in the First World War, when he was awarded the Iron Cross, and we would play chess. We owed it to our family name, for my uncle Edward Lasker was a Grand Master in America.
And then it all came to an abrupt end. Radical exclusion. There were notices everywhere:
“.Jews not welcome”.
We were no longer allowed to use the swimming baths or sit on park benches, and we had to hand in our bicycles. Jewish men were required to add the name “Israel”, and women “Sarah”, to their names. We were forced out of our home. Then, into the Middle Ages: we had to wear a yellow star, and I was spat at in the street and called a dirty Jew. Our father, an incurable optimist, could not believe what was happening. Surely the Germans cannot go along with this madness?
In the museum at Auschwitz, there are vast glass cabinets full of human hair, toothbrushes, eye glasses and even prosthetic limbs. Where did they come from? From Jewish soldiers who had fought at the front. This was the thanks they got from the Fatherland.
Then in 1938, there was Kristallnacht and one knew that one cannot stay here.
But it was too late. We were trapped. The mass shootings of Jews began soon afterwards, in 1939, with the occupation of Poland; then in 1942, the infamous Wannsee Conference took place. Supposedly cultured men sat around the table and discussed, in earnest, how best to rid the world of millions of people 1,000,000's of Jews. The only problem apparently concerned those of mixed blood what to do with those who were only half Jewish? Should they be murdered too?
By now, there were regular deportations of Jews from all the territories under German occupation. People were being sent to Auschwitz from as far away as Greece. Our parents were deported on 9 April 1942. Of course, we wanted to stay together, go with them. But our father wisely said no. “Where we are going, one gets there soon enough.”
Needless to say, we never saw them again. I was 16 years old.
So, my sister and I were now alone. We were sent to an orphanage, absolutely determined not to let it break our spirit, not to wait for somebody to take us away to be murdered simply because we were Jews. We were conscripted to work in a paper factory. There were French prisoners of war working there as well. We soon made contact and that’s how our career as forgers began, making counterfeit papers that the French POWs used to escape.
When we realised that we were being watched, we decided to try to escape as well. Our aim was to reach the unoccupied zone in France, travelling on forged papers - an absolutely absurd idea when I look back now. But what had we got to lose? Nothing at all.
Of course, this last desperate attempt was bound to fail. We made it as far as Breslau railway station but were arrested by the Gestapo as we attempted to board the train. I’ll be brief. We spent an entire year in prison. It was extremely lucky not to be sent straight to Auschwitz. We were to be tried in a Sondergericht – a special court. I think we have one of my father’s former colleagues to thank for that, a certain Dr Lukaschek, if I remember right. By then, the Buergerliches Gesetzbuch, the Civil Code, no longer applied and under the new rules, it was better to be classed as a criminal than a Jew. Because criminals were given a trial; Jews were fair game.
We were tried on charges of attempted escape, helping the enemy and forgery. The public defence lawyer didn’t show up and as strange as it might sound today, we didn’t want anyone to defend us anyway. The longer the sentence, the better. We already knew that prison would be preferable to a concentration camp.
It wasn’t very pleasant, it’s true: we were locked in our cells 24 hours a day, the only break from the monotony a half-hour shuffle round the prison yard in total silence, hands behind our backs, but prisoners were not murdered, at least not as a rule.
The sentence was three and a half years of hard labour for Renate and eighteen months in prison for me. We didn’t serve out our sentences. After a while, we were sent to Auschwitz separately. It’s hard to believe, but I was required to sign a document saying that I was going to Auschwitz voluntarily!
By then, people were aware of what was going on in Auschwitz but one simply did not want to believe it. Alas it was true.
So when I arrived in Auschwitz, I tried to prepare for the worst an almost impossible task.
But events took a different turn. I was not sent to Auschwitz on one of the mass transports of Jews, who were sentenced to live or die on arrival at the ramp. I arrived in Auschwitz as a convicted criminal. And it was better to be a criminal than a Jew. We were Karteihäftlinge we had criminal records. My head was shaved and the number 69388 was tattooed on my left arm. Anita Sara Lasker no longer existed.
It is hard to believe, but there was music in Auschwitz and it was urgently needed to find someone who could play the cello. So I became a member of the camp orchestra in Birkenau. The director was Alma Rosé, the niece of Gustav Mahler and daughter of Arnold Rosé, the leader of the Vienna Philharmonic for many years until he was “dismissed”. Why? Because he was a Jew.
The orchestra was based in Block 12, close to the end of the road into the camp, just a few metres from Crematorium I and with an unobstructed view of the ramp. We could see everything: the arrival ceremonies, the selections, the columns of people walking towards the gas chambers, soon to be transformed into smoke.
In 1944, the transports from Hungary arrived and the gas chambers could no longer keep pace. As Danuta Czech describes in her remarkable book Auschwitz Chronicle, 1939-1945: ‘The camp commandant Höß ordered 5 pits to be dug for the burning of corpses. So many transports arrived that sometimes, there was no space in Crematorium V for all the bodies. If there was no room in the gas chambers, people were shot instead. Many were thrown alive into the burning pits. This I also saw with my own eyes.
Even if you were not sent straight to the gas chamber, no one survived in Auschwitz for long – the most you could expect was about three months. But if they needed you for some reason, you had a tiny chance of survival. I had that chance I was “needed”.
We played marches at the camp gate for the prisoners who worked in the nearby factories IG Farben, Buna, Krupp etc. and we gave Sunday concerts around the camp for the people who worked there or anyone else who wanted to hear us play. For many, hearing music being performed in this living hell was the ultimate insult. But for others, perhaps, it was a chance to dream of another world, if only for a few moments.
Renate had been sentenced to hard labour and arrived in Auschwitz later than I did. We managed to find each other, completely by chance and against all the odds: Birkenau is unbelievably big. I can hardly describe the state my sister was in: a skeleton with open wounds on her legs, which simply never healed. Of course, we all had typhus. There was no escaping the lice. I will not even talk about the hunger. In some ways, a quiet death would have been a merciful release. Amazingly, she survived.
Suddenly, we were told: “Line up!” Jews on one side, Aryans on the other. That could only mean one thing – the gas chamber. But we were mistaken. We were loaded into a cattle truck. Renate quite simply came with us. We were determined not to be separated again. We were driven west to Bergen-Belsen.
Auschwitz was cleaned up and the gas chambers were dynamited, albeit not entirely successfully. Who would have believed that we would ever leave Auschwitz alive and not as smoke?
Was it any better in Belsen? Well, all I can say is that it was different. In Auschwitz, people were murdered in the most sophisticated ways; in Belsen, people simply perished. We existed, surrounded by rotting corpses, and waited for it all to end. And then on 15 April 1945, the British arrived and we were liberated. I was 19 years old.
I often talk about my experiences to young people in schools here and not only the young. One of the best questions that I’m always asked is, what happened next? Did you go home? No! Home no longer existed. We were that new species Displaced Persons, with all the problems that this entails. What was to be done with all these people? I don’t need to spell out the answer.
In 2000, the international conference was held in Stockholm and a decision was taken to make 27 January the official Holocaust Memorial Day and provide mandatory Holocaust education in schools. The mood was one of great hope for a better future.
It is now more than seventy years since the Holocaust, and the perpetrators’ generation is no longer alive. We cannot really take it amiss if today’s young people refuse to identify with these crimes. But to deny that this is part of German history as well?
That must not happen.
More to the point, cannot happen. And as for talk of drawing a line: what are we meant to draw the line under? What happened, happened, and it cannot be expunged by drawing a line. And it is not about feelings of guilt; they are quite out of place. It is about making certain that it can never never ever happen again here.
The eminent historian Professor Yehuda Bauer said in his address to the Bundestag that people seldom learn from history and that the Holocaust is no exception but that the Holocaust introduced a new dimension that had never been seen before: industrial mass murder. Human beings were, quite literally, recycled.
After the cataclysm that was the Holocaust, Germany’s conduct was exemplary. There was no denial. Anti-Semitism was no longer in vogue. Now, times have changed and today’s world is a world of refugees. For us, all those years ago, the borders were hermetically sealed, whereas now, they have been opened thanks to an incredibly generous and courageous humanitarian gesture made here.
Today, we remember the millions of innocent victims. But we should also remember the courageous helpers. There were some not enough but there were some: people who put their own lives at risk by helping others. We should not forget that either.
Anti-Semitism is a virus which is two thousand years old and apparently incurable. It mutates to take on new forms: religion, race. Only today, one does not necessarily say ‘Jews.’ Today it is the Israelis, without really understanding the context or knowing what is going on behind the scenes.
Jews are criticised for not having defended themselves, which simply confirms how impossible it is to imagine what it was like for us back then. And then the Jews are criticised for defending themselves. It’s scandalous that Jewish schools, even Jewish kindergartens have to have a police guard.
We should be asking why.
There are no excuses and no explanations for what happened all those years ago. All that remains is hope: the hope that ultimately, one day, reason will prevail.
I have been invited to come to Germany many times over the years and have very positive contact with young people. On my last visit, I had a less positive experience. I was in Bavaria, in Rosenheim. Two truly admirable history teachers, both women, had organised a reading tour to schools in Traunstein, doing so with great enthusiasm and no official funding at all. The plan was for two very different eye-witnesses to speak. One was Niklas Frank, son of Hans Frank, Governor-General of occupied Poland, also known as the Jew butcher, and myself.
We met in the restaurant at my hotel and talked about the forthcoming visits. A man nearby had obviously been listening and was furious. He came over to our table and complained that we were spoiling the pleasant atmosphere with all this talk of Auschwitz. And so on. Something like this would maybe not have been possible, five years ago, let’s say so be careful.
Sometimes, I think that the orchestra in Auschwitz was a kind of microcosm, a society in miniature that we can learn from. All the nationalities were represented. It was a Tower of Babel. Who can I talk to? Only to people who speak German or French. I can’t speak Russian or Polish, so I won’t talk to them. So instead, we eye each other mistrustfully and automatically assume that the other person is hostile; we don’t think to ask why the other person has ended up in Auschwitz as well.
Many years after these events, I am in close contact with one of these other prisoners, a Polish woman, a pure Aryan who played the violin in the orchestra. We never spoke to each other at the time. But thanks to an incredibly badly written book about the Women’s Orchestra, we came into contact again and met up in Krakow. We still have problems finding a common language but we talk and write to each other in English. In short, we have become friends and have found that we have far more in common than that which divides us. Perhaps this can serve as an example for today’s problems. Talk to each other. Build bridges.
And as for the resurgent anti-Semitism: ask yourselves who are the Jews? Why do we come across them everywhere? Is it perhaps because they were driven out of their homeland two thousand years ago and dispersed across the world, and have been searching ever since for a place where they hoped to live in peace and not to be murdered? “Jews” does not work as a collective term. Jews are just people people with a very unusual history, it’s true so often the scapegoat, persecuted, murdered, defamed.
What is positive is that on the 18th of this month, this House unanimously adopted a resolution stating that anti-Semitism must be combated resolutely. We can only hope that you win this fight. The future lies in your hands.
Eight years ago, Shimon Peres, the then President of the State of Israel, gave an address to this House in which he said this:
“..While my heart is breaking at the memory of the atrocious past my eyes envision a common future for a world that is young, a world free of all hatred. A world in which the words ‘war’ and ‘anti-Semitism’ will be dead words.” Utopia?
There were endless difficulties to overcome before we could leave Germany; it took almost a year, and I swore that I would never set foot on German soil again. I was consumed by a boundless hatred of anything German. As you see, I broke my oath many, many years ago and I have no regrets. It’s quite simple: hate is poison and ultimately, you poison yourself.
I shall take my leave of you now, with many thanks for your invitation and appreciation for the dignity and openness with which you mark this day of remembrance every year.
Somewhere, now perhaops it is in her book
Anita Lasker-Wallfisch - Inherit the Truth,
I recall her stating that soon there will be none of the Survivors left, and that what will remain will be books and history. Well I am here to 'Inherit her Truth' and I will add to History the Remembrance of those like Anita, who brought her story forward, fought her demons and managed a little reconcilliation with her past?
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Sun, January 27, 2019 11:39:33
SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger at The Wannsee Conference.
"..Kovno June 27th. 1941. ..not easy at first to set ..extensive pogrom against ..Jews. Klimatis ..leader of ..partisan unit ..succeeded in starting pogroms on ..basis of advice given ..by ..Vorkommando ..Kovno ..no German order or German instigation was noticed from ..outside. During ..first pogrom ..June 26th. ..Lithuanian partisans did away with more than 1,500 Jews ..set fire to several synagogues ..burned down a Jewish ..district consisting ..60 houses. ..approximately 2,300 Jews ..rendered harmless in a similar way." SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Franz Walther Stahlecker.
Perhaps I should have stated this headline more accurately. History knows that the mass Murderer SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger was not present at The Wannsee Conference. On the other hand, those like SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Georg Karl Eberhard Schongarth and SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Rudolf Lange, both these mass murderer's were conspicuously present. Lange, for his part, had become expert in mass shooting as witnessed by all too many Jews of Latvia, from its capital Riga and on into Rumbuli. Schongarth too brought similar expertise of his own mass killing operations from Poland, Byelorussia and from within Russia itself. What both these mass murderers brought to the table was what they clearly afforded as their personal advice based on their own intimate experience.
"..things I've experienced. In Latvia ..near Dvinsk ..there were mass executions of Jews carried out by ..ss. ..about 15 ss men ..perhaps 60 Latvians ..known to be ..most brutal people in ..world. ..one Sunday morning ..kept hearing ..salvos followed by small arms fire. ..Men ..Women Children ..counted off ..stripped naked. ..executioners first laid all ..clothes in one pile. Then 20 women had to take up their position ..naked ..on ..edge of ..trench. ..shot ..fell ..into it." Lieutenant General Heinrich Kittel.
What this achieved was in the delivery of that very evidence that clearly corroborated what an SS Standartenfuhrer like Jaeger could also boast. Jaeger, in a very detailed article called The Jaeger Report, which was forwarded through the command structure of the SS toward Hitler and Himmler's desk, would not be at all repellent to those now seeking to expand further and wider the killing spree. Some in History though, who seek now to abandon the evidence of The Holocaust commencement to a Wannsee date which is chronologically placed after the killing process had long become established, in both factually incorrect and wrong. For the document itself, I have no need to add any further to the dimension of atrocity associated with this Historical Artefact.
"..At ..latest in early July 1941 ..order was issued to wear yellow stars ..Jews ..no longer allowed to use sidewalks ..public transportation ..enter public buildings and other public installations. Soon ..Gestapo required ..Jewish elders to present themselves in their office. 4 ..5 persons went there ..Dr. Elchanan Elkes ..Rabbi Yakov Moshe Shmukler ..Rabbi Samuel Abba Snieg ..latter because ..Chief Rabbi of Kovno ..Mr. Avraham Duber Kahana Shapiro ..could excuse himself on grounds of age and infirmity." Jehoshua Rosenfeld.
It is a conscientious detail with the sheer rendition of the extreme and callous nature of Hitler and his regime's acceptance of the rights Hitler would choose to have over the life and death of the Jewish People. Anyone else Hitler took a supreme dislike to faced a similar end, and that is recognised within the framework of some 50/70 million killed during World War II. For those of you who have previously come across this detailed accounting of the Destructive Process in relation to the Lithuanian Baltic region, and as it pertains to this report, it is a shocking enough indictment to have to study and research further without recognising the human consequences of what we are scrutinising. One issue I have though is with the countenance given over to the position of The Wannsee Conference itself.
"..first day of my stay in Kaunus Lithuanian Lieutenant Bronius Norkus with his detachment had ..shot ..3,000 Jewish Men in Kaunus' VII Fort. ..following day. ..Jews ..were still lying in ..yard. ..a horrible sight. ..3,000 persons." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
There is an identification with the many who insist that The Holocaust only became mobilised after this conference. This will somehow allow for a superficially suspension of The Holocaust term to the subsidiary context of a Second World War. This war was fought and conducted regardless of the Jewish existence that was being systematically destroyed. Also, and it is rather disingenuous for anyone to even consider that The Holocaust itself commenced at the behest of The Wannsee Conference when it did not. Clearly, when such a document actively disputes this, we must more carefully align The Holocaust to when it first established the conducted Murders of the Jews of Europe to a date that is pertinent to its enacting. As each and every strand of Hitler's Reich was to become further embroiled in the tenets of this destruction, we are exposed to the catastrophe from an earlier date than many would wish to calculate from.
"..After returning to my office I had Norkus come to me and told him that he was to refrain from such independent shootings. ..he was to contact ..head of ..Stapo ..SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Schmitt ..or Obersturmfuhrer Joachim Hamann regarding ..execution of any measures ..also ..shootings. ..he was to take care of burying ..Jews previously shot." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
As all strands of the Reich steeped itself into the Catastrophe that had been falling upon the Jews of Poland since 1939, timing is a necessary tool in enabling the fullest truth to become recognised. It is clear also that from Jaeger's own efforts in inciting these attacks, these were further augmented by his very presence in Kaunus on July 2nd. 1941. From then on, this documented evidence from before Wannsee, and from July 4th. 1941 in fact, Jewish Lithuania was being obliterated. When in the proximity of the VII Fort in Kaunus, known also as Kovno and Kowno, this was evidence of Hitler's ultimate plan for the Jewish People, annihilation. What was conducted almost immediately upon Hitler's venture further East, after Barbarossa, was also a highly enacted and murderous assault upon the Jews already being slaughtered in Poland since 1939. SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger, who as Kommander of Einsatzkommando 3 of the Einsatzgruppe A, has clearly composed this detailed analysis of the very Slaughter he had accomplished.
"..final solution of ..Jewish question in ..area of ..Reichskommissariat Ostland will be in accordance with ..instructions ..my address of July 27th. 1941 in Kovno." Heinrich Lohse.
Jaeger brought the massed extermination of the Jews here in the Baltic region above and beyond what Polish Jewry had previously been subjected to. Jaeger clearly evidenced the essential demands Hitler placed upon him and his cohorts and all of this brought killing to a newer level of extermination. Exceeding some 138,000 Lithuanian and other Jews, all brutally Murdered, the excruciating detail marked humanity with a very deep laceration, if not the complete decapitation of its moral grounding. But this was not the only report filed by Jaeger, for which Hitler surely was aware of. The mechanics of mass murder always required that there be copious amounts of written accounting, despite the famed page in history that must not be written. It must be noted that Jaeger turned up in Lithuania and in Kaunus in particular, when local antisemitic collaborationists were conducting their own series of pogroms against their own Jewish Citizens.
"..on Thursday August 14th. 1941 ..at 6:00 in ..morning ..trucks with German SS ..drove into ..City and apprehended ..1,000 Jews ..brought to ..yellow jail ..and in ..afternoon ..shot in ..IV Fort. ..this operation ..Action of ..1,000 ..Thursday Action." Jehoshua Rosenfeld.
It then becomes clear that when any church is heavily involved in the activities raged against the Jewish People, it is incumbent upon all churches, which professes its humanitarian or charitable status, it is inherent upon their own dogma that they are obliged to assist. Here in Kovno, Lithuania, a particular Bishop, Vincentas Brizgys, the preliminary head of the Catholic Church of Lithuania refused openly to assist the Jews of his own community. True there are some who will point to those Jews who were saved by some intervention but on the other hand, while Lithuanian Police Battalions roamed amongst their Jewish Citizens killing them willingly, many of these individuals were active priests of that same catholic church, no doubt reflecting heavily upon the bishop's words of encouragement.
"..The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
August 16th. 1941
Operational Situation Report USSR No. 54
The attitude of the Church regarding the Jewish Question is, in general, clear. In addition, Bishop Brisgys has forbidden all clergymen to help Jews in any form whatsoever. He rejected several Jewish delegations who approached him personally and asked for his intervention with the German authorities. In the future he will not meet with any Jews at all. Conversion of Jews to the Catholic faith has not taken place so far. The Church would also object to this type of conversion. It is convinced that the Jews would not come to be converted out of conviction but because of the possible advantages connected with it."
It is clear, even if the German pronouncement which was afforded it was merely a rhetoric from this church, it dealt a deadly blow to Jewish hopes. Whole swathes of Jewish existence could not look to any church to seek shelter, let alone a catholic one which had filtered out its own christian compassion. At this time, for Rabbi S. Snaig, formerly Chief Rabbi to the Lithuanian Army, and many other Rabbi's with the same zeal to save their own flock, they too attempted to extract some form of that very human compassion from a fellow of god. For Rabbi Snaig however, he was clearly denied and his delegation rebuffed as the procession of Jewish Lithuania was catapulted into oblivion as the words of a catholic bishop must have sounded with apoplexy, the wrongs that were to be done as the church stood aside and witnessed with complicit acquiescence.
"..With all my regrets. I cannot do it. ..this may endanger ..position of ..catholic church in Lithuania. ..a responsibility I cannot take." Bishop Vincentas Brizgys.
That all too many within these local Baltic States dealt with such regrets, the Jews of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were victimised by their own neighbours who conducted these outrages with little provocation nor inducement. All of course ensured for those now enacting Hitler's expressed wish, that complicity would become duplicitous for so many who were unrestrained by a church they professed to have communion with. In case of any future prosecution of the Hitlerian attempt to Murder all the Jews of Europe, all too easily the shrouded indictment of church and state collusion would join forces to deny their fullest implications in the mass murder of their fellow nationals, on the basis of their Jewish status. With this physical incitement to procure a final settlement of the Jewish People led or collaborated with by nationalist elements of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, they simply formed into murdering their Jewish neighbours with far too much ease.
"..citizens in ..occupied zones ..including 1,000's of Ukrainians and Balts ..not only colluded in ..genocide but welcomed and abetted it." Catherine Anne Merridale.
Here too, and in Kovno in particular, more than 4,000 local Jewish People were rounded up and beaten to death prior to der Einsatz aktionen. The visible excitement of those on-lookers, many of them Einsatz killer's of the future or Police Battalion Murderer's, were witnesses to the horror that is gut wrenching. As it is shown in cold relief, its photographed form is an accusation of an open wound which cannot be healed. Back with this official document however, which shockingly affords itself a clearer affront to us all as it adds to the exclusive nature of The Final Solution for the Jews, we are never spared the nausea of such cold and calculating atrocity. From here, in a typed script we can see its measured progress as it leads relentlessly toward The Holocaust.
"..my turn came. Naked ..I approached ..pit ..I could hear ..screams of people ..still alive. ..a shot. ..thought I was dead. ..I fell a split second before he fired ..and ..bullet missed me. I could hear Schweinberger. ..I tore myself out of ..grave." Motel Gdud.
This troubling document is, for these Jews who are detailed in its ledger, their's is a lasting and final legacy that was not to be written. As these Jews had been clinically removed from existence, the document itself is the exacting detail of what the many 1,000's of German Einsatzkommando were involved in. Along the length and breadth of Hitler's advances into the North, South and East of his proposed worldview venture, mass murder was enacted that would set the seal on The Wannsee Conference and would not be the stage from which to begin what had already commenced as The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, The Holocaust.
"..implementation of ..Aktionen ..an organizational problem. ..Jews ..site ..selected ..pits dug. ..distance from ..concentration points to ..pits ..4 - 5 klms. ..Jews ..brought to ..place of execution in groups of 500 ..with a distance of at least 2 klms between groups" SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
Here in Lithuania, as in Estonia and Latvia also, local auxiliaries stepped up to the plate and were heavily involved in the shootings. As the escalation of numbers grew these auxiliary groups were augmented by various Waffen SS, Einsatz, Police and Wehrmacht personnel whose mechanisms, controls and coercions to further violence were clearly in operation for some 6 months before Wannsee. Notwithstanding, as an Historical document too, The Jaeger Report, which highlights the systematic nature of the assault upon the Jews of the entire region, it is written in such cold blood, that its depiction is in the form of an accounting which takes no notice of the very human fracture of decency, morality or ethical concern. The document is indeed reprehensible as the strictures of efficacy were so overlaid with a hatred by those who accomplished what Hitler had so vocally demanded. That these legions excelled in bestiality, brutality and excess is clearly identifying the inhumanity deeply rooted in populations.
"..At ..meeting ..order was issued that all Jews were to move to a part of ..Viljampole city district until August 15th. 1941. Thus 4 to 5 weeks were available for resettlement. ..resettlement of 30,000 to 35,000 Jews in such short time without ..necessary means of transportation ..without sufficient organization was ..confusing. ..On Friday August 15th.1941 ..Ghetto was hermetically sealed by barbed wire and guards." Jehoshua Rosenfeld.
All of this lack of human concern, which is clearly abandoned here in a document so vivid with depiction of the terms of reference, it is so obviously an exercise aimed singularly against the entire presence of Jewish existence that was still at large. The question arises too as to how we assess this Slaughter by a single Einsatz detachment, when the numbers detailed are so catastrophic to the Jewish eminence that once resided in The Baltic States and before this carnage was played out. Here alone, and while millions of Russian POW's were left starving to death in hastily erected cages, estimates suggest that aligned to this Jaeger effort, some 2,600,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were shot and Murdered by der Einsatzgruppe. Bands of EinsatzKommando, Police Battalions, Waffen SS and Wehrmacht troops were roaming freely in Russia, Byelorussia, the Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia and as detailed, here in Lithuania, were murdering Jews and other's with impunity.
"..shootings were carried out under ..direction of Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Lange ..Commander ..SD and Gestapo ..Latvia." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Friedrich Jeckeln.
These roving bands of killers could ably rely upon the logistic effort of a German military machine that was supposedly detailed to engage only on a War footing. But before we finally arrive at such an unprecedented horror as Jaeger will detail, we recognise that by Saturday 25th. October 1941, conditions for the Jews swelled so exponentially and to an extreme of defined horrors, their presence in the entire region would be nearly obliterated. Under the supervision of SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr.Rudolf Lange, the Concentration Camp at Riga, which was originally planned to contain 25,000 Jews, had a population of more than 30,000 Jews from Hitler's Reich and his Greater Reich. Hitler, if we care to recognise what he clearly recorded as evidenced, was moving gradually both internally and externally from the rhetoric of destruction to the removal of all Jews from any presence whatsoever in an annihilatory capacity.
"..goal of making Lithuania free of Jews could only be attained through ..deployment of a raiding commando with selected men under ..leadership of SS Obersturmfuhrer Hamann ..who completely and entirely adopted my goals and understood ..importance of ensuring ..cooperation of ..Lithuanian partisans and ..competent civilian positions." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
The Riga camp itself was similar in every aspect as any Concentration Camp that had existed in Germany. From their first inception as containment centre's, and on into Hitler's terror apparatus, they emerged as camp's that would deal a deadly blow to all the Jews they encountered. Here though, and while we clearly acknowledge that all Camps were a place of death and destruction for those Jews sent to them, they were not specifically The Death Camps. These particular factory's of destruction, that were erected in Poland, are exclusively designed for the eradication of all the Jews of Europe. It is not all that obvious to the onlooker though, that while Jews were systematically sought out for Slaughter, it was within Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka that it manifested itself into a mechanised destruction and upon an industrial scale that is unprecedented and unparalleled in all of history.
"..several high ranking SS Kommanders from ..Himmler's RSHA ..arrived. ..one ..a doctor. ..I described to them ..site with 1,000's ..dead. ..an SS Oberfuhrer ..as well as ..others were in agreement with these shootings." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
Also, and while some 5% of those Jews Murdered in The Holocaust, and by bullet decree, this singular atrocity had been conducted and was therefore attributable to both Jaeger and his EinsatzKommando 3, a matter of some 300,000 Murdered Jews. That the paring of Kommander and Kommando form part of this Jaeger document, it is not to be the end of the very detail of what both Jaeger and his command achieved. Also, what we cannot ever witness nor envisage in the sum total of this documents detail, is the very horror that is being clearly measured and collated in this document. Nor do we gain any insight into the further excesses of both Jaeger and his killers from it, who then went on to murder even more Jewish People as they moved on from the Baltic's and into Byelorussia.
"..November 30th. 1941 ..10,600 Jews ..shot ..Riga. ..HSSPF. ..EK took part." OSR No. 156.
When that role of the Einsatzgruppe was all but running its course, and The Final Solution of The Jewish Solution would continue, it would be superseded by the role of The Death Camps in an ever more catastrophic way. While the earliest experiment with the lethal effects of the death Camps was being explored, and here Chelmno was in operation prior to Wannsee, the gassing of the Jewish People sent there makes it clear that the fullest ramifications of The Holocaust, and for the Jewish People of Europe had a much earlier definition than what any conference would latterly issue or convey. The Holocaust itself was in full swing, the mass murder of the Jews of Europe was well under way, and Wannsee simply set the seal on what had been explored and what would be fully enhanced.
"..group that faced ..Nazis’ most concentrated violence ..a cruelty unparalleled even in this most vicious war ..was ..Jews." Catherine Anne Merridale.
An unrepentant Hitler would merely seek to secure, with Wannsee, the fullest duplicity of every facet of German society in the most cataclysmic and seismic event ever to be perpetrated against the civilising influence of humanity. By definition then, The Holocaust of the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe had commenced, not with The Wannsee Conference as some might suggest, but at the very moment a Jew was Murdered because Hitler had demanded it. Of course, with the presence of both Schongarth and Lange, the fuller credentials of the ability of Hitler's legions to deliver, on The Final Solution of that Jewish Question, were roundly evidenced before this audience. It was a meeting of similar minds that was both dutifully pliant and well aware of what had been striking at Jewish persistence since the 1930's.
"..December 22nd. 1941 ..English radio broadcasts ..during Russian offensive ..1,600 cities and towns ..taken back from ..Germans ..Germans flee 2o kilometres a day ..now 400 miles from Rostov. ..Will we hold out. Will we endure. our fate." Herman Kruk.
Here, around a table at Wannsee, we too are made aware that the enforced emigration of the Jews of Germany, Austria and the wider European Continent was to be the bloodiest murder for the Jews in the East. Here too, it is clear that the World would come to know of these events immediately, as they were played out cloaked by the field of battle. All of this was not simply common knowledge amongst these protagonists at the conference table, but was deeply imbedded within the intelligence services of the allied nations. Intercepts of these OSR's, the active Operational Situation Reports of the Einsatzgruppe in the occupied territory's, filed past officer's of the Army and then onto their respective commander's in chief's, president's and prime minister's of the Allied Nations of Europe. The scale of duplicity is conspicuous by its very absence from the exploratory nature of the research we undertake to establish the fullest truth and its ramifications.
"..Some ..dear and close to us ..are no longer with us. Your Aunt Hannah and Uncle Arieh were killed with 1,500 souls of ..Ghetto on October 4th. 1941." Dr. Elchanan Elkes.
We also have to consider too, that amongst the multifarious enterprises involved in the killing process thus far, it was essential to separate out the Systematic Slaughter from the capacity to gain financially from the end result. For that reason, Hitler, and through his various agencies, sought to legislate both the essential Murder process and the secondary consideration, the wealth to be gained from the mass Murder of European Jewry. Hence the fullest emphasis is placed on not only considering the economic account ahead of the final settlement, but The Final Solution of The Jewish Question also became an economy on its own. Though the document itself was type written on December 1st. 1941., such was the view of the witness onlookers, that the Jewish diminishing presence did not hold sway and especially with Stalin nor Russia, the Jews as a whole were not recognised as a particular group being significantly targeted.
Berlin Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories To:
Reichskommissar for Ostland re:
Jewish question The Jewish Question has presumably been clarified meanwhile by means of verbal discussion. In principle, economic considerations are not to be taken into account in the settlement of the problem. It is further requested that any questions that arise be settled directly with the Higher SS and Police Leader.
In effect, the Jewish People, who are fundamentally the root and branch of The Holocaust had become marginalised as more routinely the secondary victims than their 'special status' must certainly dictate. In truth, while the fuller evidence was made aware to allied leader's, who then chose to ignore the principle of humanity, their concentration was fixed on engaging Hitler only on the battlefield. Here though Braeutigam, proved the battle field for the Jewish People was to be their very existence, a systematic assailing of their integrity as human beings, being fully removed from our presence. Braeutigam, who was a lawyer and served and worked for Alfred Rosenberg's Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, was well placed to fashion decrees subservient to Hitler's needs for The Final Solution. As a German career diplomat too, Braeutigam was a representative of the German Foreign Office, Auswaertiges Amt.
"..January 17th. 1942. Today I received a formal invitation from Jewish artists in ..Ghetto ..first evening of ..local artistic circle will be held ..on Sunday 18th January in ..auditorium of ..Real Gymnasium ..Rudnicka 6. I felt offended. ..cultivating art is ..a good deed. But here in ..doleful situation of ..Vilna Ghetto ..in ..shadow of Ponar ..where of ..76,000 of Vilna Jews only 15,000 remain ..here ..at this moment ..this is a disgrace." Hermann Kruk.
Braeutigam mirrored what was Hitler's intention in inveigling all ministry's in the deeds of mass murdering the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, be they Men, Women or Their Children. The darkest deed was being done, it was being morphed from continuous intimidation through to assault and on to euthanizing and from that premise, of what could be achieved, the Jewish People were led all the way to mass murder of as many of these Jews as would be achieved. Here, in places like Vilna it remains an incredible success, that any form of culture could be maintained. But not only was a formative culture maintained, it actually enhanced the living spirit of the Jews in the midst of a cultural collapse that existed for them inside and outside the Ghetto. Each Ghetto they were sanctioned into, could not languish in despair for too long without jeopardising the hope that remained a constant for them. With any such cultural an event, this proved to lift the spirits of what remained of Vilna Jewry and as we see later, Hermann Kruk became an indelible part of that Cultural basis for extending Jewish Resistance to German insistence that they simply perish.
"..20 writers ..22 stage artists ..16 musicians and singers ..6 painters ..have joined ..association. ..purpose ..to provide mutual aid and an inducement to artistic creation in ..context of ,,Ghetto." Hermann Kruk.
Then, and when on Tuesday 20th. January 1942 with what became known as ‘The Wannsee Conference’, we recognise that the murder toll was already in an ascendancy. Here at this time, and beyond what humanity should have been incapable of, the telegraph wires were replete with mass murder and the pages of dissertations were written in clearly monstrous detail. Here before the mantle of history was a thesis of such enormous destruction, their pages weigh heavily upon all of humanity to this day. So, as we consider what this Conference is to be representative of, it is from a position as responsive to the aktionen that was taking place widely, and against all of European Jewry. Wannsee proves nothing but the embroiling of the entire administration of the Reich in the Slaughter with 1,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, and more, already confined. This conference is not linked then with the commencement of the slaughter at all.
"..extermination ..Jews ..Salaspils. ..makes me ..accessory to ..crime. ..Jews ..shot ..by ..my SD ..Security Police. ..Dr. Lange ..directly in charge of ..shootings. Other officers ..reported to me on ..shooting of Jews ..were ..Jost ..Pifrader ..Fuchs." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Friedrich Jeckeln.
We see here too though, that in Hermann Kruk's Vilna, and in full view of the Nazi aim to destroy them, the Jews stood before The Holocaust, ahead of The Wannsee Conference and all that Hitler would direct against them and were bled dry before execution. Not withstanding this, many Jews established a resistance to the bleak and clearly pessimistic outlook. Here too, while I remonstrate with history and suggest that the Conference itself should not be, as some would have, the commencement of that very exacting and establishing killing process, the commencement date will be consigning Jews to the riches of The Holocaust for eternity. Clearly, what Jaeger had set before the desk for Hitler to pore over, Lange and Schongarth would be able to deliver to the table. As their evidence of the detailed destruction that was then to be set before the Heydrich and Eichmann agenda here at Wannsee, history must move the Jews Murdered prior to this out of The Holocaust term.
"..goal ..EK 2 ..radical solution ..Jewish problem ..execution of all Jews." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Rudolf Lange.
This conference, which is to be a pivotal moment in The Holocaust, does not wholly define the method nor means of the slaughter already in motion. Then, while the Vilna Ghetto at this exact time was being represented artistically, and from amongst its own, these included Shabse Shabtai Blacher, Yankev Gerstein, Hirsh Gutgestalt, Hermann Kruk, Zelig Kalmanowicz, Yankev Sher and Abraham Sutzkever, we are stretched to comprehend further the Jewish resilience. We realize also that while der Einsatzgruppe intervention would go on to Slaughter more than 1,250,000 Jews, it was only a provisional solution and was not yet ‘The Final Solution!’ An emerging declaration, toward a final Jewish ‘resettlement’, which had taken the Jewish People toward their mass murder by der Einsatzgruppe had been superseded by the murderous deeds of other's of Hitler's fledgling killers. The killing was no less accumulative nor brutal throughout the entire Baltic region but would significantly fail to reach the killing immensity of Hitler's Death Camp's.
"..all our family ..10 people all together ..except my 2 older Brothers and myself ..remained in Riga. ..in October 1941 ..all were taken to ..Riga Ghetto and killed during ..actions in ..Rumbula forest by ..German Nazis and their Latvian collaborators." Michael Genchik.
That this testimony has been replicated the length and breadth of Hitler's reach, brings forth the calamitous assault upon the very Jewish integrity in the World. That 6,000,000 of World Jewry who were consigned to such a destruction is tantamount to signalling the end of all civilisation. Here at Wannsee though, the deceleration of der Einsatzgruppe ‘Aktionen’ would follow, and in its wake, there would be a newer expectation from Hitler to achieve a more intense resolve. The correlated and corporate figures that were presented and assessed here at Wannsee, arrive as they acknowledge the achievements of der Einsatzgruppe in their murderous six month charge. Both Schongarth and Lange can vouch for the exactness and the magnitude of the murders already committed. Their inventory of destruction, was a prefixed scroll that would finally tabulate the murders of 6,000,000 Jewish People, and deliver The Holocaust away from the fledgling term of ‘The Final Solution of The Jewish Question’.
"..EK 3 ..achieved ..goal ..solving ..Jewish problem ..in Lithuania ..apart from working Jews ..their families. I wanted to eliminate ..working Jews ..their families as well." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
The much used euphemisms of emigration and ‘resettlement’, which remained even after Wannsee, now lay in their past tense of intention. Also, in as much as the bullet decree or the gassing van would be superseded by the static Gassing facility housed at 5 of the Death Camps, and whilst Chelmno was utilised wholly as a Gassing Van exercise, the learning progress gained by the Gassing Vans in the field would add weight to the emergence of the fully functioning Death Camps in Poland. As far as the efforts of der Einsatzgruppe was concerned now, as they continued with their ‘Aktionen’ through much of Eastern Europe, The Baltic States, Byelorussia, Russia and the Ukraine, and at least until expedience had made the depopulated action in the Countryside redundant, a bullet decree was never rescinded. However, inertia alone would not drive der Einsatzgruppe forces further East, though sweep after sweep of suppressed areas and clinical butchery of its Jewish presence was evidenced in intention as well as a desired demand.
"..It is true ..we are weak and helpless ..only answer to ..enemy is resistance. ..Better to die as ..fighters than to live at ..murderers’ mercy. ..Resistance to ..last breath." Abba Kovner.
Toward bolstering the faltering empirical claims that Hitler had made, der Einsatzgruppe accompanied by Waffen SS, Wehrmacht and Police Battalions cut a swathe through Jewish existence that Jewry has not recovered from. Of course, Hitler and his propaganda machinery's dissemination, offered much that could become interpreted so very differently. We know, however, that the truth of mass murder could not be stilled amidst the escalation of terms demonstrated in ‘The Final Solution of that Jewish Question’. As the Wannsee Conference got under way, there were fewer than 45,000 of Lithuania’s Jews left alive. The Wannsee figure itself added to this understanding while recording that 34,000 more of Lithuania's Jews were due to be dispatched in the coming months.
"..I have many blank spots in ..life of my Parents ..but now ..unfortunately ..there is no one I can ask. ..war parted us when I was only 17 years old ..and our destiny never brought us back together." Michael Genchik.
These Jews of Lithuania were already centred around holding areas, conurbations established within large urban ghettos. Vilna still held onto some 20,000 Jewish Lives. Kovno still had some 18,000 Jewish Lives within its confines. Siaulaii’s Jews amounted to no more than 5,500 souls left alive. In Oszmiana there was little more than 3,500 Jews left alive, while in Svencionys, there were a little over 500 Jews left alive in the whole of that Ghetto. So we can see that the momentum of annihilation had ground down Jewish persistence and this cannot be hidden beneath the paper exercise that was being confirmed in Wannsee. Added to these exacting confrontations with the annihilation proceeding against all of Jewry, what Michael Genchik delivers for us as he emerged from a Latvia he was born into, Eichmann could now confirm to Heydrich that barely 3,500 Latvian Jews were left alive.
"..an average 1,000 Jews were gassed daily. ..In many places Jews were deported to 'unknown destinations' and killed in neighbouring woods. In Vilna 50,000 Jews were murdered in November. ..total number slaughtered in this district and around Lithuanian Kovno is 300,000. Rovne ..murders began early in November. In three days and nights nearly 15,000 Men ..Women .. Children were shot. ..greatest massacre in ..world's history." The Daily Telegraph.
The need then, to continue whole scale murder operations and within Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania would now see the expressed arrival of Reich Jews to be Murdered there. So as to fill the void left by the near extinction of Baltic Jewry, in the coming months the tempo of expulsions, for the Jews of Austria, Germany and Bohemia and Moravia increased, alarmingly. Of interest in this we must further highlight that both these two officers of the SS and SD, whose appearance at The Wannsee Conference, was confirmed so as to bolster their own glorification of their accomplishment along with der Einsatzgruppe in the areas of both Latvia and Lithuania. Beneath the fauna and flora of the widest expanses of Europe, much is still hidden the very truth of what was accomplished by Hitler and his accomplices.
"..executions through 1 February 1942 ..by EK 3 ..136,421 Jews ..55,556 women ..34,464 children ..Total: 138,272." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
However, the enormity of this atrocity cannot remain hidden from view and the search of History wreaks with the accusations against those who sought to achieve that final goal. But also, we must search for all of those who achieved far too much in this and still leave a repository of like minded hater's who constantly seek to deny the very Jewish presence which is that Final Solution of a very Jewish Question, The Holocaust. What is manifestly clear in this Jaeger document, and is pertinent in that resolve to solve The Final Solution is that while not all the victims named were Jews, All Jews Were Indeed meant to be the Victims. Taking the exacting detail of the slaughter to the table at Wannsee, the very presence of both SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Georg Karl Eberhard Schongarth SD Commander Security Police & Security Service in the Government General.
"..taken from Vilna to ..camp in Estonia. ..then camps across Europe. ..I realised ..I was somewhere in Germany. ..didn't know what had happened to my family. ..a very ..very sad feeling." Phillip Maisel.
SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr. Rudolf Lange on the other hand, Kommander EinsatzKommando 2 of Einsatzgruppe A was very different being. As the Security Policy Commander of the Security Police and SD in the Generalbezirk Latvia, and the representative of the Commander of the Security Police and the SD for the Reichskommissariat Ostland, a clear message has been established. Both knowledge of what had been already accomplished and what then could manifestly become resolved would now inveigle more arms of the Reich than had previously been countenanced with a clearer picture of what Hitler had fully demanded. The influence then of such a document as The Jaeger Report cannot be underestimated and would have had a directional influence upon the conference proceedings. For SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger, who Kommanded Einsatzkommando 3 at Kovno, Lithuania and then into Byelorussia under Einsatzgruppe A's jurisdiction, the infamy which Jaeger has gained has been pronounced. Jaeger however failed to live up to his idealistic performance and committed suicide at Hohensperg on June 22nd. 1959 rather than accept any supposed ideological responsibility he so roundly achieved.
"..We are left ..a few ..of many. ..of ..35,000 Jews of Kovno ..approximately 17,000 remain ..out of a 250,000 Jews in Lithuania ..only 25,000 live also ..5,000 ..were deported to hard labour in Latvia." Dr. Elchanan Elkes.
The Commander of the Security Police and the SD Einsatzkommando 3
Kauen [Kaunas, Kovno]
December 1st. 1941
Secret Reich Business
Complete list of executions carried out in the EK 3 area up to 1 December 1941.
Security police duties in Lithuania taken over by Einsatzkommando 3 on 2 July 1941. (The Wilna [Vilnius] area was taken over by EK 3 on 9 Aug. 1941, the Schaulen area on 2 Oct. 1941. Up until these dates EK 9 operated in Wilna and EK 2 in Schaulen.) On my instructions and orders the following executions were conducted by Lithuanian partisans:
Date Location Totals
4.7.41 Kauen-Fort VII 416 Jews, 47 Jewesses 463
6.7.41 Kauen-Fort VII Jews 2,514
Following the formation of a raiding squad under the command of SS-Obersturmfuhrer Hamman and 8-10 reliable men from the Einsatzkommando the following actions were conducted in cooperation with Lithuanian partisans:
Date Location Totals
7.7.41 Mariampole 32 Jews 32
8.7.41 Mariampole 14 Jews, 5 Comm. officials 19
8.7.41 Girkalinei Comm. Officials 6
9.7.41 Wendziogala 32 Jews, 2 Jewesses, 1 Lithuanian, (f.), 2 Lithuanian Comm., 1 Russian Comm. 38
9.7.41 Kauen-Fort VII 21 Jews, 3 Jewesses 24
14.7.41 Mariampole 21 Jews, 1 Russ., 9 Lith. Comm. 31
17.7.41 Babtei 8 Comm. officals (inc. 6 Jews) 8
18.7.41 Mariampole 39 Jews, 14 Jewesses 53
19.7.41 Kauen-Fort VII 17 Jews, 2 Jewesses, 4 Lith. Comm., 2 Comm. Lithuanians (f.), 1 German Comm. 26
21.7.41 Panevezys 59 Jews, 11 Jewesses, 1 Lithuanian (f.), 1 Pole, 22 Lith. Comm., 9 Russ. Comm. 103
22.7.41 Panevezys 1 Jew 1
23.7.41 Kedainiai 83 Jews, 12 Jewesses, 14 Russ.Comm., 15 Lith. Comm., 1 Russ. O-Politruk 125
25.7.41 Mariampole 90 Jews, 13 Jewesses 103
28.7.41 Panevezys 234 Jews, 15 Jewesses, 19 Russ. Comm., 20 Lith. Comm. 288
29.7.41 Rasainiai 254 Jews, 3 Lith. Comm. 257
30.7.41 Ariogala 27 Jews, 11 Lith. Comm. 38
31.7.41 Utena 235 Jews, 16 Jewesses, 4 Lith. Comm., 1 robber/murderer 256
31.7.41 Wendziogala 13 Jews, 2 murderers 15
1.8.41 Ukmerge 254 Jews, 42 Jewesses, 1 Pol.Comm., 2 Lith. NKVD agents, 1 mayor of Jonava who gave order to set fire to Jonava 300
2.8.41 Kauen-Fort IV 170 Jews, 1 US Jewess, 33 Jewesses, 4 Lith. Comm. 209
4.8.41 Panevezys 362 Jews, 41 Jewesses, 5 Russ. Comm., 14 Lith. Comm. 422
5.8.41 Rasainiai 213 Jews, 66 Jewesses 279
7.8.41 Uteba 483 Jews, 87 Jewesses, 1 Lithuanian (robber of corpses of German soldiers) 571 8.8.41 Ukmerge 620 Jews, 82 Jewesses 702
9.8.41 Kauen-Fort IV 484 Jews, 50 Jewesses 534
11.8.41 Panevezys 450 Jews, 48 Jewesses, 1 Lith. 1 Russ. 500
13.8.41 Alytus 617 Jews, 100 Jewesses, 1 criminal 718
14.8.41 Jonava 497 Jews, 55 Jewesses 552
15-16.8.41 Rokiskis 3,200 Jews, Jewesses, and Jewish Children, 5 Lith. Comm., 1 Pole, 1 partisan 3207
9-16.8.41 Rassainiai 294 Jewesses, 4 Jewish children 298
27.6-14.8.41 Rokiskis 493 Jews, 432 Russians, 56 Lithuanians (all active communists) 981
18.8.41 Kauen-Fort IV 689 Jews, 402 Jewesses, 1 Pole (female), 711 Jewish intellectuals from Ghetto in reprisal for sabotage action 1,812
19.8.41 Ukmerge 298 Jews, 255 Jewesses, 1 Politruk, 88 Jewish children, 1 Russ. Comm. 643
22.8.41 Dunaburg 3 Russ. Comm., 5 Latvian, incl. 1 murderer, 1 Russ. Guardsman, 3 Poles, 3 gypsies (m.), 1 gypsy (f.), 1 gypsy child, 1 Jew, 1 Jewess, 1 Armenian (m.), 2 Politruks (prison inspection in Dunanburg 21
22.8.41 Aglona Mentally sick: 269 men, 227 women, 48 children 544
23.8.41 Panevezys 1,312 Jews, 4,602 Jewesses, 1,609 Jewish children 7,523
18-22.8.41 Kreis Rasainiai 466 Jews,440 Jewesses, 1020 Jewish children 1,926
25.8.41 Obeliai 112 Jews, 627 Jewesses, 421 Jewish children 1,160
25-26.8.41 Seduva 230 Jews, 275 Jewesses, 159 Jewish children 664
26.8.41 Zarasai 767 Jews, 1,113 Jewesses, 1 Lith. Comm., 687 Jewish children, 1 Russ.Comm. (f.) 2,569 Comm., 687 Jewish children, 1 Russ.Comm. (f.)
28.8.41 Pasvalys 402 Jews, 738 Jewesses, 209 Jewish children 1,349
26.8.41 Kaisiadorys All Jews, Jewesses, and Jewish children 1,911
27.8.41 Prienai All Jews, Jewesses, and Jewish Children 1,078
27.8.41 Dagda and Kraslawa 212 Jews, 4 Russ. POW's 216
27.8.41 Joniskia 47 Jews, 165 Jewesses, 143 Jewish children 355
28.8.41 Wilkia 76 Jews, 192 Jewesses, 134 Jewish children 402
28.8.41 Kedainiai 710 Jews, 767 Jewesses, 599 Jewish children 2,076
29.8.41 Rumsiskis undZiezmariai 20 Jews, 567 Jewesses, 197 Jewish children 784
29.8.41 Utena and Moletai 582 Jews, 1,731 Jewesses, 1,469 Jewish children 3,782
13-31.8.41 Alytus and environs 233 Jews 233
1.9.41 Mariampole 1,763 Jews, 1,812 Jewesses, 1,404 Jewish children, 109 mentally sick, 1 German subject (f.), married to a Jew, 1 Russian (f.) 5090
28.8-2.9.41 Darsuniskis 10 Jews, 69 Jewesses, 20 Jewish children 99
Carliava 73 Jews, 113 Jewesses, 61 Jewish children 247
Jonava 112 Jews, 1,200 Jewesses, 244 Jewish children 1,556
Petrasiunai 30 Jews, 72 Jewesses, 23 Jewish children 125
Jesuas 26 Jews, 72 Jewesses, 46 Jewish children 144
Ariogala 207 Jews, 260 Jewesses, 195 Jewish children 662
Jasvainai 86 Jews, 110 Jewesses, 86 Jewish children 282
Babtei 20 Jews, 41 Jewesses, 22 Jewish children 83
Wenziogala 42 Jews, 113 Jewesses, 97 Jewish children 252
Krakes 448 Jews, 476 Jewesses, 97 Jewish children 1,125
4.9.41 Pravenischkis 247 Jews, 6 Jewesses 253
Cekiske 22 Jews, 64 Jewesses, 60 Jewish children 146
Seredzius 6 Jews, 61 Jewesses, 126 Jewish children 193
Veliuona 2 Jews, 71 Jewesses, 86 Jewish children 159
Zapiskis 47 Jews, 118 Jewesses, 13 Jewish children 178
5.9.41 Ukmerge 1,23 Jews, 1849 Jewesses, 1737 Jewish children 4,709
25.8-6.9.41 Mopping up in:
Rasainiai 16 Jews, 412 Jewesses, 415 Jewish children 843
Georgenburg (Yurburg) All Jews, all Jewesses, all Jewish children 412
9.9.41 Alytus 287 Jews, 640 Jewesses, 352 Jewish children 1,279
9.9.41 Butrimonys 67 Jews, 370 Jewesses, 303 Jewish children 740
10.9.41 Merkine 223 Jews, 640 Jewesses, 276 Jewish children 854
10.9.41 Varena 541 Jews, 141 Jewesses, 149 Jewish children 831
11.9.41 Leipalingis 60 Jews, 70 Jewesses, 25 Jewish children 155
11.9.41 Seirijai 229 Jews, 384 Jewesses, 340 Jewish children 953
12.9.41 Simnas 68 Jews, 197 Jewesses, 149 Jewish children 414
11-12.9.41 Uzusalis Reprisal against inhabitants who fed Russ. partisans; some in possesion of weapons 43
26.9.41 Kauen-F.IV 412 Jews, 615 Jewesses, 581 Jewish children (sick and suspected epidemic cases) 1,608
2.10.41 Zagare 633 Jews, 1,107 Jewesses, 496 Jewish children (as these Jews were being led away a mutiny rose, which was however immediately put down; 150 Jews were shot immediately; 7 partisans wounded) 2,236
4.10.41 Kauen-F.IX 315 Jews, 712 Jewesses, 818 Jewish children (reprisal after German police officer shot in ghetto) 1,845
29.10.41 Kauen-F.IX 2,007 Jews, 2,920 Jewesses, 4,273 Jewish children (mopping up ghetto of superfluous Jews) 9,200
3.11.41 Lazdijai 485 Jews, 511 Jewesses, 539 Jewish children 1,535
15.11.41 Wilkowiski 36 Jews, 48 Jewesses, 31 Jewish children 115
25.11.41 Kauen-F.IX 1,159 Jews, 1,600 Jewesses, 175 Jewish children (resettlers from Berlin, Munich and Frankfurt am main) 2,934
29.11.41 Kauen-F.IX 693 Jews, 1,155 Jewesses, 152 Jewish children (resettlers from from Vienna and Breslau) 2,000
29.11.41 Kauen-F.IX 17 Jews, 1 Jewess, for contravention of ghetto law, 1 Reichs German who converted to the Jewish faith and attended rabbinical school, then 15 terrorists from the Kalinin group 34
EK 3 detachment in Dunanberg
13.7-21.8.41: 9,012 Jews, Jewesses and Jewish children, 573 active Comm. 9,585
EK 3 detachment in Wilna:
12.8-1.9.41 City of Wilna 425 Jews, 19 Jewesses, 8 Comm. (m.), 9 Comm. (f.) 461
2.9.41 City of Wilna 864 Jews, 2,019 Jewesses, 817 Jewish children (sonderaktion because German soldiers shot at by Jews) 3,700
12.9.41 City of Wilna 993 Jews, 1,670 Jewesses, 771 Jewish children 3,434
17.9.41 City of Wilna 337 Jews, 687 Jewesses, 247 Jewish children and 4 Lith. Comm. 1,271
20.9.41 Nemencing 128 Jews, 176 Jewesses, 99 Jewish children 403
22.9.41 Novo-Wilejka 468 Jews, 495 Jewesses, 196 Jewish children 1,159
24.9.41 Riesa 512 Jews, 744 Jewesses, 511 Jewish children 1,767
25.9.41 Jahiunai 215 Jews, 229 Jewesses, 131 Jewish children 575
27.9.41 Eysisky 989 Jews, 1,636 Jewesses, 821 Jewish children 3,446
30.9.41 Trakai 366 Jews, 483 Jewesses, 597 Jewish children 1,446
4.10.41 City of Wilna 432 Jews, 1,115 Jewesses, 436 Jewish children 1,983
6.10.41 Semiliski 213 Jews, 359 Jewesses, 390 Jewish children 962
9.10.41 Svenciany 1,169 Jews, 1,840 Jewesses, 717 Jewish children 3,726
16.10.41 City of Wilna 382 Jews, 507 Jewesses, 257 Jewish children 1,146
21.10.41 City of Wilna 718 Jews, 1,063 Jewesses, 586 Jewish children 2,367
25.10.41 City of Wilna 1,776 Jewesses, 812 Jewish children 2,578
27.10.41 City of Wilna 946 Jews, 184 Jewesses, 73 Jewish children 1,203
30.10.41 City of Wilna 382 Jews, 789 Jewesses, 36 Jewish children 1,553
6.11.41 City of Wilna 340 Jews, 749 Jewesses, 252 Jewish children 1,341
19.11.41 City of Wilna 76 Jews, 77 Jewesses, 18 Jewish children 171
19.11.41 City of Wilna 6 POW's, 8 Poles 14
20.11.41 City of Wilna 3 POW's 3
25.11.41 City of Wilna 9 Jews, 46 Jewesses, 8 Jewish children, 1 Pole for possesion of arms and other military equipment 64
EK 3 detachment in Minsk
28.9-17.10.41: Pleschnitza 620 Jews, 1,285 Jewesses,
Bischolin 1,126 Jewish children and 19 Scak Comm.
Bober Uzda 3,050
Prior to EK 3 taking over security police duties, Jews liquidated by pogroms and executions (including partisans) 4,000
Today I can confirm that our objective, to solve the Jewish problem for Lithuania, has been achieved by EK 3. In Lithuania there are no more Jews, apart from Jewish workers and their families. The distance between from the assembly point to the graves was on average 4 to 5 Km. I consider the Jewish action more or less terminated as far as Einsatzkommando 3 is concerned. Those working Jews and Jewesses still available are needed urgently and I can envisage that after the winter this workforce will be required even more urgently. I am of the view that the sterilization programme of the male worker Jews should be started immediately so that reproduction is prevented. If despite sterilization a Jewess becomes pregnant she will be liquidated.
Jaeger's accuracy is clearly documented and as we see, accounted in detail. For those Jaeger Murdered, we deal with losses so extraordinary, it is difficult for many to see the true cost to all of humanity, if the document is taken purely in its extraction. From here, and when the places of the mass murder which he names with systematic thoroughness we are dealt a heavy blow, acknowledging what is adding to in the report, the complete annihilation of entire Jewish Community's, totalling some 137,346 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. In this, it is important not only that
Always to Remember, Never to Forget
Aglona, Ariogala, Alytus, Babtei, Bischolin, Bober Uzda, Butrimonys, Carliava, Cekiske, Dagda, Darsuniskis, Dunaburg, Dunanberg, Eyisky, Girkalinei, Jahiunai, Jasvainai, Jesuas, Jonava, Joniskia, Kaisiadorys, Kedainiai, Kovno, Krakes, Kraslawa, Kreis Rasainai, Lazdijai, Leipalingis, Mariampole, Merkine, Minsk, Moletai, Nemencing, Novo-Wilejka, Obeliai, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Petrasiunai, Pleschnitza, Pravenicshkis, Prienai, Rasainai, Riesa, Rokiskis, Rumsiskis, Seduva, Seirijai, Semiliski, Seredzius, Simnas, Svenciany, Trakai, Ukmerge, Uteba, Utena, Uzusalis, Varena, Veliuona, Vilna, Wendziogala, Wilkia, Wilkowiski, Yurburg, Zagare, Zapiskis, Zarasai and Ziezmariai.
It is clear also that within this remit to be exacting in the excrutiating detail of the Slaughter, many places were not confirmed as centres for Jaeger's killing operations. That said, it is realistic enough to assess that a greater capacity to mass murder might well have been concealed and hidden amongst the many Jews taken from the Shtetl's of Lithuania. It for these Jewish People, for whom, there now remains few records of all who have been taken from us. Those places following, which are marked with an *, have been dutifully presented into what Jaeger fully details is The Jaeger Report. It is essential too to fully appreciate that while Jaeger transposed the names of those Villages and Towns he sought to obliterate, with a certain Nazi arrogance so as not to conform to proper titles, he may well have used his own versions of local dilaects to name what these Shtetl's might otherwise have been pronounced. And while it is indeed tragic that these Shtetl's are mentioned, it is with a deep sadness that not only where their Jews taken from these Homes, but their names, many of whom will never be recalled, are written into pages of Books instead of life.
Abelnikas, Azvinsz, Azventis, Akmene, Akunik, Aleksandrobolis, Alkiskiai, Alove, Alsedziai, Alshishok, Alunta, Alvitas, *Alytus, Andriejava, Antaliepte, Antanavas, Antnemunis, Antuzava, Anyksciai, *Ariogala, Asminte, Aukstadvaris, Aukstoji, Avanaste and Azuolu-Buda.
*Babtai, Backininkeliai, Bagaslaviskis, Baisogala, Balbieriskis, Balninkai, Balsiai, Balsh, Baltiskis, Baltmiskis, Baltusova, Baranas, Bariunai, Barova, Barsenai, Barshon, Barstyciai, Bartininkai, Baruvke, Batakiai, Batshkinikel, Batshishok, Bazilionai, Belenarni, Bendzingai, Berezinsk, Berezovke, Berzina, Bentzingai, Berzai, Berzgainiai, Berzininkai, Berzole, Betygala, Birstonas, Birzai, Bitsun, Bobri, Bubeliai, Buckunai, Buda, Budavone, Budevoni, Budvietis, Buginiai, Bukants, Bulavenai, Burakova, Burbiskis, Burgiani, Burzshevits, Butkunai, Butskun, Bukonys, Bukta, Burginiai, Butkunai, Butkunai and *Butrimonys.
Dabeikiai, Dabikine, Darbenai, Darsuniskis, Daugai, Daugailiai, Daujenai, Dauksiskis, Deltuva, Dembove-Buda, Devangole, Didkiemis, Dikshne, Dilan, Dirvinishok, Dirviniskis, Dotnuva, Dovin, Dubingiai, Dubininkus, Dubinove, Dubrava, Dubrovitse, Dusetos, Dutkeme, Dvornova and Dvoruka,
Fertshan and Freda.
Gadunavas, Galgaudiskis, Gargzdai, Garliava, Gastinai, Gaudeliske, Gaure, Geguzine, Geleziai, Gelgaudiskis, Geltsin, Gelvonai, Giedraiciai, Gintaliske, Girkalnis, Gitelishke, Givai-Skrudzhai, Gliun, Goriskis, Graziskiai, Gribkele, Grimz, Grimzdai, Grinkiskis, Griskabudis, Grudzuniai, Gruslauke, Gruzdzia, Gudeleve, Gudeliaia, Gudiniskiai, Gudnove and Gudziunai.
Igliauka, Ilguva, Imbradas, Indrioniskis and Inkturke.
Jakubents, Janapole, Janishok, Jankai, Jashtaik, Jastanik, Javaravas, Jegliskis, Jenits, Jentsikes, Jieznas, Jokubaiciai, Jokubavas, *Jonava, Joniskelis, Joniskis-Siauliai, Joniskis-Utena, Josvainiai, Jovaravas, Jozda, Juknishki, Julinove, Juodkaimis, Juodupe, Juodupis, Jurbarkas, Jurdzike, Justinik and Juzintai.
Kaimelis, *Kaisiadorys, Kalian, Kalelishok, Kalinova, Kaltinenai, Kalvarija, Kamaja, Kamian, Kamirintse, Kapciamiestis, Karklenai, Kartena, Katautiske, Katiliske, Kaloverne, Karklenai, Kartena, Kartsi, *Kaunas, Kaunotavas, Kautvishok, Kavarskas, Kazlu-Ruda, Kazokiskes, Kazyliai, *Kedainiai, Kelme, Kernava, Keturvalakiai, Khavodki, Kiduliai, Kietaviskes, Kinderishki, Kirsne, Klaipeda, Klebiskis, Klovainiai, Klubianis, Klykuoliai, Koplitse, Kortsion, Kovli, Kozlova, *Krakes, Krasne-Selik, Kraziai, Krekenava, Kretinga, Kreve, Kriauniai, Kriaunos, Krincinas, Kriukai-Sakiai, Kriukai-Siauliai, Krivelian, Kruonis, Kruopiai, Kubilun, Kubiliunai, Kuciunai, Kudirkos Naumiestis, Kulautuva, Kulbes, Kuliai, Kuprelishik, Kupreliskis, Kupiskis, Kurdimkstai, Kurklets, Kurkliai, Kursenai, Kurtuvenai, Kutkiskes, Kutkiskiai, Kuziai, Kvedarna, Kvetkai, Kvietiskis and Kybartai.
Labanoras, Labinava, Labinak, Laibiskes, Laibushok, Laizuva, Lal, Lampedziai, Lanciunava, Lapiai, Laukeliskiai, Laukuva, Laukzeme, Laukzemis, Lazdena, *Lazdijai, Leckava, *Leipalingis, Lekeciai, Leliunai, Lents, Lieplauke, Lieponiai, Liksel, Linkmenys, Linksmadvaris, Linkuva, Lioliai, Liskiava, Liubavas, Liudvinavas, Lotava, Lucinava-Marijampole, Lucinava-Raseiniai, Lukodeme, Luksiai, Luoke, Lyduvenai and Lygumai.
Madziunai, Mantevidave, Marevianki,*Marijampole, Marsaiki, Marvele, Maurlishok, Mauruciai, Mazeikiai, Mazan, Mazonai, Medingenai, Mergalaukis, Mergelupke, *Merkine, Meskai, Meskuiciai, Meteliai, Mikalina, Mikaliskis, Mikhalen, Mikhelmant, Milinover Hauf, Miluntse, Minatsa, Mincia, Miroslavas, Misniunenai, Mitsintskas, Mishnun, Mizshuk, *Moletai, Mosedis, Muravani Panemun and Musninkai.
Nacioniskis, Nakan, Namaun, Natsianishok, Naujamiestis, Naujazeris, Naujokai, Nedinge, Nedzinge, Nekinishki, Nemaksciai, Nemaniunai, Nemajunai, Nemunaitis, Nemunelio-Radviliskis, Netshini, Nevarenai, Nevieriai, Niklisik, Nirak, Nociunai and Noraikishok.
*Obeliai, Olova, Olinova, Olite and Onuskis.
Pabaiskas, Paberze, Pabirze, Pacinelis, Padubysis, Padushe, Paduvise, Paezereliai, Paerzeriai, Pagegiai, Pagiriai, Pagramantis, Pajevonys, Pajuris, Pakalniskis, Pakelnishok, Pakesne, Pakriaunis, Pakruojus, Pakuonis, Palacionys, Palanga, Palevene, Paliuniskis, Palonai, Palova, Paluobiai, Palutsi, Pamerkiai, Pamuse, Pamusis, Pandelys, Panemune, Panemunelis, Panemunis, *Panevezys, Panosiskes, Panoteriai, Paobeliai, Paparciai, Papile, Papilys, Paportshe, Papyvesiai, Parozshnie, Parupe, Pasasva, Pasavona, Pasela, Paseyk, Pashela, Pasiause, Pasoirishok, Pasusvys, Pasvalys, Pasvitinys, Paupine, Pavandene, Pavidak, Percineliai, Perlai, Perloja, Pernava, Pestininkai, Pezinte, Pilnikali, Pilviskiai, Pikeliai, Piniava, Pivasiunai, Plateliai, Ploksciai, Plunge, Plusi, Pociuneliai, Podmeretshe, Poduve, Poduvise, Pokipine, Polevene, Popetaitsh, Popovese, Povaiguva, Povandine, Prastshi, Pratkunai, Pravieniskes, Preni, Priekule, *Prienai, Primusa, Pumpenai, Punia, Pusiauskely, Puskelniai, Purpele and Pusalotas.
Radeikiai, Radenai, Radute, Radviliskis, Rageliai, Raguva, Raguvele, Raiserad, Rakan, Rakishetsik, Ramygala, Ranishk, *Raseiniai, Raskovcizna, Raudenai, Raudenai-Raudenis, Raudondvaris, Raudone, Ribok, Ribukai, Rietavas, Rodzanai, Rogovike, Rokenai, *Rokiskis, Romanova, Rozalimas, Rudamina, Rudnia, Rumsiskes, Rusne, Rymsaniai.
Sabonis, Sakiai, Sakyna, Sateikiai, Saukenai, Saukotas, Sakalyne, Salakas, Salantai, Saldutiskis, Salociai, Salomenka, Sanesiski, Sasnava, Sateikai, Seciai, Seda, *Seduva, Seferne,*Seirijai, Semeliskes, *Seredzius Sergainiskis, Serpaits, Sestokai, Sesuoliai, Seta, Shaki, Shatkin, Shikli, Shil, Shilan, Shimak, Skrebishik, Shlashte, Shmidhan, Shnarglin, Shtaitsesik, Shtanishok, Shtarinke, Shtarkene, Shtarveniki, Shudinishki, Shvabeshik, Siaain, Siaudine, Siaudiniskiai, Siaudvige, Siaulenai, Siauliai, Siesikai, Silai, Silale, Silenai, Silute, Siluva, Simkaiciai, *Simnas, Simne, Sintautai, Sirvintos, Skaistgirys, Skapiskis, Skaudvile, Skiemonys, Skirpstauja, Skirsnemune, Skrebatiskis, Skriptave, Skudutiskis, Skuodas, Slavikai, Smalininkai, Smalvos, Smilgiai, Slobar, Solominke, Spernia, Stakliskes, Stasiunai, Stravenink, Strevininkai, Subacius, Sudargas, Sujainiai, Sukiskis, Sumskai, Sunskai, Surdegis, Surviliskis, Suvainiskis, Suvaletsek, Svaboda, Svedasai, Sventezeris, Svobiskis, Sveksna and Sventezeris.
Talon, Tarpun, Tartupis, Taubin, Taujenai, Taulkeve, Taumasheve, Taurage, Tauragenai, Tavrova, Telsiai, Teneniai, Teraskova, Terpits, Testalvitshne, Timegole, Tirksliai, Traupis, Trepkalnis, Troskunai, Truskava, Tryskiai, Tshabiski, Tshislivke, Tsikants, Tubines, Turishok, Turiskis, Turmantas, Turzenai, Tverai and Tytuvenai.
Ubila, *Ukmerge, Ulinova, Ungarine, Upyna, Upyte, *Utena, Uzdubysis, Uzpaliai, Uzuguostis and Uzventis.
Vabalninkas, Vadokliai, Vaiguva, Vainutas, Vaitkiskiai, Valeisiskis, Vandziogala, *Varena, Varestsine, Varniai, Vasiliskis, Vaskai, Vegeriai, Veidziai, Veisiejai, Veiveriai, Veivirzenai, *Veliuona, Vepriai, Verpena, Vershves, Vesulove, Vezaiciai, Videniskiai, Vidiskiai, Vidmant, Vidnishok, Vidukle, Viedziai, Vieksniai, Viesintos, Viesvenai, Vievis, Vikenai, Vikaviskis, Vikiautinis, Vilkija, Vilkiautinis, Virbalis, Virstinik, Visakio-Ruda, Visevienai, Vistytis, Vizeyts and Vyzuonos.
Zadeikiai, *Zagare, Zagrini, Zaidekan, Zaikinai, Zalants, Zalioji, Zalosia, Zapyskis, *Zarasai, Zarenai, Zasliai, Zelva, Zemaiciu-Kalvarija, Zemaiciu-Naumiestis, Zeimelis, Zeimiai, Zemaitkiemis, Zidikai, *Ziezmariai, Zshaidini, Zvirbliniai, Zydaviskis, Zydkaimis, Zydvaris, Zshving, Zshvirblants, Zudz, Zuriai, Zuvilun and Zvingiai.
Always to Remember, Never to Forget.