This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

FridayRevisiting the Past

Posted by P.A. Draigh Fri, October 06, 2017 21:04:50

It is Friday September 29th. 2017 and this part of my journey has come to an end. I have experienced some deeply moving experiences. I saw wholesale grief from many who so obviously had returned to pay their respects to the memory of those Jews now lost. The Jews of The Holocaust are always Remembered and in the placing of a stone, which I did, individually, and also for those who required one and for the many I know would appreciate it, I placed many stones. The symbolism shows the Jewish People today that the Jews of yesterday are never to be forgotten. I depart Warsaw from Chopin Airport so unless we measure the distance of the Concourse, I will have walked little today but travelled about 8 miles to get here.

The onward journey will make a total for today, of about 1,514 miles or so and to be honest, I doubt I could have been here another day and sought out any other place to visit, I am so weary. I stood in Centralna though, and there was a Train which would have taken me to Sokoly. I would have arrived at the same time I was supposed to be landing back on home soil? There is always that pull, there is always an unfinished recognition, and unsolved quest and an unrestrained commitment which persists in enabling me to take another step. A part of me though is quite relieved I have concluded this part of my journey, and I head back from the 'wasteland', a term I borrow from Karina Gora whose insight into taking Memory forward is refreshingly thoughtful and relevant.

I am only sorry I never saw her interpretative work while I was there, so as to appreciate it in close proximity to the Community of Tomazow-Mazowiecki's own Catastrophe. I am thankful the interest in keeping memory alive is pertinent to others who share a mutual human concern. I have travelled, all told more than 3,500 miles, 4,200 kilometres in new money over these past x5 days with 1,500 miles of that just to get to Warsaw. Warsaw has greatly disappointed though as there seems to be some errant or collective amnesia in Poland when it comes to asking about the Death Camps. And when it comes to those searching for answers and looking to the past for them, why do officials in Poland not at least know the names, Belzec or even Treblinka?

I have come a long way to visit places in Poland that the Poles do not know the names of? Is it Me? Did I look like I really did not wish to visit such places? Or could the answer be, there is a wish by far too many to forget their past History? Despite the fact that this detail in History was imposed upon them by Hitler, I would not expect the Polish people Not to know places which gorged on 4,000,000 Jewish People from all over Europe! Also, in each of these x6 Death Camps established by Hitler in German Occupied Poland, the remnants of Polish dead and Murdered is also to be found alongside their Jewish neighbours.

The Holocaust for me should be clear and unequivocal and certainly unique in terms of those 6,000,000 Jews of Europe who were intentionally Murdered by Adolf Hitler. In the most systematic, brutal, unprecedented, mechanised, industrialised and unparalleled Slaughter of Human Beings in ALL of History, requires that uniquely Jewish term History has recognised is, The Holocaust. That is The Holocaust Slaughter of 6,000,000 Human Beings for being Jewish. If ever my aim has been Always to Remember, Never to Forget then I will continue to inform, write and learn. How could I not? I know for certain the attempt by all to many to either minimise the impact the Jewish presence holds for us all, and I would suggest this accounts for an additional antisemitic response to an antisemitic act.

World War II saw 50/70 Million Dead, but not as Hitler's intention for the Jewish People has been exposed as so systematically sought. When some of those who offer up their recognition for The Holocaust, they are being disingenuous if they forget the very fact of the Jewish presence, or even choose to ignore that The Holocaust is 6,000,000 Murdered Jews. trump, now trudeaux have proved either stupid or ignorant of that fact, and a politician cannot have our mandate to be stupid. A politician here, who will remain gormless, when I questioned him about The Holocaust replied to me that he knew about the Holocaust because he had been to Auschwitz. This terse reply displayed an irrelevance I would not consider in any way empathetic.

My visit to Warsaw has suggested itself to me that there is a seeming and underlying attempt to either blur the line which connects 6,000,000 Jews to this Catastrophe, or dismiss it altogether. Either that or there is a simple attempt to deny these Jews of Europe their presence in THE most orchestrated and Murderous hatred meted out in supposed enlightened and civilised times. I am a bit low! My soul weakened by what I witnessed, and a little by what I have encountered. It does not fix itself when I witnessed a Lady crying as she observes the outside display at the Polin Museum. What could I say to her but Sorry! Here too, the dilution of the terms of reference which fixes the Jewish People within The Holocaust, is oh so a major cause for concern.

I appreciate that some Jews find it questionable for the religious overtones of The Holocaust term being used to Remember such an awful atrocity, and yet. Surely, The Holocaust term is the standard bearer of a truth which is Always to Remember, Never to Forget but it also vilifies those who watched as The Holocaust unfolded and is a blatant accusation of all of those who either profited from The Holocaust Jewish ordeal or participated in the very detail of the overall atrocity which is The Holocaust. For those who perpetrated these crimes in The Holocaust, either on behalf of Hitler or for their own sick and twisted idea, The Holocaust is our accusation.

How could it ever be otherwise, that Murdering Jewish People because they were Jews could be ever considered acceptable. How could such terms as The Holocaust presents become the accepted practice amongst all too few of these who have actually been tried for their Crimes. As I say! I am weary of the experience, but I will not forsake my commitment. Tokele stands alongside me. The Stone of Sokoly weighs heavily and 6,000,000 Jewish souls call out for a voice that wishes nothing other than to Remember them all. As I see it, the dead of War are a blight on Humanity whereas The Holocaust blights Humankind.

I know I have been here before, in terms of writing of an experience so hugely tragic and in whatever dimension we wish to draw upon. Here though was a differing space, a certain place but with separating names. The first sight of Malkinia had informed me Treblinka was at hand. I felt drawn forward. It was like it had been ordained and the steps that had guided me to where Polish rail officials had no idea of such a place as Treblinka, spelled TREBLINKA, I reached another awful space in the Destruction of the Jewish People! There were images and impressions drawing me forward and in a strange sense, I felt an almost spiritual upheaval. Again I have no wish to draw any religious connotations in this. I do not want to bring anyone's god into an equation which deals with such a massive loss. It had been remarked however that the god of Israel would sanctify and preserve the Jewish People, his Chosen People. Well for me, such was the absence of any god that the Jews fully felt a wrath and for what. To prove the presence of some god who cares more about the freedom to commit atrocity than to prevent it? As far as I am aware! The Jews obeyed their god's laws as they delivered to the World a monotheist way to believe adopted by a diverse multi-faith group of people. So where was god?

Even if the call came from some Biblical cataclysm which had been waiting to dump me in a place as close to another Hell as x5 other Death Camps had impressed upon me, I have yet to find the traces of any god. Instead, if ever a picture could add to what Dante envisioned, then our Children could become frightened by names such as these, Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or even there at Treblinka. Again those words, "Abandon hope all ye who enter here," was clearly not intended for me. For those Jews detained in Chelmno and Treblinka, contained beneath a soil turned over, finally excavated and the remnants cremated, much remains still of the most mechanised destruction of a People ever.

I remember as I set foot on Malkinia Station that I was retracing the steps that as many as 1,200,000 Jews heading toward that place Treblinka had made. I take no satisfaction knowing a few hours after arriving at Malkinia that a train from Bialystok would arrive and it would take me back to Warsaw. That is exactly what happened and I felt a deepening sadness knowing that those Jews deposited at Treblinka were given no choice whatsoever. Thoughts flicker and I am concerned that while I leave behind 6,000,000 lives worthy of Remembering, I do not feel they are in good hands. I feel the negative connotations of fixing words before the deeds of wronged and Murdered Jewish People, has not lent itself to the reverence 6,000,000 Murdered Jews require.

If a nation has become so fixed on requiring reparations from Germany for what was done by the Hitlerite hordes on Polish soil, they must regard the debt that is owed to 3,000,000 of their own Jews who did not return, who did not renew their ownership of all they once owned and who have been left without any legacy owned by their descendants. All of which is being denied to their relatives and heirs on the basis of a non returning ownership that had been totally obliterated! I have many thoughts going through me at this time and I find with an historical assessment, it is entirely conceivable that as Hitler surveyed the Polish terrain, from a military perspective, he saw in the Vistula, Bug and the Ner Rivers a way to further distribute his final resolve for the Jewish People.

The Vistula River is 1047 kilometres long and The Bug River is 772 kilometres long while The Ner River flows for 134 kilometres. The practice run with T4 brought together the ability to gas people. Cremate their remains and dispose of their ashes in the nearest River. In Poland, these x3 Rivers lay at the Centre of all that Hitler envisaged would obliterate all traces of those ill and infirm he had set his eugenics team on. For the Jews of Europe, who could be all too easily transported to their Deaths in the Camps built and established by Hitler for that purpose, the ash of Krematoria and Funeral Pyre was never too distant from the flow of a River which would distribute the ash as far away from the scene of the atrocity as was possible.



TreblinkaRevisiting the Past

Posted by P.A. Draigh Thu, October 05, 2017 20:31:08

It is Thursday September 28th. 2017 and I am aiming for Treblinka. It is hard not to remonstrate with someone’s god when what awaits me is the hollowed out call from a dark place, Treblinka. I know the Jewish Murdered are there. I do not know how many we seek. I do not know their names even if that is quite Wrong! I do have an idea of the vast number of those Jews of Treblinka who await me! In excess of 700,000 and as many as 1,200,000. All Murdered because they were Jews. There are many others interred here, but these are the subject of an other's quest, and though they have been intolerably treated, I involve myself in a search for 6,000,000 Murdered Jews.

Blog imageThey are not part of my endeavour in finding why we allowed this all to happen and for the Jews of Treblinka and even though I know the names of some of Treblinka’s Jews, all of whom were forcibly transported there, I cannot ever know all who remain here, lost to all practicable efforts to locate and name them. However, I will still follow their route towards an abominable place and will be certain Always to Remember, Never to Forget that for me, I will be on the return train from Malkinia Station to Warsaw. So now, I have walked my customary 4 miles and I have to travel a further 6 miles and I have not even have got any further than Warsaw.

Blog image

Today I will have walked 10 miles and travelled about another 134 Miles, once I get started. As with Chelmno, my walk on such hallowed ground will not be measured in time nor distance. That would violate the cause I have established for myself. So I will let you in on what seemed farcical, but caused me delay and moments of confusion. My walk to Warsawa Centralna Train Station takes 30 minutes so I set out in good time. But before that eventual journey begins, allow me to take you to the ticket desk at Warsawa Centralna Railway Station. My Polish being what it is, non-existant, I had written where it was I wished to go! TREBLINKA!

Blog image

Now bearing in mind that this site of reverence to Polish Jewry, World Jewry and the State of Israel, and lest we forget History we too have a stake in acknowledging the awful crimes here, a State official looked blankly at my piece of paper. Anyway, we move forward and I had arrived at Centralna and asked for my ticket and was informed they do not have trains to where I wished to go. I even showed how it was spelled but I was then sent to another rail official. I was eventually pointed to a Bus Company which would supposedly facilitate my journey to Warsawa Western Railway Station. The Bus Company was certain I had been sent to them purely because they spoke English and the Train people didn't??

Blog image

So now I was in a queue for Bus service I did not want? Ah! Polish buses. I am reminded of a previous venture on Polish buses heading to Belzec. As I trudged through knee high snow, and as the Bus which deposited me, the wrong side of Belzec, I was forced to trudge for ever just to reach the Belzec Gates. I actually saw the Bus veer into the distance along the Lvov road and straight past the Death Camp at Belzec, the Camp he obviously had never heard of? Or had he? I needed to get to Treblinka and the Bus Company furnished me with a ticket to get me to Western Station? I paid for the Bus ticket but decided against journeying across Warsaw in a Bus. I was eager to put Warsaw behind me.

Blog image

I caught a Taxi which would be quicker. The Taxi Driver takes me to the Westin Hotel? The concierge had to explain to the Taxi driver I wanted the Western Train Station. Eventually, duly set down at said Station, queued in a relentless line of other would be traveller’s and got my Tickets and then set off for the platform. Amazingly. In the distanced I my route toward the Centralna station stood before me in the distance. The train even stopped at Warsawa Centralna to pick up passengers on my way now toward Malkinia! Aggghhhh! I wrote a piece for a Magazine a good while back, and on this day, it appears to appropriate a space in time that has already been consumed.

"..My quest for comprehension of ..events within The Holocaust commenced with ..Murder of a 4 year old Jewish Girl, Tokele. She resided in Sokoly, Poland. Now for a failed catholic like myself ..it is an abhorrence that anyone should be Murdered because of a Faith ..a Belief system ..ethnicity or antecedence. Troubling too that a Child's life can be so callously destroyed. I am sure that anti-Semitism played a key role in this particular atrocity as it does in ..whole of The Holocaust. It also concerns me that those who have profited within Poland from ..Destruction of 3,000,000 Polish Jews can maintain their supposed christian or even catholic status." Patrick Dempsey.

Blog image

But if all that this sounds like idiocy, I was making My way toward Malkinia and as we all are to be made aware of, Malkinia is the staging post for Warsaw’s Jews to be Destroyed in Treblinka. So in some way I did not mind the mild farce which had got me here, before a sign which reads MALKINIA. The journey itself was time to listen to and talk to Kasia and her Son Patrick which took my attention away from this apprehension and sinking feeling which was gripping me. I arrived after a rather pleasant journey and there before me was that sign, MALKINIA! MALKINIA was not just a place I had heard of, it was a torrent of issues and concerns for the past few years as I tried to add to what I knew of Treblinka, a synonymous resonance with a dark space in our revulsion of what could and was achieved here.

Blog image

To say I was exhausted is an under statement. But to know I had achieved what I had set out to undertake, and more, has eased a burden I have felt since I began this odyssey, 20 years ago. A promise made has been fulfilled now and I have met with a deeper seated concern that Memory is not fading into a forgotten state. There was a greeting too of sorts, with a Child from a place whose Community name SOKOLY is on a stone here in Treblinka. This is my ultimate reward. I have gone full circle in my search to when Tokele was introduced to me and her Community, many of whom have been laid before us, here in amongst the other 700,000 or 1,200,000 Jews of Treblinka.

That communal place, Sokoly has signalled for all, a time when hatred ruled over life and human decency was eradicated. But while lives have been taken from us, and 6,000,000 constitutes a lot of names now missing from us, we have words, acts and deeds to permanently defend their memory. Is it enough that mention is made of the tragedy they faced? NO! It will never deliver in essence what is lost, what was taken and how all too easily we abandoned so many Human lives. All we can do now is add a measure of remorse to a degree of empathy and know how wrong this World had been in the Catastrophe for 6,000,000 Jews. I will rewrite this, and add to a piece on Treblinka itself, as I will with Chelmno, as they are stand alone atrocity’s in need of a marker beyond a travelogue of sorts.





WednesdayRevisiting the Past

Posted by P.A. Draigh Wed, October 04, 2017 21:27:38

It is Wednesday September 27th and it is 2017. I simply forgot I hadn't altered my Phones time, so I had crept into Wednesday thinking I was working on what remained of Tuesday. It is late, I am tired but I have things on my mind. So while I can, I write! I never quite appreciated the magnitude of grief that can be brought to People. But now I have ventured upon a realisation. I have been to Chelmno and now know that nothing compares to that loss of life which has been interrupted by the intervention of others. Hitler interrupted the lives of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe and absolutely nothing will ever compare to the sense of grief this evokes.

Blog image

The Irish are known for their melancholy nature but I am always upbeat, the glass is Always half full in my neck of the woods. For me too, no one has a monopoly over grief and this was brought to the fore a while ago as I managed an office staff. I listened as a Woman informed a fellow Female colleague that she had no need to grieve, she had only lost an Aunt, or someone not so immediate? Her reasoning being? She had lost her Mom the previous year and her Uncles Brother's Cousin, or whoever, the year before that. I felt quite aggrieved that anyone can impose their own sense of loss upon another so as to simply dismiss the fundamental grieving process owned by all and any People.

Blog image

I clearly spelled out to her, that grief belongs to the individual concerned and she had no right to deny anyone the right to grieve in whatever capacity they chose and for whomever they had a grief over. I pointed out also that my own Mom's loss was, and until I began this journey, incomparable and no one else's could surely compare to my Moms. As I am never giving of what remains private to me, I will share this fact that in the space of x2 years my Mom had lost a Sister, her Dad, x2 Daughters and a Husband. Of course, these were my Aunt, my Granddad, both my Sisters and my Dad. But I had not been comparing my own grief then and until now was not prepared to compare anyone's sense of grief. How could I suggest grief, when there are Jews who know the meaning of this enormous grief we seek to add to the memory of The Holocaust. Each to their own!

Blog image

However, that the magnitude of grief is felt now as I sit here wondering what can ever compare to the experience of those Jews left to reflect and grieve over The Holocaust, I am uneasy. I feel perturbed that while Simon Wiesenthal insists we should not look on The Holocaust merely statistically, how do I compare such an immense horror without recourse to numbers so devoid of all names. I have met and been introduced to so many People whose sense of grief bears no comparison to anything I could ever feel nor measure, even in all of History. But it appears it is incumbent upon those who seek, Always to Remember, Never to Forget, that such numbers as those which have been taken from us in The Holocaust, somehow insist on the calculation being made.

Blog image

The overall assessment, which extrapolates such a criteria as is measured 6,000,000 times over with loss, grief and the horrible realisation of a terrible wrong, bears no comparison. That these Jews were taken from us and systematically interrupted from their own vibrant life, is an accusation of all that Humanity should stand for. I will get some rest now as Lodz awaits and I am supposed to be up in about 4 hours to breakfast before I begin journeying again. It appears my journey is endless. It also seems like sleep and rest have been removed from any equation I wish to make. Monday, I was travelling and awake for some 22 hours. It appears I have been on the go for 20 hours, and this was Tuesday??

Blog image

I am fully awake? And I have taken my stroll to Centralna and I will have walked about 11 miles today and travelled 175 other Miles or so. As I am fully cognisant that while not all Jews suffered the same fate, all too few Jews of the 11,293,300 intended for destruction escaped the trawl of 6,000,000 innocent lives that were totally Destroyed. But of those who did Survive, they do not have the same regard or even disregard for their former neighbours as many would seem to hold. Each tale of Survival is different. Each story of those Survivors informs us of a familiar tale of intolerance from some of their neighbours and the warming sense of human dignity reaching out to save too few.

Blog image

Brutality and atrocity was met by a Jew wherever they were bounded by the intolerance or indeed, the seeming indifference of all too many. However, what can be hidden in the terms of reference connected to the contribution 6,000,000 terrorised and destroyed Jews must bring to memory, is the attempts by many to save the few. In proportion though, the many 26,000 amongst all Nations, are far too few while the few Survivors are the remnant of far too many, 6,000,000 of whom were Destroyed. I am certain that perspective will be considered as I reach the Marek Edelman Dialogue Centre in Lodz though will be more amply exposed when I reach the Death Camp at Treblinka tomorrow. I am more certain of that exposure of grief which not only creeps up on me, unawares, it is a presence I feel constantly.

Blog image

Lodz, it is clear, was fundamentally chosen as a centre of Jewish presence for the Ghettoisation, containment and eventual removal toward the Death Camps of the Warthegau's Jews. If we need to be pedantic in terms of Hitler's establishment of all x6 Death Camps, then they were established in German Occupied Poland. There is a play on words still, and while semantics have no responsible space to procure ownership of any part of The Holocaust, the word 'collaboration' shares a presence. Why is it then that we are prepared to accept a seeming collaborative effort with Hitler's germanising attempt to rename the City of Lodz and indeed its Ghetto.

Blog image

We should in no way allow for the altering of the obvious Polish nature of a City so as to conform to a German insinuating accent. The Lodz Jews, and others who had lived in Lodz or were transported to Lodz, were Ghettoised in the Lodz Ghetto and died there, were Murdered there or were transported to their deaths elsewhere as Lodz Jews. The very nature of Hitler's attempt to eradicate Lodz Jewry should not reflect other than the very Jewish nature of Hitler's attempt to annihilate all of them as the Jewish inhabitants of the City of Lodz and then the Lodz Ghetto. Meanwhile, thoughts raging, it is essential for me that I focus on this day, seizing this moment and sizing the Marek Edelman Centre's ability to afford a dialogue to what was taken from Lodz Jewry.

Blog image

To be more precise, the coming to terms with the murderous loss to Lodz Jewry. I am sitting here at the Marek Edelman Centre and I am looking across a Park which remembers the loss and the efforts of the some. The statue of Jan Karski is omnipresent gazing over the Park itself. The apparent mission here and vision that those who planned and instigated this worthy enterprise, an array of displays and focal points set before me, is well constructed and it has a resonance with the past that sweeps into our present! The attempt to add diversity to what lessons must be learned from The Holocaust past, is sure to shape the future for any organisation seeking to confront an unease with which Poland perceives The Holocaust.

The Dialogue Center

is an open, secular cultural institution acting beyond any political divisions, the primary purpose of which is to undertake educational, research and cultural activity including but not limited to:


1) Popularizing the heritage of different cultures,

2) Promoting multicultural and multiethnic legacy of Lodz, with the emphasis put on the Jewish culture,

3) Propagating the idea of tolerance and counteracting any signs of racism, xenophobia and lack of respect for people of different outlooks on the world, different backgrounds and cultures,

4) Undertaking educational activity in the scope of multiculturality for Polish and foreign communities,

5) Undertaking training and educational activity for children, the youth and the grown-up as well as organizing international exchange,

6) Running a library and an archive as well as building up various collections, especially those related to the Lodz Jewish community and the history of the Lodz Ghetto,

7) Carrying out projects commemorating the Lodz Jewish community,

8) Activities aiming at commemorating the Survivors and the Righteous and their families,

9) Popularising art works promoting the idea of multiculturality and multiethnicity,

10) Obtaining non-budgetary funds from national and foreign sources and using them for the purposes of statutory tasks.

Their Mission

The Marek Edelman Dialogue Center is the public cultural institution and education center, created on the basis of the multicultural and multiethnic past of Lodz, to discuss the history and its influence on today's life, with the emphasis on the Jewish culture, history and Polish-Jewish relations. An institution open towards the future, attractive for the local, national and international audience.

Their Vision

The Marek Edelman Dialogue Center is an institution that preserves the multicultural and historical heritage of Lodz through education, publishing, art projects and commemorative events, cooperating with many other institutions and organizations in Poland and abroad, recognized locally and internationally.

Blog image

I commend the sterling efforts undertaken here as I would agree, those at the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews measures with intricacy, the fate of 3,000,000 Polish Jews. Again though! I am visiting places in reverse order. Having visited Chelmno yesterday, I now visit the place so many of them were transported from, for their last time. Lodz itself, which expelled its Jewish Community to Chelmno, is close at hand. I will be amazed if any hint of a former Jewish presence greets me as I am amazed at Warsaw's almost complete lack of acknowledgement of its former resident Jews. The idea though that a dialogue, in part to Remember Marek Edelman and his Jewishness, is to be found here in Lodz is surprising. I am reminded now of a quote from Elie Wiesel and what is set before me confirms that Memory will be sustained by the efforts of more than those who write it.

"..Holocaust defies literature. ..describing an event ..we transmit ..its reflection. ..No one has ..right to speak for ..dead. ..story had to be told. In spite of all risks ..misunderstandings ..for ..sake of our children." Elie Wiesel.

Blog image

What is more enlivening in this building is the careful tread of visitors whose efforts sift across an emotive space for those Survivors who venture here. All too many now no longer able to impart their truths for us. The concept of the space, which seeks to put in the lessons from the past so as to ensure our future, actually appears like an idealistic reality. I am aware of the ownership given to both Lodz and the Death Camps in Hitler's scheme of things. But I will now manage to alter course and change the definition I have often used to one which places ownership of Hitler's Death Camps, with him as it was he who established these Death Camps in occupied Poland, and I fully restore their ownership to Hitler and at his front door.

"..Letters From ..Ghetto is not just a love story ..but also history to which ..world remained indifferent. It is my personal ..internal protest ..closed in ..convention of motion theater." Kariny Gory.

Blog image

I meet with Kariny Gory (Karina Gora) at the Centre and I find there are those looking for more ways to add toward the memory we all seek to add to. The Holocaust impressed upon Karina, who had utilised the love letters from Aljuche Izrael Orenbach (Lutek) to a Jewish girl he had met before Hitler's invasion of Poland, and this was Edith Blau. Their love story became a series of pen pal letters once the x2 became separated by Hitler's war. Lutek, a native of Tomaszow-Mazowiecki came from the same Town as does Karina, so her interest in producing this work was more than coincidental. The two, whose separation lasted without them meeting again, as Lutek was murdered in Treblinka and Edith was murdered in the Riga Ghetto, is as compelling as it is tragic.

"..yearning locked in ..words ..hope giving breath to say goodnight ..to greet ..morning ..monotonous days filled with fear ..where life and death are mixed in unity." Kariny Gory.

Blog image

But love transcends all, and when literature has been deprived of an answer, Movement and Expression, which is what Karina's group brought to the Theatre, has ensured that memory is not alone and has another grasp at holding on. Here too, I am drawn to the statue of Jan Karski as it stares out over an obliteration process that physically left more Jews intact, within Lodz itself and more than Hitler would have demanded. Jan Karski himself evokes a reminder in us that too few like him persisted with letting the World know of a burgeoning route toward The Holocaust. The Catastrophe for all of European Jewry unfolded before his eyes and as it continued its rampage through our Historical consciousness, it remains as damnable, reprehensible and certainly accusatory for knowing it was known to the World of the time.

"..Lutek Orenbach and Edith Blau became ..pretext for my creative work on structuring their characters. ..to close ..time ..place and circumstances ..in ..Tomaszow space." Kariny Gory.

Blog image

I wonder though, how would the impact upon this Centers efforts be, if it is to acknowledge the integrity of the past which could all too easily be affected by the arbitrary efforts to prevent the use of the word 'Collaboration'? This is a position which exposes the Centres efforts to re-ignite Polish Jewish relations even when collaborative efforts to add to Hitler's final resolve, and though only aimed at by some in Polish circles, it is widely known that some Poles were greatly involved in collaborating against their Jewish Community. Jewish Survivors know, for their part that luck in avoiding those who would collaborate against them is very pronounced and true. When there is an emphasis which appears to run counter to what certain elements of this Polish government wishes to alter, bleach or even deny, these would seem to impede your efforts:

"..to discuss the history and its influence on today's life, with the emphasis on the Jewish culture, history and Polish-Jewish relations."

and can there remain an independent view, free from the governments seeming 'revisionist' words and those fully amplified and untruthful implications. The Polish governments insinuation would surely alter those Polish efforts which sought to both save Jews from The Holocaust and also perhaps exonerate those who perpetrated many of the excesses History clearly acknowledges? I am keen to discuss this, and should it make any difference to the way History is written, it should be tackled everywhere. I have a wish to gain from the Center, and I will look more deeply to gain the insight into my search for further comprehension.

We must involve all those who know The Holocaust and from whichever perspective, and accept that in acknowledging the terrible wrongs done. To do so, we do a service to all in History and in Remembrance for the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, we choose to remember them correctly. I know now I am tired as I have been travelling today for more than 14 hours. The train arriving at, and I forget the platform, is running 12, 17, 25, and then 57 minutes late. In my confusion, there is a Swiss guy, and in my tiredness I forgot to ask his name? While he lends me his support, as his Polish is perfect. At least I know the Train will arrive, eventually.

I am back at the Hotel, the walk is beginning to feel more wearisome and I have yet to prepare for what will be a most difficult day, Treblinka. Before I go though, I heard someone say it was a Jewish Festival around this time. I found this greeting and wish to share it with you all, even if it is against all principles held within agnosticism? So Chag Sameach! I know the Jewish People celebrate Sukkot and that this is meant to be a celebratory acceptance of God providing for his chosen People, the Israelites! This then to me is my concern, and it as if it was written in my deference to my own religious background. It is not meant to cause any offence to anyone whatsoever.

So when the Holocaust launched the Jews of Europe into a wilderness and all Jewish faith focused on their God's faithfulness to keep his promises to secure them, it is also to make them aware of the power of his presence. However, we saw 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children abandoned and brutally Murdered. This, I am afraid is what strikes me as I still see that stone to the memory of the Jews of Sokoly. It evokes a great anger in me that is rightly directed at a World standing on the sidelines as the trail of despair stretches 6,000,000 People long. And it is not just that what happened in Sokoly that frustrates my, but what happened to Tokele threatens my very understanding.

Then as we look to 6,000,000 Jewish innocents, at the brutality, because of the vile and indiscriminate hatred, and with the knowledge of knowing that those in power were accepting of all of this atrocity, and we realise the intolerable depth of despair inflicted upon these People and the scornful indifference observed by all 6,000,000 Jews as they are strewn through a wasteland. Forgive me if I am at pains to share what is not a condemnation of any faith, but it is a reason for me not to have one, and I am very tired?????

"..In spite of ..vast accumulating literature ..an abyss still lies between those who endured ..unimaginable and those who did not. ..Survivors themselves remain pendant between ..living ..and ..dead ..searching ..to pierce ..realms of each." Nora Levin.



ChelmnoRevisiting the Past

Posted by P.A. Draigh Tue, October 03, 2017 20:28:03

It is Tuesday September 26th. 2017 and for me, Chelmno awaits and it is weighing heavily. I have taken my leisurely 4 miles stroll to the Centralna train station and I will have walked my usual 8 miles by my return. Any walking in pursuit of Memory, which will involve today's walk around Chelmno, cannot ever be counted. Also, and this might seem ironic to many, but my walk into Warsaw Centralna for my visit to the Death Camp throws up a strange anomaly. This will see me on a Train bound for Berlin. I can hardly believe it.

Blog image

Admittedly, I will get off at Kutno to journey on toward Kolo and then to Chelmno. But this Train heads direct to Berlin, the heart of where Hitler's plan to Destroy all of European Jewry was conceived of and largely conducted. Direct from Hitler, the plan to murder the ill and the infirm of Germany and Austria, had its genesis in Berlin too and then, so as to alleviate the symptoms of der Einsatzgruppe's psychological well being, a more mechanised approach was conceived. Chelmno was the first Death Camp established by Hitler in German Occupied Poland.

Blog image

As such, the terrible lessons to be learned would be experienced by Lodz Jews. Whatever else, a target was set for The Jewish People, a marker was agreed that 11,293,300 Jews, as adjudged by The Wannsee Conference, would be sought out and The Holocaust Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews would be realised. Hitler moved no further than his desk to share details in voiced undertones of all he had planned. So here, on these platforms in the Centralna station, every Train has a significance.

Blog imageEach destination has a meaning in our reach for comprehending the entirety of The Holocaust. Bydgoszcz, Cracow, Czestichowa, Katowice, Kielce, Kutno, Lodz, Lowicz-Glowny, Piotrkow-Trybalinski, Tychy and especially Warsaw, all flash up recalcitrant images of everything I have been steeped in for more than 20 years now. The shock I am feeling is quite palpable. There is a whirring sense that I am in the midst of a cauldron which was deadly for the Jewish People, and this was merely 70 to 80 years ago.

Blog imageBut for Warsaw, as I leave it slowly behind, this was the largest contained, brutalised and Destroyed Jewish Community in all of Europe. It pauses me to consider how many of The Holocaust's Jews had merged with their Polish neighbours to board trains for far away places. Here, where a place like Treblinka beckoned, how we now wish the Jews could have gotten onto trains bound elsewhere. But with Treblinka, it functioned fully upon the transportation of Jews from Warsaw, and while other Jews had been expelled from other communities, Treblinka was Warsaw's nemesis.

Blog image

So while I speed in the opposite direction, and toward Kutno, my mind looks out upon a landscape drenched with the blood of Jewish lives. It is troubling, knowing Chelmno approaches, and I will once again stand on the very space, where the epitome of all hatreds was conducted. Chelmno, which still secretes to the mind the missing presence of more than 152,000 to 400,000 Jews, taken and transported from the Countryside this Train is travelling through.

Blog image

I am troubled as we travel and as I see order, with life continuing without a flicker of recognition for what must have been so obvious during those times. If it is to be said then it is going to be a pleasure to walk amongst those I can feel close to. In some strange and uniquely personal way, these Murdered Jews have given me cause to accuse, reflect and look far more deeper into humanity's gravest wrongs, for an answer.

Blog image

I will not measure such reverence in other that the consumption of concerns for the passing of Human Beings, and regardless of the Fact that their Jewish designation ensured their destruction, my concern is a purely human response to an awful atrocity. Today, I will have travelled some 388 more Miles and will have looked across open Countryside, purged of all Jewish presence. But, to reach this Death Camp on the Ner River, it is an accomplishment I have neared for 12 years.

Blog image

Chelmno itself is a sterile ground transformed into a visitor center, a form of museum. It has nothing really to suggest that murders took place here. Hitler established this Death Camp on German Occupied Polish land and this too is a strange anomaly. Different from all other Death Camps, though in a similar way to Treblinka, in that Murder and interring were achieved in situ and removed elsewhere for interring. Chelmno's Death Camp is x2 distinct sites and the Murders were largely achieved en-route from one site to the other.

Blog image

The site of the killing is separated by a journey through hell for those Jews encased in Gassing Vans augmented purely for killing those who entered. I perhaps journey here the wrong way round, visiting the containment site first and then the transporting and loading area, as it was, secondly. But along that road from one place to another space, Jews were gassed and their lifeless bodies removed to where they awaited, no final resting space.

Blog image

The feverish attempts to finally disinter and destroy the evidence of their detailed mass Murder would seek to dislodge from Memory the place were these Jews were laid to no rest. I have walked and walked. I have been from every corner of this containment centre and feel deeply that some force beckons which is intangible, yet still, it calls to those who seek the place where so many have failed to escape.

Blog image

I am displeased with the loading area. Reconstructed and with no resemblance to what was the former place of such horror for the Jewish People, and others, brought there. My day is done. My head is done. I have nearly 200 miles to make a resolution with myself to add further to what needs to be said. I am weary. Tired. Not quite worn out and a walk back to my hotel, through night time Warsaw to confront the confusion. I am struck by the awe struck realisation of what humankind can accomplish against Humanity. I have Eugen Kogon’s The Theory and Practice of Hell to while away the coming hours, knowing full well, I have just visited a hellish place, and I have walked freely amongst lost but not Forgotten souls, and I manage to emerge.

Blog image





WarsawRevisiting the Past

Posted by P.A. Draigh Mon, October 02, 2017 21:12:19

It is Monday September 25th. and I have landed in Poland's Capitol, Warsaw, or as I am hearing it, Varshava!! An injustice to linguists. My taxi takes me the 8 Miles to my Hotel, where the Logos stands alongside The Vistula River just across from their National Stadium. I am prepared, he says, for an avalanche of emotions. So many things sweep across me as I prepare to meet with the itinerary I had set before I set off. There is this deepening feeling that loss might just overtake me as I try once more, to make sense of the illogical theatre of Genocide Hitler brought to the ramparts of the x6 Death Camps he had established in German Occupied Poland.

Blog image

The feeling of loss is, in itself, inexplicable as much as it is incomprehensible to any human being and I feel it, as wounding as any pain of grief. Grief, bound by humanity to add a memorial to a posterity we have been delivered, a sharply reminding stigma upon the very psyche of our humanity. Here, as I look back on the route from Warsawa Centralna Rail Station, I am guided by the missing Jewish presence which seems inextricably to draw me forward. Today I have travelled about 1,500 Miles. So I now submit to that feeling which suggests I am on the last leg of a journey, an odyssey of sorts which has accompanied me for so long. Or is this a pilgrimage and is that a correct term for what I must now accomplish.

Blog image

Perhaps it is more honourable a visit I make because it is my choice to do so. What I consider correct however, is the truth and only the truth can truly inform History. I tread a fine line between what belongs to the Jewish World and what is owned by a Humanity which chose to abandon its responsibility to the Jewish People, who are The Holocaust. Sometimes, there are thoughts of a personal nature which transfer perfectly to how I feel, and it is deeply felt over a huge loss which should never have been delivered to History, let alone to 6,000,000 innocent Jewish People, all Men, Women and Their Children, for being Jews.

Blog image

This World we occupy was thrown into a moral abyss along with 6,000,000 Jews, who were so immorally regarded, they were allowed to be destroyed without much protest or even the semblance of World concern. There are x6 very important reasons why Remembrance is centred in and around Poland. The establishment of Hitler’s Death Camps in German Occupied Poland has left a repository for memory in the most immense graveyard for the Jewish People ever devised. Thrown headlong into an abyss, and into which our own Humanity tumbled alongside these innocent Jews, the atrocity confronts us to this day.

Blog imageWhat occurs to me in my search has been the shocking realisation that of these x6 Death Camps, there are x4 which remain almost forgotten when placed alongside Auschwitz/Birkenau, Treblinka or in fact, the Warsaw Ghetto. I realised this visiting Sobibor and more especially Belzec, where their status lay in out of the way community’s not readily as approachable as Auschwitz/Birkenau or Treblinka. For those of us seeking a time and place in time, they will be more easily forgotten if they are not reached. Wherever the Jews were slain, there is a need to approach these places with the same intensity of shock and horror, which not be reserved solely for the more infamous and known of the Death Camps.

Blog image

Without any laudable concern forming over the negligible intervention we are witness to, and to this day, will we allow for these less visited Death Camps to simply fade from the landscape of The Holocaust. Then as we reach the reality of it all, that there was an imperative adopted by the few, who in order to save lives managed to save too few, what place can there be for sites of such depravity. We have secured for all posterity a precedent that was so depraved, the wrong lessons have been since learned, and all too often. I have learned from personal experience that the choices made can be wrong for the right reasons and can hurt, can cause pain and can ensure to make distance less fonder from what is known.

Blog image

I had a feeling all 6,000,000 of these Jews, who are The Holocaust were joined together at the same time in this carnage and we have been left with a very difficult prospect of finding them in the detail that has been hidden from us. I was making plans to visit the Polin Museum and I wish I had just sat down and let the entire feeling for the Catastrophe, an experience I felt deeply, could it just wash over me and give me the answers I sought. I was time constrained by other official timetables and then again, one can have too much time to mull over pasts and as they confuse the present give a differing meaning to all of our futures. I guess ones soul lays exposed and thoughts impose their own agenda. You have to choose your direction for whatever reason, only for it to then smack you straight in the face.

Blog image

You remember all you forgot to say or do! You give up everything you are and have Nothing left only to find it is not enough that time has taken everything with it!! I took a x4 hour walk around this City to take in a flavour of a Jewish Past which was not here anymore. I met a hint of a Jewish past in both Cracow and Lublin. It was not here in Warsaw. If you share x2 pictures to illustrate this, there is a plaque on a building, singularly pointing to when Jews once walked freely. What then struck me, the Umschlagplatz Memorial, so desolate and tucked away so out of sight as to be a forgotten reminder of what it is meant to add in memory for us. Also, and clearly the Polish People, and their government, have an awareness problem with the word 'collaboration'.

Blog image

They do not see the word in isolation and that those who 'collaborated' are being accused of what they did. Yet there is this position where they choose to feel the term accuses all of Poland for what some Poles did, and to far too many of their Jewish neighbours. Of course many forms of collaboration existed without Poles dealing directly with German occupying forces. Informing on a Jewish neighbour was collaborating in their very destruction. But Jews too have to accept the Fact, while not all Poles were Bad, some clearly were. I have much to unravel in these thought processes, but the unfortunate aspect in this, given that Poland is for the Jews their Largest graveyard, and as such, Jews need to visit these Graves. This is more of an imperative than for Poles to have any need to alter their relative position toward accepting some responsibility for what was done by certain Poles in their own backyard.

Blog image

There is a conflicting synergy between the two positions of Grief and a supposed refusal to accept the fuller responsibility. But there are places like the Polin Museum and the Marek Edelman Centre which just might afford some solution. I deal in those words which seek to add meaning to a dialogue and both these places are constituted in affording dialogue their welcoming space. Dialogue too is about listening and if the concerns around a term such as 'collaboration' is focused upon, in a negative way, it will seek to dismiss an integrity that speaks of all rights for all and the wrongs which run counter to them adapted by the few. I could catalogue an accumulation of corroborative evidence that places Poles at German doors giving away Jewish neighbours.

Blog image

But that is not my remit yet it is the purpose in History to state the factual integrity in all matters and if they are True, they will benefit all of History. I guess I am approaching some form of vindication for doubting the evidence I have become a witness to in which everyone accepts the responsibility that has been assigned to them. I cannot seem to get my thoughts in order at the moment. They are running away with the prospect that tomorrow, Chelmno will crush the formed opinion I had already gained and that there will be a coming together of what was not resolved in solving a solution for Hitler’s radical view in delivering The Holocaust. But, I doubt there will be any change other than a shift of emphasis in knowing Jews need to find their lost People and Poland, holding the soil of that search somehow captive have an interest in only securing .





Collaborating with Hitler’s Efforts in The Final Analysis.Testimony

Posted by P.A. Draigh Tue, September 19, 2017 13:12:17

 

"..Some people say it is too dangerous for me to go back there now. That I'll never be able to return. ..from time to time ..I go there in my mind. ..another family lives in that home ..another ..in my bedroom ..while I am 1,000's of miles away. ..reminders of ..life I loved ..girl I was." Malala Yousafzai.
Reading these words I was transported back nearly 80 years to when Jews were forced to give up their homes and their previous lives. I realise how fortunate it became for any Jew to be able to write the words which spelt loss. But also, in recognising their loss can be spelled out 6,000,000 tangible ways, and while each discourse will be different, it will be similarly unique. History has been assured we must learn, but continually we have learned that intolerance profits sooner than respect for our fellow human being. Had Gabby Sprenger, Halina Birenbaum, Inge Auerbacher, Natalie Mehlman Scharf or any Jewish Survivor penned these words, we would recognise the enormity of their loss and the magnitude of their grief.

Can it be acceptable that Jews who managed to Survive the most apocalyptic assault on Humanity, where 6,000,000 People were routinely, systematically and brutally Murdered in the most unprecedented and unparalleled assault upon the integrity of any human being, can they be allowed to fear returning to their former lives or homes. Can this be acceptable simply because of the collaborative efforts of those communities which dispelled them. Of course Hitler's demands were met by resistance, but in many cases collaboration paid rich dividends as is clearly evidenced to this day. Jews were made very aware that it was too dangerous for them to return, in places like Biala-Podlaska, Boleslawiec, Diosgyor, Kielce, Kunmadaras, Lublin, Mordy, Parczew, Piaski, Polaniec, Sokoly, Skarzysko-Kamienna and Turek.

With more than 1,000 Jewish Survivors being Murdered after Hitler’s defeat and with some 100,000 Jews forced to flee Poland, the landscape of collaboration takes on a differing complexion. The emphasis then became an effort for local communities to hold onto what had not been theirs in the first place. Here, and where such fear persisted for the Jewish Survivor, a gain was made by community's too busy confiscating what did not belong to them. In place of any Christian duty to their Jewish neighbours, greed overtook various communities. In each and every case that community knew what had happened to the Jews of Europe. Even if they did not know the detailed actions which had been led against 6,000,000 Jews in Death Camps, Ghetto’s and the Killing Sites throughout Hitler’s expanse into their Country’s, they knew the scale of the atrocity as it amplified itself in the failure on 6,000,000 Jews to return to their former homes, lives and freedoms.

So from 1,000's of miles away from their former homes, from their previous existence and without the lives the Jewish Survivor assumed remained theirs, they too can revisit in their minds ALL that has been taken from them. Surely such is the collaboration with Hitler's efforts that still today Jews are dispossessed and fearful of reclaiming ALL that is rightfully theirs. It would appear that any collaboration in the catastrophe that engulfed 6,000,000 Jews ensures a further Hitlerite demand is posthumously gained. Fear for the Jews has denied them their former lives and possessions. Clearly, and by definition, collaboration comes in many guises and there is a definite synergy between what is a hostile and aggressive effort and what remains the more muted response that is all too often recognised as resignation.

But, and this is the crucial element in all collaborating efforts, and in overseeing what is to be regarded as colluding with Hitler, his Nazi’s or especially in terms of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question especially, what we generally recognise as consorting, conspiring, co-operating, even fraternising or simply sympathising with those we should be working against, must be recognised as collaboration in its specific detail. So when it comes to the collaboration with Hitler’s efforts to destroy the Jews of Europe, and these efforts existed on the entire Continent of Europe and with every Country involved to some degree or another, we cannot disregard what some people or states might perceive and consider was their inability to act.

There are many occasions in which collaboration was quite fundamentally turned around and in the case of say an Oskar Schindler, he fully managed to recover from this collaborative effort to redeem his humanity and save more than 1,000 Jews. In contact with Polish students it has been pointed out to me that I am at odds with Polish Political efforts to sanitise Polish collaboration? The premise of my work is not simply Always to Remember, Never to Forget the 6,000,000 Jews, who are The Holocaust, but as an accusation which accounts for their loss. Without reservation I make the accusation, for all those who assisted in the Catastrophe, and this becomes a definitive assessment. My words should not offend any Jew. My statements must not cause derision to a Jew who Survived all attempts to destroy any x1 of the 6,000,000 of them.

What the Survivor must insist upon is nothing but the Truth, the entire veracity of that whole Truth and its factual status in the Fidelity of its telling. This means an acknowledgement must be given to the Survivor, by all those who assisted, by those of nations who either obliged or participated in the Catastrophe for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, to come to terms with their co-operative stance.

1) Belgium had its own ss legions, with more than 3,500 including a Waffen SS unit and various paramilitary groups.

2) Byelorussia participation with Hitler’s efforts are to be recognised, and in Minsk, a specific charge is made of their terrifying efforts to murder Minsk Jewry.

3) Denmark, lauded as a nation of Righteous, did serve the Hitler cause too with various Nazi idealised groups and a Waffen ss contingent.

4) Estonia marshalled many of its most ardent antisemitic legions to man the Death Camps and explore the deep recesses of the Killing Sites to deliver toward Hitler’s final aim.

5) France had the Milice and other organisations ranking among the 10’s of 1,000’s, all submitting to Hitlerite rule and the collaborative effort in removing Jews toward annihilation.

6) Holland serviced the Waffen SS need and many established Nazi affiliated groups existed to round up and disgorge Jews toward the Death Camps.

7) Hungary is synonymous with the Arrow Crosses endeavours on Hitler’s behalf and the near precision exercise to abandon the last remaining Jewish Community of substance toward Auschwitz, during the last stages of Hitler’s failed thousand year Reich.

8) Latvia’s Arajs kommando swept through this Baltic State doing Hitler’s bidding. If we are to accept that Araj kept his own particular collaboration localised, the tentacles of Latvian Collaboration spread far and wide. They manned the Gates at Treblinka, Maly-Trostenets. They were occupied in the Killing Sites along with der Einsatzgruppe and rampaged throughout Byelorussia, Russia and the Ukraine. Their status amongst the Waffen SS also show’s their collaborative nature! Latvian auxiliaries were on hand to crush the Jewish Rebellion in Warsaw.

9) Lithuania was instrumental in targeting their own Jewish communities at the behest of Hitler’s protagonist agenda. They also assisted alongside German forces against the Russians.

10) Norway formed a Waffen SS Division and nazi sympathisers abetted the efforts of the Quislings to control the power brokerage in their own Country.

11) Poland’s 'blue police' not only assisted the Nazi effort to consume 3,000,000 Jews but wilfully participated and perpetrated Crimes against Humanity. Their presence against the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was a clear collaboration against the Jewish People and Poland’s sovereignty.

12) Russia had its own anti-Russian allegiances and this, when coupled with Nazi sympathies, enlarged Hitler’s efforts into the wider Russian field. Entire Armies of dissident Russian forces colluded with Hitler’s efforts while Russian guards patrolled the Death Camps, guarded the Killing Sites and operated the Gas Chambers.

13) Slovakian collaboration and the Hlinka Guard oversaw the disintegration of the Czechoslovakian republic and were entirely active in the deportation of their Jewish People toward the Death Camps.

14) Ukrainian Collaboration took upon itself many distinctions and a Waffen SS unit was instrumental in every anti-Jewish action throughout Eastern Europe. The Ukraine supplied a militia which could field in excess of 18 divisional strength units of some 180,000 members.

15) Yugoslavia had the Croatian Ustasia to act for the Hitlerite influence in the region and they were systematically brutal against Jews, Serbs and Gypsies alike.

So the complexion of cooperation might be varied, wherever it was met, but it held a single accord when it was dealing with The Jewish Question. It is too simplistic to recognise in the actions of the Balts or the Ukrainian’s something which did not exist in Holland or Poland. But the simple fact of the matter is, collaboration which assisted Hitler in his efforts to devour as many Jews as was conceivably possible, was articulated in each and every one of these Country’s here mentioned.





I Choose to RememberHolocaust

Posted by P.A. Draigh Fri, August 11, 2017 15:40:46

It is with all honesty, that I threw every emotion I could muster into ensuring, not only do we Remember that 6,000,000 innocent People were Murdered, because they were Jews, but that we lay claim to its memory and place the full ferocity of its conduct and implementation where it belongs. On a pyramid scale, Hitler stands atop of this pile of iniquity, of the human carnage which ensued and of the total disregard for any morality which was clearly on display. No one should argue other than this position which has been properly raised by Raul Hilberg to damn and even condemn those who aided and abetted Hitler’s endeavour. That is unless of course you are a denier!

"..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable." Raul Hilberg.

Underneath this single insignificant man who became a significant person in the dishevelling influence of civilisation, are the guilty, the complicit, the duplicitous, the perpetrator, the participator, the collaborator, the mealy mouthed, the haters and the bystander who chose to look the other way. Of course not all of these are equally as guilty here. I would strenuously argue that avoiding the atrocity is less reprehensible that participating in it, but just as morally bankrupt. For those who issued the laws and decrees, and for those who fulfilled them to the devastating degrees achieved, all share an enormous guilt.

"..Every day they keep issuing new laws against ..Jews. Today ..for example ..they took all our appliances away from us ..sewing machine ..radio ..telephone ..vacuum cleaner ..electric fryer and my camera. I don't care about ..camera any more ..even though they didn't leave a receipt for it ..like when they took ..bicycle." Eva Heyman.

What Eva Heyman did not, nor could not know was, that Hitler and his regime were in the process of taking away 6,000,000 Jewish lives so as to profit further from their demise. Under guise of carrying forth these laws from Hitler demands, would come an entire echelon of mass Murderer's, Himmler, Heydrich, Eichmann and the entire cadre of SS, Wehrmacht, Polizei, Collaborators from many nations and all other willing executioners. There were spectators to the growing and escalating hatred and those like Hugh Greene of the Daily Telegraph actually reported what he saw.

"..I was in Berlin at that time and saw some pretty revolting sights ..destruction of Jewish shops ..Jews being arrested and led away ..police standing by while ..gangs destroyed ..shops ..even groups of well dressed women cheering. Maybe those women had a hangover next morning ..as they were intoxicated all right when this was taking place. I found it ..utterly revolting. In fact to a German journalist who saw me on that day and asked me what I was doing there ..I remember I just said very coldly ..I'm studying German culture." Hugh Greene.

From here, an advantage point underneath the fuller deeds to segregate, emasculate and destroy the Jews, states of nations read these reports and chose to do nothing. These too are as guilty as any of those who stood idly by and watched as innocent Men, Women and Children were disregarded from life because they were Jews. Now these witnesses are never going to be as guilty as the bystander who so much as profited a bean in some way from the deepening Catastrophe that was rapidly unfolding for the Jewish People. The scale of the entire atrocity lasted some 12 to 13 years, from 1932 till 1945 and yet the full crescendo of The Holocaust enactment was during a period of some 4 to 6 years during that period, from 1939 till 1945.

"..Only one judgement is passed on ..executioner ..he ceases to be a human being. Though looking on his victim as Less Than Human ..he becomes his own executioner ..he executes ..human being inside himself. But ..victim ..no matter what ..executioner does to kill him ..remains a human being forever." Vasily Grossman.

Exactly what Vasily Grossman states as the degrading personality of a debased person, allows us to see through the obfuscation of facts and figures to identify those individuals responsible for their own actions. Still again, atop this myriad of those guilty of many facets of the same crime, The Holocaust, we cannot ever engineer all people into the blame for what some, even many from varying and possibly all states chose to do or decided not to do. So once again we stand away from the atrocity and seek to afford blame to those who were rightly guilty so as such acclaim cannot be rendered upon those who were innocent. We should never involve these innocent, and there were many, in what needs to be certain is guilt in the process of this Jewish Annihilation.

"..When I stand before you ..to lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment." Gideon Hausner.

The indictment of course is for Gideon Hausner to label all those would be accusers with the ability to reign over their accused. That he did so, with an integrity supported by truth and honesty is the worth of any man aspiring to deliver Justice to those previously denied it. Remember too, Gideon Hausner did not accuse all Germans. He accused Adolf Eichmann as the accused who railed against Jewish antecedence and delivered for Hitler, the 6,000,000 lost voices of those quelled in the culling of all civilisation. Believe me! I am one who feels the best voice to add to the missing voices from The Holocaust are those Jews who know, those Jews who saw and those Jewish People who witnessed what no Human Being should ever have been a witness to. So for me, what Chaim Aron Kaplan acknowledges is a clear knowledge of what we now seek to know of.

"..anyone ..attempting to write ..on ..nature of Nazism ..will not be able to express ..truth ..Nazism's cruelty and barbarism. ..no writer among ..gentiles is qualified for this task. ..a Jewish writer who lives ..life of his people ..who feels ..suffers their agony ..cannot find a true path here. Only one who feels ..taste of Nazi rule ..only one who ..bared his back to ..lashes ..only ..a writer ..if he is a man of sensitivity ..might be able to." Chaim Aron Kaplan.

It is above all my hope that you will best accredit my obvious intention with the emotive sensitivity I believe I deliver in what stands as a motto for me in that I seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget what happened and indeed what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 Jews. So I too am here to accuse those of their guilt! So please accuse, please blame and please ensure that for those who respectfully deserve our integrity to speak for them, that they are all Remembered in all honesty. We deliver them a posthumous memory with the surety we must accord to their murderer's, their executioner's and those willing to assist in this calamity for all Humanity an accurate indictment of their crimes.

"..I am happy to die amidst fighting Halutzim. We will take with us into our graves ..awareness that ..Jewish People will endure eternally." Yitzhak Katzenelson.

Yitzhak Katzenelson accords death with a certain victory that while Jews have been targeted for extinction, Jews will endure and Jews will certainly Survive. So while I am aware of the rawness of grief which the Survivor must feel, I share a sense of that grief giving way to optimism. The future is always bold. For me, while I am sure the Children of those who did not Survive, which is ably assisted by such grief, it remains too enormous for us ever to comprehend its manifest and compounding effects. But no one ever has the right to accuse anyone of a wrong that was not done by them. So if 6,000,000 accuser's look down on the German People, they will find many who are neither guilty nor attributable to these crimes for which they have paid the ultimate price.

"..misery ..SS inflicted on their victims defies description ..cool ..calculating manner in which it was inflicted is atrocious. ..to look back on this piece of human history fills us with horror." Elie A. Cohen.

As we continually look back we are, like Elie A. Cohen, all becoming more and more aware of what atrocity The Holocaust is for 6,000,000 Jewish People, and then on their behalf for World Jewry. We are becoming more aware to the atrocity, but believe me, we are not as yet awake to the mounting threat which has been led by the wrong lessons from The Holocaust period. Indeed, the Jewish People have been taught a savage and brutal lesson, both deeply wounding and even terminal in terms of how they relate to the rest of the World. I am torn here by two lessons which emanate from one of the finest writer's on The Holocaust theme, and while succinct in this passage, Primo Levi's message is blunt and to the point.

"..if ..world could become convinced ..Auschwitz never existed ..it would be easier to build ..second Auschwitz .. and ..no assurance it would devour only Jews". Primo Levi.

So we guard against the platforms of growing hatreds and must acknowledge our debt to those who delivered their experience to us. But we must never forget that such experience has been borne by all too many who should have been protected by any who would call themselves, moral, ethical or even 'christian'. But in all my efforts of concern, I am no less emotive, and I lend my own words and they are the words of this Irish, former 'catholic', who wishes so much more that should have been done and which could have been done was done. Hindsight is a wondrous option, but I am certain that I could not have stood back while lines of marching People were being progressed toward their final destruction, even if I had not gathered the reason for their removal from our midst.

"..I have always made it a point ..when I meet with Survivors ..to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For ..whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration ..Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get ..opportunity to greet you in person ..I apologise to You for ..inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust who cannot direct their appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved. In each of you ..World entire has been saved." Patrick Dempsey.

Here then, as we approach a rebuke of the total humiliation, the demoralisation of people, which indeed led all too many toward that spiritual shipwreck, these are not the 6,000,000 Jews demoralised though we allowed them to be humiliated. These rebukes however are for those who sought to forget the deeds they undertook to wreck such an amassed ship filled with the lives of 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish Souls. So to this day we now choose to Remember where once 6,000,000 lives have been taken to and while we will never know where all of them have been unceremoniously dumped, I have a wish to speak for them

".. A whole generation of Germans ..children and grandchildren of ..perpetrators of ..Nazi genocide ..have heard nothing from their parents and grandparents about what they saw ..and what they did ..in Auschwitz and ..other factories of death. It is time ..at long last ..to stop forgetting and suppressing." Irene Weiss.

It truly is time to stop forgetting and always remembering, which is all too easy for those in search of a comprehension as to why 6,000,000 Jews were systematically sought out for Destruction. For me though, we do not best serve this search with any bias or a wrongly placed anger and hatred for what was done and achieved against the Jewish People. Irene Weiss asks us, and we should accept our duty is to do whatever is required to add to 6,000,000 memories, but not at a cost to what identifies those who truly must be unmasked as the guilty. It appears to me that the Jewish mistrust of the World is well placed, and considering 2,000 years of anti-Jewish rhetoric, I too am appalled it has lasted too long. So when that fully vocalised hatred was converted into an annihilation process, an all too easily adapted and accepted programme by all too many, needs to be explored.

"..I have struggled hard to overcome ..hatred of those who cruelly destroyed my early life ..my family and almost succeeded in exterminating my people. ..I have come to realise ..there are no basically evil nations or racial groups. ..There are only evil people ..seekers after wealth or power." Maja Abramowitch.

But in accepting the reasoning of one such as Maja Abramowitch, how could I argue against all she knew and came to know, I would contend that not even she could forgave anyone for what was done to the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust. Forgiveness for these Destroyed Jews belongs to them solely, and they are no longer in a position to forgive. I accept that intrinsically there are only evil people who are individuals in amongst nations and racial groups. So before I get involved with even more work on Remembering why this is all a loss for us ALL, I will leave you with the knowledge that my words are mixed with those better presented to represent all that needs to be said, and believe me, Primo Levi has all I wish I could say.

"..I do not ..cannot know what I would be today if I had not been in ..Camp. No man knows his future. ..a man sets out ..almost never are our choices between ..two alternatives. ..every choice is followed by others. ..if I had not lived ..Auschwitz experience ..I probably would never have written. ..years have passed ..interposed ..artificial memory ..a defensive barrier ..between my ..normal present and ..dramatic past. ..I survived ..due ..to good luck. ..to survive with ..precise purpose of recounting. ..helped by ..determination ..to recognise always ..my companions ..myself ..men ..not things. ..to avoid ..total humiliation and demoralisation which led so many to spiritual shipwreck." Primo Levi.



JulyTestimony

Posted by P.A. Draigh Fri, July 28, 2017 17:28:49

On this day in the History of The Holocaust July 31st. 1919 sees Germany adopt the Weimar constitution. On July 29th. 1921 Hitler becomes Chairman NSDAP, enroute toward becoming der Fuhrer. On July 14th. 1925 the Allies commence withdrawal from the Ruhr and on July 18th. Hitler's 1st. Volume of 'Mein Kampf', My Struggle, is published. On July 31st. 1932 the Nazi's secure 37.3% of the Election votes cast, winning 230 of the 608 seats in the Reichstag. They are now the Largest single Party in German Government. On July 1st. 1933 the German government reiterates that Hitler still belongs to the Catholic Church and has no intention of leaving it. On July 14th. The Nazi Party becomes Germany's only legally recognised political party. The Law Regarding Revocation of Naturalisation and the Annulment of German Citizenship removes German citizenship from Eastern European Jews and Gypsies resident in Germany.

The Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases is decreed and euthanasia, for those declared 'lebensunwertes Leben,' of a 'life unworthy of life', will be murdered. The law is endorsed by the American Eugenics Society and meanwhile, Jews will be refused entry into Law Schools under Hitler's personal wishes. On July 20th. Reich Concordat with Pope Pius XI and the Vatican, a treaty protecting Catholic rights in Germany for the church while this gives Hitler 'Political recognition'. On July 31st. approximately 30,000 people are by now interned in Hitler’s Nazi Concentration Camps. On July 4th. 1934 Theodor Eicke establishes the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps at Dachau. On July 10th. the Polish anti-Semitic organisation 'Oboz Narodowo-Radykalny' is banned by Polish leader Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, three months after its formation.

On July 20th. the SS is strengthened and becomes autonomous of the much weakened SA and the SS now overhauls the Camp system. On July 25th. a Nazi Putsch in Austria fails and the Austrian Prime Minister, Engelbert Dollfuss is murdered. On July 26th. Franz von Papen becomes special envoy to Austria. On July 1st. 1935 The Society for Research into the Teaching of Ancestral Heritage, 'Ahnenerbe Forschungs und Lehrgemeinschaft' founded. This will become an anti-Semitic undertaking, studying the racial history of the German people. On July 3rd. 1936 in the assembly room of the League of Nations in Geneva, Stefan Lux, a German Jew, kills himself in protest at Hitler’s, and Germany's ill treatment of the Jews. On July 11th. Hitler agrees Austrian Sovereignty and the following day, on July 12th. Prisoners and civilian workers begin to construct Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, at Oranienburg, 32 Kilometres from Berlin.

On July 1st. 1937 Pastor Martin Niemoeller is arrested over his opposition to Hitler and on July 8th. Werner Otto von Hentig of the German Foreign Office issues a memorandum to his superior, Ernst von Weizsaker, suggesting that poorer Jews should be expelled ahead of richer Jews in order to extort a greater levy from Germany's more prosperous Jews! On July 16th. Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens near Weimar and the first 300 prisoners arrive. On July 27th. the Trial of 5 Jews opens in Bamberg, Germany over alleged 'ritual murder'. On July 2nd. 1938 40,000 Austrian Jews are taken into 'protective custody'. On July 6th. Anti-Jewish limitations on their economic life are promulgated as a Refugee Conference is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France. The Evian Conference, of which 29 of the 33 Nations invited who turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for Jews under Hitler's yoke, sort out nothing for the Jewish People! As if the Jews don’t feel isolated enough, or abandoned completely,

Evian hands Hitler the confirmation that he has captured the mood of indifference that the World holds for the Jewish predicament and this is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends on July 15th.. On July 14th. Pope Pius XI is 'politically' displeased and shares a hope that the Italian leader Benito Mussolini would not be inadvertently influenced by Hitler. However, an Italian Manifesto of the Racial Scientists is issued which suggests otherwise and this is barely 5 months after Mussolini declared he did not envisage a Jewish Problem.

Thursday July 14th. 1938 "..Jews for Sale at a Bargain price. Who Wants Them? No One!" German Newspaper Reichswart.

On July 15th. The Evian Conference ends with none of those present unwilling or unable to resolve the major issue, and that is to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees who are facing an increasing weight of abuse and isolation. After 10 days of deliberation, the Jews under direct threat from Hitler must certainly feel abandoned. On July 21st. Jews in Germany are made to apply for identity cards and on July 25th. The Medical Certification of Jewish physicians is cancelled. On July 30th. Henry Ford receives the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from the Third Reich. On July 4th. 1939 Jews cannot be employed in Government positions and German Jewry is to be placed under the Reich Association of Jews, 'Reichsvereingung der Juden im Deutschland', authority. On July 26th. Adolf Eichmann takes charge of Prague Emigration Office.

Sunday July 30th. 1939 "..No doubt Jews are not ..loveable people ..do not care about them myself. ..not sufficient to explain ..pogrom." Neville Chamberlain.

On July 1st. in 1940’s Poland the Bedzin Ghetto is established and 30,000 Jews will be Enclosed. On July 2nd. Martin Franz Julius Luther of the German Foreign Ministry circulates a proposal on The Madagascar Plan. In theory, it was proposed to remove all of Europe’s Jews to this Island off the South East coast of Africa. It should also be noted here, that Mieczyslaw Lepecki headed a Polish Governmental Commission tasked, 3 years previously, in 1937, to investigate the likelihood of deporting their own Polish Jews to Madagaskar. On July 4th. the Ion Gigurtu Government takes over in Romania. On July 6th. Tadeusz Wiejowski, is the first successful escapee from Auschwitz.

"..local population is fanatically Polish and is ready to do anything against ..hated camp SS garrison. Every prisoner who manages to escape can count on all possible help as soon as he reaches ..first Polish homestead." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rudolf Hoess.

While this position is strictly true as it pertained to the position of the Poles detained in Labour Camp Auschwitz back in 1940, it would not hold out the same prospect for any of those escaping Jews when Hoess was given the directive to turn Auschwitz into a Death Camp with the structure of Birkenau ensuring the complete destruction of the Jews sent there. There was a two fold reason for this, as Poles would be automatically Murdered for their assistance of Jews, but it did not prevent some Poles from enriching themselves collaborating with Hitler’s attempts to destroy all of Polish Jewry. On July 10th. Collaborationist French Government is formed at Vichy as the Battle of Britain begin. On July 12th. Hans Frank declares that he has convinced Hitler to cease his deportation of Jews to General Government.

Here, with the mere suggestion that Frank spoke to Hitler about the Deportation of the Jews into his Generalgouvernment territory, it ensures our awareness of Hitler's resolve for his Final Solution. On July 16th. the expulsion of Alsace’s Jews begins and on July 18th. Warsaw Jews are barred from Public Parks and their Benches. On July 19th. the Zychlin Ghetto in Poland is established and 3,200 Jews will be Enclosed as German Jews have their phones confiscated and Britain rejects Hitler's peace overture in Reichstag speech. On July 21st. Hitler prepares for his attack on Russia, Operation Barbarossa. On July 23rd. Hitler visits Paris as the first Jewish mentally ill are murdered at the Brandenburg Institute and as Bishop Theophil Wurm objects to the 'euthanasia' project that is being conducted at Grafaneck also. On July 28th. Hitler meets the Slovakian leadership in Salzburg and urges a more radical solution to their own Jewish Question.

On July 1st. 1941 100's of Plunge’s Jews are murdered and 100 Lyakhovichi Jews are murdered and the Wehrmacht now enters Riga. On July 2nd. Heydrich gives carte blanche to his Higher SS and Police Fuhrer's, the HSSPF, to deal exclusively and systemically with the Jewish People. Meanwhile 800 of Novo-Selista’s Jews are Murdered as are 100's of Kamenka's Jews and 100's of Stryj’s Jews, also Murdered. In earnest SS Standartenfuhrer Alfred Filbert's Einsatzkommando '9' sets about the murders of Vilna's Jews as SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger's Einsatzkommando '3' has overall responsibility for murder duties in Lithuania. On July 3rd. 4,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered as are 3,500 of Zloczew’s Jews 100's of Drohobycz’s Jews 100 of Bialystok’s Jews and 100 of Novogroduk’s Jews, also murdered. Meanwhile, Josef Stalin issues a scorched Earth policy.

Friday July 4th. 1941 "..we are not ashamed of our badges. Let those be ashamed who have hung them on us." Yitzhak Rudashevski.

On July 4th. 5,000 of Tarnopol’s Jews are murdered and over 2,000 of Lutsk’s Jews are murdered at Lubard Fortress. 463 of Kovno’s Jewish Men and Women murdered at Fort VII and 100's of Riga's Jews are murdered, forced into the Great Choral Synagogue, Gogol Street, set alight with those rounded up still inside.5 of the 6 other Riga Synagogues are set alight with their congregations locked inside. Nly Peitavas Street Synagogue survives. The Jews of Schodnica are Murdered as the Jewish Badge decree was issued to the Jews of Vilna, who were ordered to wear it. This identifying process, a symbol meant to serve as a subjugating badge of dishonour, was a stage on the road to Ponary Woods and was a progressive approach which so confused and then engulfed the Jewish People. Led into believing that the Germans were actually an acculturated and enlightened people, these Jews of Riga, and wherever Hitler held sway, were soon convinced otherwise.

On July 5th. Rudolf Schmundt, Hitler's adjutant, reports to his Fuhrer that thousands of Russian Jews have already been murdered as Zalman Tannenberg, the Piotrkow-Trybunalski Ghetto Judenrate Chairman is arrested and sent to Auschwitz. Along with 10 other Judenrate members, all are to be Murdered there. The Einsatzkommando are in Lvov and SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau affords the World a Testimony.

Saturday July 5th. 1941. "..There were 100's of Jews walking along ..street with blood pouring down their faces ..holes in their heads ..hands broken ..eyes hanging out of their sockets. ..covered in blood. Some ..carrying others who had collapsed. We went to ..citadel ..saw things that few people have ever seen. At ..entrance ..were soldiers standing guard. .. holding clubs ..thick as a man's wrist ..lashing out and hitting anyone who crossed their path. ..Jews were pouring out of ..entrance. ..rows of Jews lying one on top of ..other ..whimpering horribly. ..Jews kept streaming out ..completely covered in blood. ..just being hit out of rage and hatred." SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau.

O July 6th. 3,000 of Chernovtsy’s Jews are murdered and 2,514 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered at the VII Fort. 600 of Skalat’s Jews are murdered and the Germans enter Czortkow where there are 8,000 Czortkow Jews to be resettled. The Lvov Jews are now ordered to wear the Yellow Star.

"..For ..past several months ..it has been reported that ..on instructions from Berlin ..patients who have been suffering for a long time from apparently incurable diseases have been forcibly removed from homes and clinics. Their relatives are later informed that ..patient has died ..that ..body has been cremated and that ..ashes may be claimed. There is little doubt that these numerous cases of unexpected death of ..insane are not natural but often deliberately caused ..and result from ..belief that it is right to take away life that is unworthy of being lived. This ghastly doctrine tries to justify ..murder of blameless men and would seek to give legal sanction to ..forcible killing of invalids ..cripples ..incurable and ..incapacitated. I have discovered that ..practice here in Westphalia is to compile lists of such patients who are to be removed elsewhere as unproductive citizens and ..after a period of time ..put to death. This very week ..first group of these patients has been taken from ..clinic of Marienthal near Munster." Bishop Clement August von Galen.

The Bishop of Munster, Clement August von Galen stated in his missal, which was protesting the actions of the T4 Euthanasia Programme. This was fully in line with the Fulda Pastoral letter and meanwhile, the Church is still silent over what is happening to the Jewish People. Remember also that the Euthanasia Programme, T4, was in operation ever since Hitler's Invasion of Poland. On July 7th. 2,000 of Khotin’s Jews are murdered, 32 of Marijampole’s Jews are also murdered with more than 8,794 of Marijampole’s Jews who will be eventually murdered. The Germans have entered Buczacz. On July 8th. 40 of Przemysl’s Jews are murdered, burned to Death in their Synagogue. 14 of Marijampole’s Jews are murdered as the Mass Murder of Jews begins in Ponary Woods while the German forces enter Lipkany and many Jews are immediately Murdered.

All Baltic Jews are forced to wear 'Star of David,' the Jewish Badge of Honour and Hitler declared that Goering's Luftwaffe would reduce Moscow and Leningrad to rubble. This added to Hitler's euphoria of the day, when he would be spared the necessary feeding of populations within 2 cities, so reduced to rubble, the Russian people would supposedly cease to exist. Elsewhere, Mihai Antonescu the Romanian President of the Council of Ministers makes plans for "ethnic purification' as the Jews of Bessarabia and Bucovina are ejected from Romania. On July 9th. 34 of Wendziogala’s Jewish Men and Women murdered and 24 Kovno Jewish Men and Women are murdered at the VII Fort. Meanwhile, British intelligence has broken the 'enigma' code. Now, before the Allied Nations lay the strategic values Hitler placed upon the advance 'East' and the 'resettlement' programme for the Jewish People he will have encountered there.

The Operational Situation Reports of der Einsatzgruppe in the East, these OSR's, are a clear indictment of the facts. However, as we read them today, they are cold and calculating and specify the relevance to Hitler of the Murder of every last Man, Woman and Child of the Jewish Faith. Also, and in depicting the Slaughter of the mainly Jewish People der Einsatzgruppe trawled the East for, all of what became known through the ‘intelligence’ led community, should have better prepared the West for all and any action to limit, decrease or even prevent the future terms of what The Holocaust would amount to. It is conceivably culpable, that given the knowledge which the Enigma cipher had presented, it is remarkable that any of the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, Men, Women and Their Children still managed to be Murdered?

On July 10th. 1,600 of Jedwabne’s Jews, the entire Jewish Population are burned to death by local Poles. 200 Jews of Czortkow are Murdered and over 123 of Vilna’s Jews are also murdered. Hitler's forces race toward Kiev, whose Jews are to receive, 'the worst blow.' HSSPF Obergruppenfuhrer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski issues an order that all Male Jews, 17 - 45 years of age, should be shot on the grounds of 'looting.'

Friday July 11th. 1941 "..all Male Jews between 17 and 45 convicted as plunderer’s are to be shot. ..shootings to take place away from Cities ..Villages ..thoroughfares. ..graves ..levelled in such a way ..no pilgrimage site can arise. ..I forbid photographing and ..spectators at ..executions. Executions and sites are not to be made know. Colonel Max Montua.

The order from Bach-Zalewski is reissued for the benefit of Montua’s his own killing force, and as if Hitler needed some arbitrary excuse to Murder all the Jews he so wished, looting and plundering are given as some form of reasoning. It is clear however, that Colonel Montua has been given a directive which will allow for no future presence of the Jews to remain. Murdered and concealed, it will be the forensic status of Historical Archaeology which will deliver forward any Jewish Presence from the Killing Sites. As to the photographing of any of these atrocity’s, though limited, History is fully able to observe what Montua sought to forbid. On July 11th. 7,800 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered. 5,000 of Ternopol’s Jews are murdered in a 7 day action. 100's of Vilna's Jews are murdered in Ponary Woods and the Vitebsk Ghetto in Byelorussia is established and 16,000 Jews will be Enclosed.

Friday July 11th. 1941 "..already know what was going on. ..3 pm ..large group of Jews ..taken ..300 people. ..hour later ..volleys began. Ten ..shot at a time." Kazimierz Sakowicz.

What the witness Kazimierz Sakowicz notes in his Diary is the procession of Vilna's Jews toward Ponary Woods and their destruction at the hands of the Einsatz, Lithuanian and Ukrainian Kommando's lined up to resolve the particular aspect of Vilna’s Jewish Question.

Saturday July 12th. 1941 "..At 6:00 in ..morning ..awoken from a deep sleep. Report for an execution. Fine ..so I'll just play executioner and then gravedigger ..why not? 23 had to be shot ..amongst them 2 women. ..We had to find a suitable spot to shoot and bury them. After a few minutes we found a place. ..death candidates assembled with shovels to dig their own graves. Two of them were weeping. ..others certainly have incredible courage. ..Strange ..I am completely unmoved. No pity ..nothing. That's ..way it is and then it's all over. ..Valuables ..watches ..money ..put into a pile. ..2 women are lined up at one end of ..grave ready to be shot first. ..As ..women walked to ..grave they were completely composed. They turned around. Six of us had to shoot them. ..job ..assigned thus ..three at ..heart ..three at ..head. I took ..heart. ..shots were fired and ..brains whizzed through ..air. Two in ..head is too much. They almost tear it off. ..a few bodies ..rearranged with a pickaxe. ..I came back dog tired." SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau.

On July 12th., the British Russian Mutual Aid Pact is signed in Moscow as the Einsatzkommando are in Drohobycz and Felix Landau affords the World a Testimony. On July 14th. 21 of Marijampole’s Jews are murdered as Adolf Hitler issues his War Directive, No. 32a, for the continuing conduct of operations in Russia. On July 16th. Hitler is now seen here, at the genesis of what must have been the early stages of what would intentionally become die Endlosung der Judenfrage, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.

Wednesday July 16th. 1941 "..essential ..we do not proclaim our views ..before ..world. ..no need for that ..main thing ..we ourselves know what we want. ..all necessary measures ..shooting ..resettlement ..we shall take them." Adolf Hitler.

Such was the disguise given over to Hitler's more fundamentally murderous solution that in this, Hitler was fully prepared to immerse all arms of the Reich in the very detail of the atrocity and that immersion then fully arose at forthcoming Wannsee Conference. It must be recognised also, that while Hitler pronounced a death sentence upon ALL the Jews of Europe, his functionaries where consolidating this total view. While der Einsatzgruppe were rampaging through Russia at this time, the Ghetto’s of Europe were adding to this collective assault, with thousand's upon thousand's of Jews left to starve to death throughout Poland and further beyond. Here, according to SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Hoeppner, the Jews of the Warthegau were being forced toward an eventual resolve with the full implications of the disguised tenets of The Final Solution. Hoeppner directed his own comments to none other than Eichmann, with a charge that suggested:-

Thursday July 17th. 1941 "..There is a danger this winter that it will not be possible to feed all ..Jews. It should be seriously considered whether ..most humane solution would not be to do away with ..Jews ..unless they are capable of working ..by means of some quick method. In any case ..this would be more convenient than letting them starve to death." Rolf Heinz Hoeppner.

While the contention of history remains that few knew fully what Hitler demanded, the world woke to a devastation unparalleled in all history, and the destruction of 6,000,000 Jewish People. A rubicon had been crossed and the civilising warrant towards humanity was tossed aside. Hitler fully articulated these ambiguous terms, and he himself set before time the methodology to disguise what hen himself intended for the Jews. For today’s understanding of what resettlement surely meant, and in these unambiguous terms, shooting, death and destruction for all of his enemies would follow. We know too that the Jews figured crucially in those terms of reference, where hatred was clearly uttered and countenanced and the intention can only ever have been that Hitler was intent upon the devastation and total destruction of the Jewish People. Hitler developed such a strategy along a line toward a final and destructive assault upon the integrity of the Jews, wherever Hitler found them.

While only Hitler knew all and every detail of a world view that encapsulated a discourse signalling the destruction of the Jews, few could then and now deny the truth of all that Hitler professed. On July 17th. 1,200 of Slonim’s Jews are Murdered and 6 Jews of Babtei are also murdered. Reinhard Heydrich once more escalates the search for Hitler’s final solution with an order to murder all captured Jewish Prisoner's of War and Alfred Rosenberg is now appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. On July 18th 4,000 of Lipkany’s Survivors are further expelled toward Transnistria and many were Murdered en-route, few ever returned. Elsewhere, 53 of Marijampole’s Jewish Men and Women murdered. On July 19th. 19 of Kovno’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered at the VII Fort. Hitler now issues War Directive No. 33 for the further conduct of operations in Russia and while Hitler's emphasis switches away from Moscow, after Army Group South takes Smolensk, there is the seeming certainty of victory in Southern Sector.

Sunday July 20th. 1941 "..we heard that for ..remaining Jews living in town ..a ghetto is being prepared on ..side of ..Grive." Paula Frankel-Zaltzman

On July 20th. the Minsk Ghetto is established and there will be over 60,000 Jews Enclosed. Minsk is one of the Nine Major Ghetto’s Established. The Daugavpils Ghetto was hereby established with 23,048 Jews contained. On July 21st. 70 of Panevezys’ Jewish Men and Women are murdered while 30 Russians and 45 Jews of Minsk are also murdered. It should be remembered that these Russians had refused to murder the Jews and paid the ultimate price for their humanitarian bravery. Heinrich Himmler now orders for the Majdanek Death Camp plans to be altered as Majdanek is operational as a Concentration Camp. Romania recovers Besserabia.

Tuesday July 22nd. 1941 "..About 8,000 Jewish people with ..present ..SS personnel would take about 1 year ..which is untenable for pacification of ..Liepaja." Naval Kommandant Hans Kawelmacher.

On July 22nd. 1 of Panevezys’ Jews is murdered and Vichy begins expropriation of Jewish businesses and property’s. Hitler proclaims to the Croatian leader, Marshal Sladko Kvaternik, that victory in Russia would be accomplished by September. Hitler also suggests to the Croatian leader for the need to exterminate its own internal enemies and also demands that rear-Army areas are suppressed ruthlessly and with the harshest methods. On July 23rd. 95 of Kedainiai’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered and Hitler issues his War Directive No. 33a for the further conduct of operations in Russia. On July 24th. 3,300 of Liepaja’s Jews are murdered at Skeden, over a three day period. Elsewhere the Kishinev Ghetto is established and Brest-Litovsk surrenders. On July 25th. 3,800 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered and with SS Brigadefuhrer Erwin Schukltz and his EK 5 here at Zhitomir, 2,500 of Zhitomir’s Jews are killed in those initial days.

An operation, the Petliura Days commences as 2,000 of Lvov's Jews are murdered and 2,000 are arrested on this 'Black Friday'. These Lvov Jews were taken to the Jewish Cemetery and to the Lunecki Prison and were systematically shot them. Many more 1,000’s were injured.

103 of Mariampole’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered. On July 26th. the Germans enter Stanislawow and a Jewish Council is immediately demanded in place as the Ghetto Judenrate Chairman is established to conduct matters ordered by the occupying forces. Israel Seibald has that dubious distinction.

Sunday July 27th. 1941 "..Jewish problem Liepaja largely solved by execution of about 1,100 male Jews by Riga SS commando on 24th., 25th., ..27th ..July 1941." Naval Kommandant Hans Kawelmacher.

July 27th. 'Action Petliura' ends with 2,000 of Lvov’s Jews murdered mainly in the Janow Forest and elsewhere over 100 of Belgrade’s Jews are murdered at the Tasmajdan Camp by Wehrmacht troops. Heinrich Lorenz Lohse, the Baltic Commissioner issues guidelines on the treatment of Jews under his jurisdiction in Ostland. On July 28th. 900 of Vilkavisks’ Jews are murdered and 350 Jews of Buczacz are Murdered on Fedor Hill. Mendel Reich now heads the Buczacz Ghetto Judenrate. 249 of Panevezys’ Jewish Men and Women are murdered as are 100's of Drogobych’s Jews, also Murdered. Meanwhile Jews of Kovno are excluded from Parks and Public conveyances, Jews of Kovno are not allowed to sit on benches and the Jews of Kovno are not allowed to walk on the pavements. The Murder of Russian POW's at Smolensk commences. On July 29th. 4,000 of Iasi’s Jews are murdered. 254 of Rasainiai’s Jews are murdered and 40 Lodz Jewish mental patients are murdered in a nearby forest. Wehrmacht troops are busy murdering Jews in Belgrade.

On July 30th. 1,000 of Daugavpils’ Jews, mostly Eldrly and over 60 years old, were Murdered in the Mezciems and Pogulanka Forests. 27 of Agriogala’s Jews are murdered as Hitler issues his War Directive No. 34 for the conduct of operations in Russia. On July 31st. 10,000 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered as are 10,000 Kishinev Jews, also murdered. Over 2,500 of Zhitomir’s Jews are murdered as are 251 of Utena’s Jewish Men and Women, all murdered and 13 of Wendziogala’s Jews are also murdered. Elsewhere the Dvinsk Ghetto is established as Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering instructs Reinhard Heydrich to 'resettle' all of European Jewry. This is to come about in a final resolve that is now meant to employ the physical destruction of all of the Jews of Europe, All Men, All Women and every single Jewish Child included. Meanwhile, Rudolf Hoess is duly informed by Heinrich Himmler that this ultimate programme that Hitler has ordered is in its eventual phase 'The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.'

Thursday July 31st. 1941 "..complete solution of ..Jewish question in ..German sphere of influence in Europe." Hermann Goering.

On July 2nd. 1942 Reinhard Heydrich expands upon the Einsatzgruppe role to his HigherSSPolizeiFuhrer’s. The New York Times reports upon the Killing operations at Chelmno with radical elements and Jewish Officials to be dealt a deadly blow. The entire Jewish Community of Ropczyce are murdered at Belzec as Berlin Jews are being deported to Theresienstadt.

"..I decided to visit ..Belzec ..where ..I assumed ..my sisters had been killed together with all ..girls of ..Ropczyce. I reached Belzec. ..camp was on a hill ..bordered ..by a forest ..and ..railroad tracks which ..Germans had built for transporting their victims. ..Poles had ..turned ..camp into a museum ..without any mention of ..fact that all ..victims were Jews. ..In ..basement there were many human bones. I took one bone with me back to Israel ..it is buried beneath ..memorial for our shtetl ..erected in ..cemetery in Holon." Yehoshua Gold.

On July 3rd. Sevastopol fell to the advancing Wehrmacht and the following day, July 4th. the Wehrmacht are at the Don. On July 7th. 14,000 of Rzeszow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec while 1,000 of Rzeszow’s Jews are murdered in the Rudna Forest. Dr. Irmfried Eberl, Treblinka's Commandant, notifies Dr. Heinz Auerswald, the Commissioner of the Warsaw Ghetto, of his readiness to receive the Jews of Warsaw as Himmler conducts a meeting on the forced Sterilisation of Women inmates at Auschwitz. On July 8th. 7,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered at the Janowska Camp. On July 10th. 100 Jewish Women are experimented upon at Auschwitz while 50 inmates escape from Birkenau. The Times of London reports about the liquidation of Polish citizens and the deplorable situation for the Jewish People. It is clearly addressed that the Jews of Poland are being systematically murdered, transported to unknown destinations, which History acknowledges is toward their Destruction.

This information is contained within the report received by the Polish Vice President Stanislaw Mikolajczyk from the Armeia Krakowa, the Polish Home Army. On July 11th. the Extermination Camp at Treblinka is ready for operations. 9,000 of Salonika’s Jews are detained with 2,000 of them forced to labour for Wehrmacht as nearly 44,000 of Salonika’s Jews are expelled to Auschwitz. On July 13th. the action against Rzeszow’s Jews is now complete with 22,000 of the Jewish Community from the Town and its environs, all murdered Belzec. The Action against Rowne’s Jews begins and on July 14th. Dutch Jews are deported to Westerbork. Westerbork becomes the gateway to Auschwitz for the Dutch Jews. The Przemysl Ghetto is now sealed. On July 15th. 5,000 of Rowne’s Jews are murdered in 2 day action and are murdered at Janowa Dolina and over 25,000 of Rowne’s Jews will be eventually murdered.

1,000 of Sasow’s Jews are murdered as the first deportation’s from the Westerbork Transit Camp to Auschwitz takes place. On July 16th. 13,000 German and Austrian Jews in Paris are rounded up and sent to the Drancy detention Camp. On July 17th. Himmler tours Auschwitz and he witnesses his first 'Gassings' as Heydrich escalates the role foreseen for his Einsatz Kommandos to include ALL Jews. On July 18th. the Entire Jewish Community of Szarkowszczyna is murdered as Himmler departs Auschwitz.

Sunday July 19th. 1942 "..elimination of all Jews in Generalgouvernment by end of 1942." Heinrich Himmler.

On July 19th. the Drancy detention Camp is expelling its Jews toward Auschwitz and Himmler issues orders for the final clearance of the Jews from the Generalgouvernment. On July 20th. 1,000 of Kleck’s Jews are murdered and Dr. Karl Gebhardt begins Sulfanilamide experiments at the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp for Women. On July 21st. Nieswiez Jews resist, with 600 of their number being killed. Elsewhere the entire Kleck Jewish Community is murdered.

Wednesday July 22nd. 1942 "..eve of Tisha be-Av ..Day of Mourning ..liquidation of ..Warsaw ghetto was begun. ..Public Committee was immediately summoned to find out what ..situation was and to take measures. Those attending ..meeting included:

Dr. Adolf Berman

Lipc Eliezer Bloch

Shmuer Bresler

Yitzhak Cukierman

Zisha Friedman

Josef Finkelstein-Lewartowski

Daniel Guzik

Yitzhak Giterman

Josef Kaplan

Menachem Kirszenbaum

Alexander Landau

Maurycy Orzech

Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum

Josef Sack

Szachna Sagan

Dr. Yitzhak Schiper.

..Opinions were divided. Representatives of ..left-wing Zionist parties and of He-Halutz ..and also some of ..men in public life called for active intervention in some way or other. ..majority wanted to wait. How long. Until ..situation became clearer. ..rumours ..circulating that no more than 50,000 to 70,000 Jews would be deported from Warsaw ..old people ..sick ..prisoners ..beggars ..after that ..Aktion would be finished." Adam Czerniakow.

July 22nd. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann ‘Hans’ Hoefle informs Adam Czerniakow of the Warsaw Jewish deportation. This is the First deportation of Warsaw's Jews toward Treblinka and begins with the Large Resettlement. On July 23rd. Adam Czerniakow commits suicide as the first arrival of Warsaw's Jews at Treblinka and the Mass gassing destruction of these Jews begins at Treblinka. The

Wehrmacht takes Rostov. On July 24th. the entire Dereczyn Jewish Community of 3,000 Jews is murdered while 120 escaped to help form a Partisan group under Dr. Jechiel Atlas. On July 26th. 24 Jews from Luxemburg are sent to Theresienstadt.

Tuesday July 28th. 1942 ..meeting was held of He-Halutz and its youth movement branches

Akiva

Dror

Ha-Shomer Ha-Za'ir

..It was decided to set up ..Jewish Fighting Organization YKA (Yidishe Kamf Organizatsie). ..organization signed proclamations which it issued in ..Polish language with ..initials ZOB ..Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa ..Jewish Fighting Organization. ..members of ..Command were..

Shmuer Bresler

Yitzhak Cukierman

Josef Kaplan

Zivia Lubetkin

Mordecai Tenenbaum.

..delegation was sent to ..Aryan side ..Poles..

Tosia Altman

Frumka Plotnicka

Leah Perlstein

Arie-Jurek Wilner

..in order to make contact with ..Polish Underground and to obtain weapons for ..ghetto." Jewish Fighting Organisation.

Elsewhere the French conclave of Cardinals and Archbishops protest the cruel treatment of the Jews to Marshal Petain. On July 28th. 156 Jews from Luxembourg are sent to Theresienstadt. The Jewish Fighting Organization, 'Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa,' ZOB is founded in Warsaw.

Tuesday July 28th. 1942. "..Since July 22nd. ..train carrying 5,000 Jews ..daily from Warsaw to Treblinka. ..In addition ..a bi-weekly train carrying 5,000 Jews from Przemysl to Belzec." Dr. Theodor Ganzenmueller.

In communicating the details of the resettlement operation to SS Obergruppenfuhrer Wolf, we have an acknowledgement, which Wolff was not too keen to admit to, that he was fully appraised of the killing operations conducted against the Jews. On July 29th. An extra food ration is offered as incentive for Warsaw Jewish 'resettlement' and starvation brings its dubious reward in Treblinka.

Wednesday July 29th. 1942 "..Nazi's will not succeed in exterminating their victims." Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

July 30th. Information is garnered by four German Business men,

1) Ernst Lemmer, a journalist, who spoke of the presence of mobile gassing vans and the establishment of static gassing chambers,

2) Edgar Salin, a professor at the University of Basel was privy to what Sommer had verified,

3) Eduard Schulte businessman reported what he had been informed of to where Gerhard Riegner ensured the World got to know of Hitler’s Final Solution and

4) Artur Sommer, was an economist and he stated that death camps were being prepared in the East for gassing of all sent there and this clearly added to a body of Evidence confirming Hitler’s clear cut intentions and his resolve was to Murder all of European Jewry.

All of this information converged upon Geneva and for Gerhart Riegner to wire Rabbi Wise of these facts. Rabbi Dr. Stephen Wise of The World Jewish Congress received Riegner’s message, as did the British MP Sidney Silverman. What was certain, and History has validated this truth was an apparent awareness already of Hitler's Final Solution as it was related to the Jewish People. This Hitler resolve would commence with the Deportation East, and as confirmed by The Wannsee Conference, the aggregate killing of 11,293,300 Jews would be involved. All of these Jews would be subsequently sought out for extermination and in a concerted effort realise the annihilation of 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. However, what Riegner had reported would remain conspicuous by its omission from World awareness till the coming November.

Friday July 31st. 1942 "..At present ..both of us ..ready to meet ..death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalit ..20 months ..today. ..I don't lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only ..so little ..nice ..talented girl. She deserves to be remembered." Israel Lichtenstein.

On July 31st. More than 65,000 of Warsaw’s Ghetto Jews are murdered in Treblinka in 9 day period of destruction and elsewhere, 30,000 of Minsk Jews are murdered in 4 day action. Meanwhile, Lodz Ghetto Jewish Deaths are escalating at an alarming Daily Rate. Israel Lichtenstein leaves to posterity his Last Will and Testament and as part of Emmanuel Ringelblum's Oneg Shabbat, the Joy of the Sabbath, he secures the Planned accumulation of all records to be secretly hidden. These records, Diaries and fragments of information will add to the memory of a vanquished Jewish People. The endeavour to remember and recall what happened to much of Warsaw Jewry will be retrieved but the body of Warsaw's Jewish existence will be devoured in Treblinka, and amongst the other Death Camps Hitler established in Poland.

On July 1st. 1943 all remaining German Jews are placed under Police jurisdiction and on July 4th. the Battle for Kursk begins. On July 5th. Himmler orders Sobibor, the Extermination Camp is be made into a Concentration Camp. On July 6th. over 2,400 more Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz and on July 8th. the Vilna Resistance Fighters blow up a Military Train. On July 10th. 5,000 Jews at Kamionka-Strumilowa are murdered and the Allies land in Sicily. On July 13th. over 1,900 Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On July 15th. The Wehrmacht offensive fails at the Kursk salient. On July 16th. the Gestapo take Yitzhak Wittenberg from the Vilna Ghetto Office as Wittenberg is credited with an assault upon a Nazi Train, 8 days before. However, Wittenberg was freed by his own men but was forced to hand himself over, or look on as the Nazi’s threatened to make Vilna’s Ghetto Jews collectively responsible. On July 18th. 1,000 of Paris’ Jews are deported from Drancy to Auschwitz.

Sunday, 18th. July 1943 "..How can I escape ..troubles of my people ..How can I avoid their anguish that is also mine." Moshe Flinker.

On July 19th. the Allies bomb Rome and on July 20th. over 2,200 more Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz. Elsewhere 500 of Czestochowa’s Jews are murdered. Meanwhile the Waldkommando at Sobibor Death Camp, composed of 20 Polish Jews and 20 Dutch Jews, established as a special work unit which supplied wood for the crematorium by cutting down trees and digging out the stumps. At various times there were between 200 and 400 Jews who were kept alive for the purpose of this slave labour at the Death Camp. On July 20, 1943, after two Jews from the Walkommando, namely Shlomo Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf attacked a Ukrainian who was guarding them. The knife, which Podchlebnik had in his boot allowed them to flee and they even encouraged others Jews in the Waldkommando to make their escape.

According to Stanislaw Szmajzner, the other group of Polish Jews decided to flee on foot while eight guards were eating lunch on this same day. Several of them Shlomo Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf included, Josef Freitag, Zindel Honigman, Chaim Korenfeld, Aaron Licht and Abraham Wang escaped though both Josef Kopf was Murdered in August 1944 by his Polish ‘friends’ and Aron Licht was murdered by Polish anti-Semites, though in separate incidents after their escapes. These others survived the duration of the war. On July 21st. the order to liquidate all Jewish Ghetto’s given and on July 22nd. the Americans take Palermo. On July 25th. Benito Mussolini is deposed as Duce, The Italian Leader. On July 31st. 1,000 of Paris’ Jews are deported from Drancy to Auschwitz as the Russians breach a gap, 500 miles into the Wehrmacht’s rear.

On July 1st. 1944 8,000 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered and on July 2nd. 3,000 Jews are murdered in Ponary Woods. More than 70,000 Jews will be murdered here in the pits at Ponary Woods. The Vilna Census showed 54,600 Jews living within its confines 1931 but few of Vilna's Jews will have Survived what awaits them at Ponary Woods, that is more than 60,000 of Lithuanian Jewry murdered there. As

Bishop Antonio Santin writes to SS Gruppenfuhrer Odilo Litario Globocnik, who is already wielding his authority removing Trieste's Jews toward destruction, Santin intervened for the release of a Jewish Woman, Mrs. Pia Rimini Rivalta. Franz Stangl and Artur Liebenschel, Christian Wirth, Dieter Allers and Georg Michalezyk were assembled as part of this Trieste team. On July 3rd. Minsk liberated but not before more than 62,000 of Minsk’s Jews had been murdered. Few survived. The French take Siena.

On July 4th. 2,800 of Papa’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On July 5th. over 1,200 of Sopron’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz. Meanwhile, there is an appeal by the International Red Cross President, Professor Karl Burckhardt, for Admiral Horthy to cease Jewish deportations as the German Foreign Ministry intercepts a British Embassy Telegram on the essential for Bombing Auschwitz.

Wednesday July 5th. 1944 "..Bomb ..railway lines from Hungary to Birkenau. Zero in on ..facilities of ..death camp." British Embassy Telegram Bern.

On July 6th. both Moshe Shertok and Chaim Weizmann, President of World Zionist Organisation meet with Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Minister to escalate the Allied response to the Jewish plight. On July 7th. the Hungarian government halts deportations with the reality that 438,000 Hungarian Jews have already been murdered at Birkenau. However, on July 8th. 50,000 more Hungarian Jews are transported to Auschwitz in week long action with more than 488,000 Hungarian Jews having already reached Auschwitz. 13,000 of Debrecen’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz in 5 day action and the Kovno ghetto is liquidated. Vilna is now approached by Russian forces as Russian Forces destroy German Army Group Centre.

"..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work ..so 100's were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing." Judith Magyar Isaacson.

On July 9th. Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish Diplomat and emissary of King Gustav V, arrives in Budapest where some 300,000 Hungarian Jews still remain alive. 170,000 of these Jews still survive in Budapest alone. The Allies now take Caen. On July 10th. the Russians are within 90 kilometres of Hitler's Rastenberg, Wolf's Lair Headquarters. On July 11th. Russians cross the Lithuanian border where more than 135,000 Lithuanian Jews have been murdered. The Russians also cross the Latvian border where more than 85,000 Latvian Jews have been murdered. Barely 1% of Latvian Jews Survived. On July 13th. Jewish partisans help liberate Vilna where more than 55,000 of Vilna’s Jews were Murdered. Some 2,500 of Vilna’s Jews Survive.

Saturday July 15th. 1944 "..In spite of everything I still believe ..people are really good at heart." Anne Frank.

On July 18th. The Americans are at St. Lo and on July 19th. Joel Brand's mission, Goods for Blood, is announced to the British Press. On July 20th. Reuters reports upon the murders of 500,000 Jews at Auschwitz and 400,000 of these are Hungarian Jews! The attempt to assassinate Hitler fails.

Thursday July 20th. 1944 "..German authorities would intensify all their efforts to blackmail deceive ..split ..Allies." The Times.

On July 21st. over 560 Belgian Jews are transported to Auschwitz as the Russians recapture Buczacz while 400 Jewish Survivors of Buczacz have been Murdered by these defeated German Forces. On July 22nd. Lvov is liberated where more than 123,000 of Lvov’s Jews have been Murdered. On the eve of Liberation, 1,000 Jews of Majdanek are force marched out of the Camp. 800 of these reached Auschwitz. 435 of Corfu’s Jews are resettled in Birkenau after they refused to work on the Sonderkommando. On July 23rd. 1,700 of Rhodes’ Jews are sent to Auschwitz as the Russians now liberate Majdanek Death Camp. Meanwhile the Red Cross visit Theresienstadt. On July 24th. the Warsaw Jewish Camp in the Ghetto is evacuated. On July 25th. The remaining Jews of the Kovno Ghetto are evacuated where more than 34,700 Jews of Kovno were eventually murdered.

On July 26th. 3,000 of Radom’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz and on July 28th. On a march from Warsaw to Kutno is the First Major Death March. On July 29th. 1,300 Jews from Paris are sent to Auschwitz. On July 30th. over 160 Jews from Toulouse are sent to Auschwitz. Hitler has not given up his stranglehold over Jewish existence and persists while all around him crumbles, to deliver his only achievement in History, the Destruction of The Jewish People. On July 7th. 1945 Robert Jackson visits Nuremberg, a City that was 91% destroyed by Allied bombs. He inspects the Palace of Justice and decides to recommend it as a site for the upcoming War Crimes trials. The Soviets prefer that the trials take place in Berlin however, within their zone of occupation.

"..major operation of unit '1005' is to destroy ..traces of mass murder ..so that it would not be possible afterwards to determine ..overall number of murdered people." Nuremberg Trials Document.

On July 16th. The Potsdam Conference is held and on July 21st. Robert Jackson returns to Nuremberg with British and French representatives as they inspect the possible housing accommodations for the gathering legal teams. On July 31st. half of Belgium's Jewish Population had been murdered at Birkenau and this represents 24,387 Belgian Jews murdered. Russian forces are now at Warsaw. On July 4th. 1946 42 Kielce Jews are murdered by local Poles, post Holocaust to add to the more than 18,042 Jews of Kielce who were murdered in total. Elsewhere, Defence summations begin in the Major War Criminals Trial at Nuremberg and on July 26th. the prosecution begins its own summation in these Trials. On July 30th. the defence of the seven indicted Nazi organizations begins. On July 3rd. 1947 the indictment is filed in der Einsatzgruppe Case. On July 11th. the ship Exodus is forced to return 4,550 Jewish refugees from Palestine to the detention Camps.

On July 15th. Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 7, The Hostage Case, begins. Twelve defendants, officers in the German Armed Forces are charged with the murders of 1,000's of Albanian, Greek and Yugoslavian civilians. They are equally charged with the committal of acts of devastation in Norway and other countries. They are likewise charged with the drafting of orders which seek to deny POW's their human rights and for the ordering of the slaughter of surrendered troops. Franz Boehme had committed suicide between the indictment and the arraignment, and the case of Maximilian von Weichs was dismissed due to ill health.

1) Lt. General Franz Boehme, Commander XVIII Mountain Army Corps. Before his arraignment, Committed suicide. May 30th. 1947.

2) Major General Ernst Dehner, Korps Commander. Sentenced to 7 years in prison. Released 1951.

3) General Hellmuth Felmy, Commander of Army Group Southern Greece. Sentenced to 15 years in prison, Reduced to 10 years in 1951.

4) Major General Hermann Foertsch, Chief of Staff of the 12th Army. Acquitted.

5) General Kurt Ritter von Geitner, Chief of Staff Military Commanders, Serbia and Greece. Acquitted.

6) General of Engineers Walter Kuntze, Commander 12th Army. Sentenced to Life in prison. Released 1953.

7) Major General Hubert Lanz, Commander XXII Mountain Army Corps. Sentenced to 12 years in prison. Released 1951.

8) Lt. General Ernst von Leyser, Korps Commander. Sentenced to 10 years in prison. Released 1951.

9) Field Marshal Wilhelm List , Commander in Chief South-East. Sentenced to Life in prison. Released December 1952.

10) Colonel General Dr. Lothar Rendulic, Commander 2nd Panzer Army, Yugoslavia. Sentenced to 20 years in prison. Reduced to 10 years. Released 1951.

11) Major General Wilhelm Speidel, Military Commander Greece. Sentenced to 20 years in prison. Released 1951, and

12) Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs, Commander of the German 2nd Army, Balkans Campaign. Released on grounds of ill health.

July 30th. 1948 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 6 ends with 13 defendants being found guilty. On July 31st. Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 10, The Krupp Trial with 11 defendants found guilty and 1 defendant acquitted. On July 2nd. 1952 SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop is hanged for his Crimes Against Humanity.

Thursday July 13th. 1961. "..Your Honour ..to give a clear answer here ..I must state that I regard this murder ..this extermination of ..Jews ..to be one of ..most heinous worst crimes in ..history of humankind." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.

July 23rd. 1965 The Chelmno Trial takes place of former Camp personnel in Bonn, West Germany.

1) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Gustav Laabs, Sentenced to 15 years in prison,

2) SS Scharfuhrer Heinrich Bock, Acquitted,

3) Ernst Burmeister. Sentenced to 40 months in prison,

4) SS Unterscharfuhrer Walter Burmeister, 2 Sentenced to 13 years in prison,

5) SS Oberscharfuhrer Gustaw Fiedler, Sentenced to 1 year in prison,

6) SS Untersturmfuhrer SS Alois Haefele, Sentenced to 15 years in prison,

7) SS Unterscharfuhrer Karl Heinl, Sentenced to 7 years in prison,

8) SS Oberscharfuhrer Wilhelm Heukelbach, Acquitted,

9) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Friedrich Maderholz, Acquitted,

10) SS Unterscharfuhrer Anton Mehring, Acquitted,

11) SS Scharfuhrer Kurt Moebius, Sentenced to 8 years in prison,

12) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Wilhelm Schulte, Acquitted, and

13) Polizei Oberwachmeister Aleksander Steinke, Acquitted.



We Cannot Judge The Holocaust Statistically.Holocaust

Posted by P.A. Draigh Tue, July 04, 2017 16:17:03

"..Statistics are remote ..they are unfeeling and they are never accurate in The Holocaust ..especially when it relies upon ..overtly secretive nature of Nazi collation." Patrick Dempsey. (der Einsatzgruppe and The Destruction of European Jewry)

We simply cannot promote the vagaries of any consensus related to the statistical analysis covering The Holocaust of the Jewish People. First and Foremost! We are making statements which might ensure the sweeping away of Human lives from the tenets of an Historical event we are here to present, represent and recall. The basis for accepting the 6,000,000 Jewish losses is in itself flawed and given that barely 3,500,000 Jews remain from what The Wannsee Conference assessed where available to Hitler for Slaughter, a highly marginal difference is presented. That difference is clearly expressed in 1950, but merely 5 years after The Holocaust would cease to claim more Jewish Victims, 7,793,300 Jewish lives would appear to have been lost from Europe.

Also, given the status of post War atrocity against the Surviving Jewish People, we establish a further precedent which for many a nation, which is prepared to admit to such losses as cannot be contemplated? I myself cannot imagine what an erroneous exercise we are involved in which would not encounter the emotional turmoil such a proposition as an estimate of Survivors must ensure. Surely what we have lost will never come to terms with what we seek to establish in that loss in terms of an assessment which can never be completely accurate?

"..Sonderkommando 4a in collaboration with Einsatzgruppe HQ and 2 Kommandos of police regiment South ..executed 33,771 Jews in Kiev on September 29th. and September 30th. 1941." OSR 101.

We take BabiYar as a prime example of this, and knowing that SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobels’ SK4a must have physically counted those 33,771 Jews of Kiev as they marched toward the ravine. However, we cannot then account for the fact that some Jewish Mother’s, hiding their Children on their Person were counted singularly and not as a Parent with Child. So Operation Situation Report Number 101 might well present the 33,771 Jews as they were counted, but might surely have missed those Jewish Children as they were concealed? As we look to the actual People who know the statistics of The Holocaust, and these are those Jews and their Community's who were swallowed up by Hitler's resolve to deliver them to his Final Solution, can we ever know truly what they experienced.

For me, there are those Survivor's, who will best attest to the losses and afford their personalised assessment as to what they have truly lost. These are Jews generally, who have had 6,000,000 of their own People ravaged and torn from their midst. These Survivoral Jews will also offer us an emotional discourse which we must follow. True, there are Historians of The Holocaust who have been offering us the objective view point of their own struggle, as Jews. That this is mixed with an emotional immediacy, and that of an endurance we cannot begin to imagine, commends them further in their effort to deliver to us, their Truth. Then, what some depict, like Richard Korherr, the SS’s Statistical Inspector in his own analysis, reckons that his figures made available a reservoir of over 10,000,000 Jews for the final push to resolve Hitler’s Final Solution.

"..total Jewish population of ..world ..estimated at 17,000,000 in 1937. Of these ..over 10,000,000 were in Europe." Richard Korherr.

This figure does somewhat differ from The Wannsee Conference total of 11,293,300 Jews which Heydrich and Eichmann asserted would be added to what History knows is The Holocaust. So when I speak, and I praise highly here those like Yitzhak Arad, Yehuda Bauer, Lucy S. Dawidowicz and Yisrael Gutman, I know of their emotional attachment and their Historical perspective is both ground breaking and objectively delivered. There are indeed so many Writer’s and even Historians, and so many more that I have had the pleasure to communicate with, that I commend. I willingly make use of all those whose extensive knowledge has been placed before us.

Then there are those, like myself, who seek to trawl past the inordinate catalogue of grief and atrocity to find that balance which affords a testimony to the Memory of those 6,000,000 Jews whose discourse is fast fading from what is such a recent History. I do not only speak here of the loss for those who Survived, which is an unaccountable travesty beyond compare, but I remonstrate with the negligence of History which so seeks to displace 6,000,000 Jews from the narrative which is, Their Holocaust. I have no wish either to join the largely ineffective debate over the final analysis which is a numerical exercise and both Statistical in staing the relationship of figures and on the margins of isolating the very humanity that has been lost.

"..Jewish Question ..Ukraine ..more difficult ..in ..cities ..Jews ..major part ..population. ..more than 50%. ..elimination ..profound ..consequences ..military economy. ..systematic shooting ..Jews ..by ..Order Police. ..in public ..assistance ..Ukrainian militia ..members ..Wehrmacht. ..Aktionen ..men ..women ..children ..all ages ..manner ..carried out ..appalling. ..executions involved. ..150,000 to 200,000 Jews ..executed in ..Ukraine." Peter Heinz Seraphim.

All too many Historians, both Jewish and otherwise, have derived differing views as to the accuracy of what has been delivered up in terms of the numbers lost. There are countless reports and evidences which will give us an idea that systematically, 6,000,000 Jews have been lost to us. But perhaps there are are far more lost than we have been able to calculate, those Jews who were caught up in the debris of the evidence, the Jews of testimony and those Jews who have delivered their first hand assessments. With the likes of Richard Korherr, Professor Peter Heinz Seraphim and SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle, all of whom offer us their view which is consistent with being arbitrary, we have no means to corroborate any final assessment with impunity.

Conversely, we require the statistics as they were produced to give us the means to examine what Hitler and his entourage not only attempted in this Final Solution but wholly managed in the final resolve which is The Holocaust. Allied intelligence too had formulated its own knowledge with the interceptions of wireless communications between der Einsatzgruppe in the field and those like Hoefle who operated in and amongst the Death Camp system at Aktion Reinhard. Hoefle, who would become Kommissioner for Jewish Resettlement Warsaw Ghetto, was ideally placed to afford us the snapshot we have so far gained. Hoefle’s commitment is certain and as he was also part of Stroop’s force tasked with quashing Jewish efforts during The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, his was not purely a bureaucratic effort.

Of course Hoefle was ideally placed to deliver an assessment which was factually based, though possibly distorted by the accounting system which was so hastily shelved and then destroyed upon the realisation that their goal would remain unachieved in its totality. But no amount of Statistical analysis, and again we are drawn toward Seraphim and Korherr who both gave Hitler the accounts he demanded, to find a way through this statistical maze. For these also could not acknowledge the fuller extent of the Annihilation, given the bridge between the killing space and the reception area of the final receipt of that Destruction at Hitler’s desk. But Hoefle did at least leave us a specimen of Hitler’s clear intention and it was bureaucratically liaised across the airwaves.

"..Einsatz Reinhardt. SS und Polizeifuhrer Lublin sends the Befehlshaber der Sipo Cracow a report on Einsatz Reinhardt for the 14 days up to January 31st. 1942. Increase to December 31st. 1942 for

i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 12,761,

ii) Belzec 0,

iii) Sobibor 515, and

iv) Treblinka 10,335,

totalling 23,611.

Final Totals for the year ending on December 31st. 1942 are:

i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 24,735,

ii) Belzec 434,508,

iii) Sobibor 101,370, and

iv) Treblinka 71,355,

totalling 1,274,166." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle.

So, while we are given a clear insight into the destructive capacity, with this telegram from SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hoefle, the eventual assessment cannot be as definitive as it has been proposed. This Hoefle Telegram which was as we know, intercepted by British ‘intelligence’ and contains a final figure of 1,274,166 Murdered Jews for The Aktion Reinhard Camps alone. Given the lowest of the x3 estimates I will present, this is way below anything we might come to accept by some margin. Between 1,500,000 and 1,700,000 Jews were Murdered in the x3 Death Camps of Aktion Reinhard and this is closer to the truth of that devastating effect these x3 Death Camps impacted upon final catastrophe of The Holocaust. For my own Book, Hitler’s Belzec, I have assessed that some 884,700 Jews were Destroyed there.

Given the assessment which relates to each community consumed on a Monthly basis, 434,508 for Belzec, and as of December 31st. 1942 is speculatively way too low. There are some formative figures too which I would give and these have the most credence to their overall assessment of the tragedy. Especially placed before you are those assessments that would deliver to us The Aktion Reinhard Camp details as the have been presented to History. Those assessments, for which we will assess what Hoefle knew, and by dint of the interception of his Telegram to his immediate superior SS Standartenfuhrer Franz Heim, what the Allied nations also knew, will carry a burden of knowledge few can comprehend.

Heim, the deputy commander of the Security Police and SD for the General Government in Cracow is handed notice of what is the Final Death Toll from these x3 Death Camps, and including Majdanek also. But we know also that in excess of 1,700,000 Jews had their lives taken from them in the midst of The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps alone. But as we are fully aware, strenuous attempts to decipher correct figures from any documentation has been impossible to establish. Given that the Nazi attempts to destroy as many of their actual records as possible was successful, and so as not to the betray the truth of their efforts to the coming scrutiny of History, we must sift through the debris of ash that remained. However, that very scrutiny has been understood and undertaken by many and I will offer up the assessments made by a further x3.

1) Raul Hilberg has been the formative authority on the entire Destructive process in The Holocaust from early on. He assesses the murderous toll of Destruction at 1,500,000 Murdered Jews at:

a) Belzec 550,000 Murdered Jews,

b) Sobibor 200,000 Murdered Jews, and

c) Treblinka with 750,000 Murdered Jews.

2) Yitzhak Arad, the Authority on The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, assesses at 1,700,000 Murdered Jews as a closer value to our overall loss than has been presented so far with an assessment for:

a) Belzec with 600,000 to 700,000 Murdered, and these are at lease best estimates tabulating Ghetto and Community Census with Judenrate records and alongside Train manifests. All of which conclude with what is an estimate that cannot be fully quantified as all records remain incomplete and hidden to History.

b) Sobibor with 250,000 Jews Murdered, and

c) Treblinka with 763,000 Jews Murdered.

3) Martin Gilbert has extensively trawled all these resolutions and assesses the Final Total to be 1,690,000 Murdered Jews at:

a) Belzec with 600,000 Murdered Jews,

b) Sobibor with 250,000 Murdered Jews, and

c) Treblinka with 840,000 Murdered Jews,

and of course no assessment has proved definitive. As records and assessments have been made where People once resided and where they were brutally Murdered, they cannot portray the fuller evidence of what was actually achieved. The correlation of both assessment and consensus, which leaves both the Community stripped of its People, and the Destructive process open to a failing in the overall need to be accurately evaluated, leaves a Jewish loss without certainty as to Their Total Losses.



JuneTestimony

Posted by P.A. Draigh Wed, June 28, 2017 20:30:30

On this day in the History of The Holocaust June 28th. 1919 Germany signs Treaty of Versailles. Only truth has immortality, while distortion is as mortal as the lie it attempts to promote! Ever since Anne Frank wrote her diary, the denial of all that affected her People during the period of The Holocaust has been scurrilously treated. That 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were Murdered has not prevented the rancid nature of a hate filled antisemitism to seek to alter the truth, diffuse the integrity of History and blur the Facts of what happened to Anne and 6,000,000 Jewish People. Many in History will see in Germany’s defeat in WWI the beginnings of Hitler’s use of anger and hatred to destabilise civilising humanity. On June 12th. 1929 Anne Frank is Born in Frankfurt, Germany. On June 6th. 1933 and in conference with senior officials, Hitler declares his ambitions and aims to rearm.

On June 11th. Conference of Silesian Jewish organizations discusses safeguarding rights of German Jews. On June 26th. The Academy for German Law, 'Akademie fur Deutsches Recht' is founded with it's task is to rewrite German Law, in its entirety, in accordance with the specifications of the NSDAP. On June 27th. Jews in London hold an anti-Nazi rally and the following day on June 28th. in a speech to German newspaper publishers, Hitler describes the government's new journalistic regulations. On June 9th. 1934 Security and Intelligence Service 'Sicherheitsdienst' or SD of the SS is the sole arbiter of intelligence in service for the SS and Nazi Party. That sole responsibility for NSDAP Political and Counter Intelligence will emulate all wrongs History could ever estimate. Poland, Romania and Russia agree to the integrity of their mutual borders.

On June 30th. a supposed coup by the SA Leader Ernst Roehm is purged on the 'Night of the Long Knives.' Hundreds of SA are murdered and other's of Hitler's opponents are eliminated. Victims include Ernst Roehm chief of the SA, and Gregor Strasser, former Reich organisation leader of the Nazi Party.

The SS is now established as the hierarchical policing power as Nazi persecution of homosexuals begins in earnest. On June 9th. 1935 anti-Jewish riots occur in Grodno, Poland and on June 11th. 'Jews not welcome' signs are removed, though temporarily. On June 18th. Anglo-German Naval Agreement allows for the expansion of the German Navy so that expansion only allows a German Navy up to 35% of British strength. On June 26th. the Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases is amended to provide for compulsory abortion of 'unfit' foetuses of 6 month gestation. On June 17th. 1936 Himmler is appointed Chief of the German Police.

On June 26th. Reinhard Heydrich is appointed to head SS Security Service branch, 'Sicherhietsdienst,' SD. On June 30th. Polish Jews strike in protest against anti-Semitism and on June 12th. 1937 Heydrich issues detention order for Race Violators, after due process. On June 9th. 1938 the Munich Synagogue is burnt down. On June 14th. Registration and Identification of Jewish industrial enterprises, their 'aryanisation' expropriation is decreed. Marked down, all enterprises are stolen, and any financial transactions placed into blocked accounts. The wealth list of Jews to be officially held and on June 15th. In an Asocial Action, 1,500 Jews are re-arrested and confined to Camps.

Monday June 20th. 1938 "..Twenty years ago we tried to save ..world ..now look at it. If we tried to save ..world again ..it would be just as bad. ..we have nothing to gain by entering a European conflict ..and ..everything to lose." Hugh R Wilson.

On June 22nd. Pope Pius XI’s Encyclical on 'The Unity of the Human Race' which clearly denounced racism and antisemitism was not published. On June 25th. Jewish Doctors are only allowed to treat Jews. On June 2nd. 1939 St. Louis reaches Cuba with 937 passengers, mostly Jews, had departed from Hamburg are fleeing Hitler’s persecution. On June 17th. the St. Louis docks in Antwerp with its human cargo after Cuba refused to take them. Britain takes 287 Jewish passengers, France takes 224 Jewish passengers, Belgium takes 214 Jewish passengers, Holland takes 181 Jewish passengers with only 6 managed to disembark in Cuba. On June 1st. 1940 the Tomaszow-Mazowiecki Ghetto in Poland is established and 14,100 Jews will be Enclosed.

On June 4th. with the Completion of the Dunkirk evacuation sees more than 338,000 BEF troops rescued over a 11 day period as the Germans now fully occupy the Town. This is perceived as both a disaster for the British Expeditionary Force, which was forced to retreat but also as a Military blunder by Hitler’s intervention. As Hitler sought to ameliorate British sensibilities, so that any future approach might be more positive for German demands, a halt order was issued to German Forces on the outskirts of the Town as the complete destruction of this mainly British contingent was beaten. The stark reality of Hitler’s interference is judged by Halder, Chief of the Army High Command at the time, OberKommando der Heeres, OKH.

"..Brauchitsch is angry. ..pocket would have been closed at ..coast if ..armour had not been held back. ..bad weather has grounded ..Luftwaffe and ..must now stand and watch countless 1,000's of ..enemy get away to England ..under our noses." General Franz Halder.

On June 5th. Battle for France begins and on June 6th. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Herbert Lange completes his action at Soldau with over 1,550 mental patients from the asylum 'specially treated', murdered in a euthanasia exercise. Lange would complete his murderous training at Chelmno and Sobibor. On June 8th. the Allied Evacuation of Dunkirk is completed. On June 10th. both Denmark and Norway are defeated by Hitler’s forces as Italy declares war on Britain and France. On June 11th. the Bolimow Ghetto in Poland is established and 4,000 Jews will be Enclosed. On June 14th. as Paris falls the first transports arrive at Auschwitz from Tarnow. On June 15th. the Russians occupy Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

On June 16th. the Kutno Ghetto in Poland is established and 7,500 Jews will be Enclosed. France now seeks terms of surrender with Germany and Marshal Henri Philippe Petain becomes French Premier. On June 17th. Marshal Petain, as France's Head of State seeks peace and on June 18th. Hitler discusses the 'Madagascar Plan' with Mussolini. On June 22nd. the French Army surrenders as Petain signs the armistice at Compiegne. On June 26th. the American Secretary of State seeks to prevent Jewish refugees entering the US.

Wednesday June 26th. 1940 "..delay ..effectively stop. ..put every obstacle in ..way ..postpone ..postpone ..postpone ..granting of visas." Breckinridge Long.

On June 28th. Romania cedes Besserabia and Bukovina to Russia and on June 30th. Wehrmacht troops occupy the Channel Islands.

"..from June 1941 till January 1942 I was commander of SK4a." Paul Blobel.

On June 2nd. 1941 the Second 'Statut des Juifs' is passed in France and on June 6th. The notorious Kommissar Order, 'Kommissarbefehl,' is issued by Hitler’s Wehrmacht. On June 11th. Hitler issues War Directive No. 32 for the conduct of operations in Russia. On June 12th. Anne Frank is 12 years old. On June 14th. the Hay Action, 'Heu Aktion' decree is issued by Alfred Rosenberg, demanding 40,000 to 50,000 Ten to Fourteen year olds for Forced Labour be brought to Germany from the Eastern Territories.

"..each execution. ..mainly directed against ..Jewish Race ..called 'Sonderbehandlung.' ..order ..issued by ..RSHA ..had been verbally transmitted to us members of ..Political Department." SS Untersturmfuhrer Hans Stark.

Much has been made about the many suggested solutions to the Jewish Question, but ultimately, Hitler’s demand for their destruction was delivered. Those, like Rolf Hoeppner would ruminate while observing what would be appropriate for the Jews of Europe. Clearly, as he reflects with Eichmann what has already been well established, as The Final Solution will be delivered across the length and breadth of Europe.

Monday June 16th. 1941 "..It must be seriously considered whether ..most humane solution is not to finish off ..Jews who are unable to work by means of a quickly working agent. In any event ..this would be more appropriate than to let them starve." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rolf Heinz Hoeppner.

On June 17th. Heydrich briefs his Einsatzgruppe Commanders in Berlin, on The Final Solution of the Jewish Question, 'die Endlosung der Judenfrage,' and clearly this brief is what British and US 'intelligence’ identified as the massed killing operations der Einsatzgruppe became engaged in. Then, with the Jews to be trodden under foot, and with a skilled and exercised murderous squad unleashed, the disguise and the weight of a World War provided ample cover for Hitler's expressed wish. Also, the

Slovakian Governments offers all its Jews over for Deportation.

Tuesday June 17th. 1941 "..To take ..place of emigration ..and with ..prior approval of ..Fuhrer ..evacuation of ..Jews to ..East has become another possible solution. Although both courses of action ..must ..be considered as nothing more than ..temporary expedients ..they do help to provide practical experience which should be of great importance in view of coming Endlosung ..of ..Jewish question." SS Oberstgruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich.

On June 18th. Germany signs a friendship treaty with Turkey and the hope to spread his influence into more of Britain’s sphere of influence.

Sunday June 22nd. 1941 "..New Lithuania will not give any Jew civil rights nor possibility of existence." Lithuania Activist Front.

On June 22nd. Germany invades Russia in 'Operation Barbarossa'. With the Invasion of Russia, Hitler had betrayed his word and his Worldview of the World, a World which should have exerted its own will and drove across Europe and attacked Germany from the West, will deplete the World by some 50/70 Million souls, with 6,000,000 Jews of those systematically Destroyed. Leningrad is fundamental to Hitler's aspirations with Moscow and Ukraine remaining secondary targets. The Baltic States annexed to 'Reichkommissariat Ostland.' Romania is also involved as an Axis partner with 20,000 to 30,000 Romanian Jews confined to the Jiu and Craiova Camps. A newer period of Murderous terror against Romanias Jews begins. Immediately, Four 'Einsatzgruppe' battalions begin their mass murder campaign against the Jews, Soviet politicals and others deemed necessary for destruction.

Einsatzgruppen 'A' SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Walter Stahlecker.

SonderKommando 1a SS Standartenfuhrer Martin Sandberger.

SonderKommando 1b SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Ehrlinger.

EinsatzKommandos 1c SS Obersturmbannfuhrere Eduard Strauch.

EinsatzKommandos 2 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Rudolf Lange.

EinsatzKommandos 3 SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.

Personnel was interchangeable and on a regular basis, switched to command differing units and even requested removal from the field of operations. Under orders from Stahlecker, the Tilzsit 'Staatspolizeistelle' commenced the murders of Jews in the border areas.

Einsatzgruppen 'B' Artur Nebe

SonderKommando 7a SS Untersturmfuhrer Albert Rapp.

SonderKommando 7b SS Sturmbannfuhrer Waldemar Klingelhoeffer.

SonderKommando 7c SS Untersturmfuhrer Wilhelm Bock.

Einsatzkommandos 7e SS Sturmbannfuhrer Waldemar Klingelhoeffer.

EinsatzKommandos 8 SS Standartenfuhrer Otto Bradfisch.

EinsatzKommandos 9 SS Standartenfuhrer Alfred Filbert.

Einsatzgruppen 'C' Emil Otto Rasch

SonderKommando 4a SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel.

SonderKommando 4b SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Walter Felix Braune.

EinsatzKommandos 5 SS Brigadefuhrer Erwin Schultz.

EinsatzKommandos 6 SS Obersturmbannfuhrere Ernst Bieberstein.

"..order kill came from ..Hitler ..and not only Aktion Kommandos but Army ..also had to carry it out." Otto Ohlendorf.

Einsatzgruppen 'D' Otto Ohlendorf

SonderKommando 10a SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Kurt Kristmann.

SonderKommando10b SS Standartenfuhrer Alois Persterer.

EinsatzKommandos 11a SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Zapp.

EinsatzKommandos 11b SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Werner Braune.

EinsatzKommandos 12 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Emil Haussmann.

These Einsatz kommandos are assisted by all elements of the Reich, Police, Wehrmacht, Waffen SS and local militias. On June 23rd. Lithuanian convicts are photographed murdering Kovno's Jews while elsewhere, 5 Drushkopol Jews are murdered. der Einsatzgruppe 'aktionen' has begun, with daily operational situation reports. Hitler leaves Berlin for the Wolfsschanze at Rastenburg, East Prussia. On

June 24th. the Wehrmacht occupies Kovno, Marcinkonys with 370 Jews and Vilna with 57,000 Jews. Einsatz begin aktionen in Kovno. On June 25th. the 'steel crow bar' murders of Kovno's Jews are photographed. After murdering his 45 or 50 Jews, the murderer sits atop his victims to play his accordion. All Einsatz units are now fully mobilised.

Thursday June 26th. 1941 "..According to Catholic doctrine ..there are doubtless commandments which are not binding when obedience to them requires too great a sacrifice ..but there are sacred obligations of conscience from which no one can release us and which we must fulfil even at ..price of

death itself. At no time ..and under no circumstances whatsoever ..may a man ..except in war and in legitimate defence ..take ..life of an innocent person." The Fulda Address.

On June 26th. 1,500 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered at Ninth Fort. The Fulda Pastoral letter is prepared by the German Bishops Congress. No word is mentioned of the Jewish People who were increasingly subjected to abuse, attack and the taking of their innocent lives. Hitler was forced by these uttering’s to cease the T4 Euthanasia programme, though he moved them out into the murderous field of der Einsatzgruppe operations. On June 27th. 800 of Szulhof’s Jews are burned to death in their Synagogue by Wehrmacht troops as Wehrmacht troops photograph the 'wooden club' murders of Kovno's Jews.

What Stahlecker knows of these 'aktionen' is more widely dispersed than has ever been acknowledged.

Dieter von Bischoffhausen, Staff Officer of Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb's Army Group North, informs his immediate superiors and both von Leeb and Commanding General of 16th. Army Ernst Busch are well informed of all these Kovno actions. Hungary now enters the war as an Axis partner. On June 28th. 5,000 of Brest-Litovsk’s Jews are murdered as are 1,500's of Iasi’s Jews, also murdered with more than 8,000 Jews of Iasi being eventually murdered in the coming days. The Germans entered Daugavpils (Dvinsk, Dunaburg)

Saturday June 28th. 1941"..10 dead. all Jews." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich.

We know that from here, there is no going back and the Jews would pay the ultimate penalty for their existence. Here, Heydrich demonstrates the intention to deal with the Jews, exclusively, and this must be considered, in light of the escalating destruction that had moved gradually from Jewish Men, Jewish POW's and onto Jewish Women and Children. In the context of what Hitler had clearly intended, the Jews would be met with a destructive force that would not allow any of their number to survive. For those who do Survive, it is an unimaginable pressure which we finally seek for them to recount the horror of Hitler's systematic resolve to destroy all Jews. On June 29th. Einsatzgruppe 'A' acknowledges the murder of 2,300 of Kovno’s Jews by now and a Massacre of Kovno’s Jews is filmed. The Iasi pogrom begins and will leave 8,000 Murdered within a week.

On June 30th. 11,000 of Dvinsk’s Jews are Murdered as are 300 of Lutsk’s Jews, 90 of Dobromil’s Jews as 300 of Amsterdam’s Jews are deported to Mauthausen.

"..June 1942 ..entrusted by Gruppenfuhrer Mueller ..task of obliterating ..traces of executions carried out by ..Einsatzgruppe in the East." Paul Blobel.

On June 1st. 1942 2,000 of Cracow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec and Jews must now wear 'The Jewish Star' in France and Holland. What some might consider a label, many Jews wear their badge with pride and honour.

Monday 1st. June 1942 "..two Jewish women ..mother and ..daughter ..gone ..from Rudki to Bodzentyn. ..Germans ..went into ..woods ..then shot them." David Rubinowicz.

On June 2nd. 3,000 of Kobrin’s Jews are murdered at Bronna Gora as First deportations of German Jews is made toward Theresienstadt while Viennese Jews are deported to the Minsk Ghetto for possible ‘resettlement’ at Maly-Trostinets.

Tuesday June 2nd. 1942 "..700,000 Jews killed in Poland." BBC.

On June 3rd. a transport of 2,000 of Cracow's Jews are murdered at Belzec and elsewhere, Breslau Jews fight back. On June 4th. a transport of 2,000 of Cracow's Jews are murdered at Belzec and Heydrich dies as America declares war on Romania.

Friday June 5th. 1942 Rauff Report. "..normal capacity of ..gassing vans 9 ..10 persons per square metre." SS Oberstrumbannfuhrer Walter Rauff.

On June 5th. 97,000 Jews are murdered in mobile gassing vans, Rauff’s SS report declares. As Breslau Jews end their resistance, 3,000 of their Jews are Murdered. The Wehrmacht besieges Sevastopol. On June 6th. the Cracow Ghetto is liquidated and 6,000 of Cracow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec over these past 3 days. Elsewhere 3,000 of Biala-Podlaska’s Jews are murdered while Eichmann insists residents of a Coblenz mental institution join a deportation to Lublin. On June 7th. All Jews in Occupied France must now wear The Jewish Yellow Star as the Deportation of 4,000 of Cernowitz’s Jews to Transnistria begins.

On June 8th. a further 7,000 of Cracow’s Jews have been 'resettled' Belzec in week as the Pilica Jewish Council urges escape and Pilica Jews resist. However, 3,000 of Pilica’s Jews are murdered at Belzec. On June 9th. the Germans begin the murders at Lidice with some remnants of Lidice’s Jewry ending up at Belzec as a reprisal for Heydrich's assassination. On June 10th. 1,000 of Prague’s Jews are murdered in the East as the Germans completely destroy Lidice. Meanwhile the Wehrmacht commences its Don Front Offensive. On June 11th. Eichmann plans for the deportations of Belgian, French and Dutch Jews. On June 12th. 10,000 of Tarnow’s Ghetto Jews are murdered Belzec in a 2 day period and Anne Frank is 13 years old.

On June 13th. 3,000 of Theresienstadt’s Jews are 'murdered’ and on June 14th. the entire Dzisna Jewish Community is murdered at Piaskowe-Gora. That is 4,000 Jews over a 2 day period. Elsewhere, the deportation of 450 of Dorohoi’s Jews to Transnistria begins and 4,000 Jews from the Old Kingdom and Southern Transylvania are also deported to Transnistria. On June 15th. 1,800 of Borki’s Jews are murdered and Riga requires a 2nd. gassing van while Eichmann is forced to accede to Russian offensive transport demands. Harold Tittmann, America’s chargé d'affaires to the Vatican,, reports back to the US State Department on Pope Pius XII’s seeming willingness not to see Hitler’s mounting atrocity toward the Jews.

Wednesday June 17th. 1942 "..German Government has decreed ..within 6 months all ..Jews ..Croatia ..transferred to Germany ..where ..2,000,000 Jews ..killed. ..same fate awaits ..Croatian Jews." Gieuseppe Marcone.

On June 18th. the German offensive in Russia fully impinges upon the ‘resettlement’ transports for Hitler’s Final Solution. Both Jozef Gabcik and Jan Kubis who had earlier assassinated Reinhard Heydrich were discovered in Saints Cyril and Methodius Church Prague and are killed alongside others of the Czechoslovakian’s partisan groups.

Thursday June 18th. 1942 "..Well ..this whole scribbling doesn’t make any sense. It is a fact we are not going to survive. ..world will know about everything without my wise notes." Elsa Binder.

In the midst of the disaster unfolding in the Stanislawow Ghetto, Elsa, who had already lost her Sister Dora, possibly in Belzec, was busy smuggling and scribbling these notes for us. Stanislawow is tragically written into the fabric of Hitler’s Belzec, where the remains of a community adds a testimony to the Jewish struggle to persist.

June 19th. 1942. "..News is filtering through of recent ghastly massacres of Jews in Nazi Europe. Some 85,000 Men, Women, Children are mentioned in reports to hand." The Jewish Chronicle.

June 19th. By now, 11,500 Jews from the Tarnow Ghetto have reached Belzec and are Murdered there while 100's of her Jews are taken to nearby Zbylitowska-Gora and are Murdered there. As Glebokie’s Jews resist, they are crushed and 2,500 of them are murdered in the Borek Forest.

Saturday June 20th. 1942. "..Germany ..no longer persecuting ..Jews. It is systematically exterminating them." OSS Report. (US Intelligence)

June 20th. A Report from Lisbon reaches The United States Office of Strategic Services and it clearly states Hitler’s Final Solution of The Jewish Question is an exterminatory one.

Sunday June 21st. 1942 "..there is only ..small ..rapidly dwindling percentage left of ..24,000 Jews originally living in Kamenets-Podolsky." Fritz Jacob.

As a member of a Police killing squad, Fritz Jacob would be only too aware of the role played by his own Police force in the murder operations against the Jews. Working alongside the Einsatzgruppe, Fritz Jacob, and fellow high ranking Police Fuhrer, Rudolf Querner, built upon their task which was not limited to mere policing operations. On June 22nd. the First transports from Drancy are ‘resettled to Auschwitz and the following day June 23rd. French Jews are selected for gassing at Birkenau. On June 24th. 1,000's of Lvov Jews are murdered at Janowska and Piaski Camps, both of which were feeder camps for Hitler’s Belzec. On June 25th. The London Daily Telegraph reported having received information from the exiled Polish government that the Germans were planning to murder all Polish Jews. The newspaper will carry details of the murders committed in eastern Poland with 50,000 Jews having been slaughtered in Vilnius and as terror ruled the Warsaw Ghetto, the real truth cannot be disguised. Knowledge too of the mobile Gassing Operations that were in use is clearly known. At the same time, the Jewish Chronicle was more forthright about the same information.

Thursday June 25th. 1942 "..hideous details ..read like tales from ..imagination of ..maddened creature seeking to portray a nightmare of hell. ..average mind simply cannot believe ..reality of such sickening revelations ..or that men ..even ..vilest and most bestial ..could be found to perpetrate such disgusting orgies of sadistic mania." The Jewish Chronicle.

On June 26th. the Czech deportation Conference confirms that 52,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children are to be deported. On June 28th. 5,000 Jews from Przemyzsl are transported toward Belzec and the following day, June 29th. the Jews of Slonim resist and Hitler’s Reich realises it cannot realise the final resolve without a Jewish expression of contempt.

Tuesday June 30th. 1942 "..More than 1,000,000 Jews Killed in Europe." Daily Telegraph.

On June 30th. 15,000 of Slonim’s Jews are killed and a 2nd. gas chamber is now functioning at Birkenau. Elsewhere all Jewish schools in Germany are closed as Emanuel Ringelblum was fully fashioning his Oneg Shabbat! The extent of the Slaughter has been made increasingly obvious to those who wish to observe. Emanuel Ringelblum will rally those who see their demise approach and will record in great detail all that Hitler did not wish to be known.

Tuesday June 30th. 1942 "..Jewish population ..living under ..impact of news from London. ..world has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. For many ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does ..world know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was ..world not outraged 10's of 1,000's of Jews ..shot ..at Ponary. ..10's of 1,000's of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100's of 1,000's of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia (AUSCHWITZ). ..slaughter in Vilna ..180,000 ..in Rostov ..Jews ..murdered ..in Kiev (BABI YAR). ..blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious. ..Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station .knew nothing about it. ..if London knew ..next day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100's of 1,000's murdered Jews. ..a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!" Emanuel Ringelblum.

As 1943 approaches, the month of June will see the escalation of destruction, liquidation and annihilation gather speed with the Berezhany Ghetto Liquidated. The Dabrowa-Gornicza Ghetto Liquidated. The Tarnopol Ghetto Liquidated and with Jewish Armed Resistance begins in the Bedzin Ghetto, continues in the Bialystok Ghetto, the Czestochowa Ghetto, the Lvov Ghetto and again in the Tarnow Ghetto as the Warsaw Ghetto revolt continues.

"..All ..members ..Jewish Fighting Organisation who have survived ..all Jewish youths capable of fighting ..called on to continue ..struggle." Isaac 'Antek' Zuckerman.

On June 1st. 1943 over 3,000 Dutch Jews are murdered at Sobibor as Jewish Resistance mounts to the Lvov Ghetto liquidation, where 3,000 are killed and more than 20,000 of Lvov’s Jews have already been murdered. Here HSSPF Brigadefuhrer Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Katzmann reported on Lvov's Jewish attempt to resist.

"..Jews tried every means to evade evacuation. ..We were compelled ..to act brutally. ..We had to blast and burn many houses." Friedrich Katzmann.

On June 3rd. Himmler issues instructions for schooling of such expertise as might be demanded for the Sonderkommando '1005' action to be taken at Janowska Camp. On June 5th. over 1,200 Dutch Jews are murdered at Sobibor and on June 6th. 1,000 of Tluste’s Jews and 1,000 of Rohatyn’s Jews are murdered. On June 8th. over 5,000 Dutch Jews murdered at Sobibor while over 800 of Salonika’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz. On June 11th. Himmler orders the liquidation of all the Ghetto’s in Poland. On June 12th. Anne Frank is 14 years old and on June 20th. 2,000 of Tarnopol’s Jews are murdered. There will be more than 10,815 of Tarnopol’s Jews eventually murdered. On June 21st. Himmler orders the liquidation of any Ghetto’s in all occupied lands.

Monday June 21st. 1943 "..All ..Jews still ..in .ghetto’s ..Ostland ..to be shut in concentration camps. ..Inmates of ..Jewish ghetto’s ..not required are to be evacuated ..East." Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler.

The euphemism of mass murder permeates the entire verbal construction of terms and means to define the destruction of The Jews of Europe. Himmler of course pronounces such a declaration as a script that will not be written, as a course of events that must not be recorded but with a message which Hitler will receive and approve of. On June 25th. the Czestochowa Ghetto is liquidated with a further 1,000 of her Jews transported to Auschwitz. On June 26th. 2,000 of Dabrowa-Gornicza’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz. On June 27th. 13,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered in a week long aktionen. On June 28th. four new crematoria are completed at Auschwitz-Birkenau. On June 30th. Katzmann, the Higher SS and Police Fuhrer for Galicia sought to praise those who had undertaken the slaughter of innocent Jews as a manner of stress alleviation:

"..Despite ..extreme stress ..mood ..morale ..exceptionally good ..praiseworthy. ..by a personal sense of duty ..every officer ..man ..able to overcome this pestilence." Friedrich Katzmann.

On June 1st. 1944 Joel Brand's mission reaches Syria and on June 4th. American troops now occupy Rome. On June 5th. Joel Brand is in Aleppo and on June 6th. With the D-day landings and this Allied invasion of Normandy, Allied troops are waging War against Hitler on three Fronts. Joel Brand is arrested on British authority and on June 7th. Joel Brand meets with Moshe Shertok, head of the Palestine Jewish Agency’s Political Department. These Jewish officials in Palestine are now appraised of the threat toward Hungary's Jews. On June 8th. Joel Brand is moved to Haifa as, on the following day, June 9th. Hannah Szenes is arrested in Hungary. On June 10th. 642 inhabitants of Oradour-sur-Glane, Men, Women and Children, were Murdered by a Waffen SS unit from 2nd. SS Panzer Division (Das Reich).

The Community was forced into the local Church and incendiary devices were placed around the building! The Church was set alight and Those who sought to escape were machine gunned. In total, 190 Men, 247 Women and 205 of Their Children, all Innocent Civilians, were Murdered. On June 12th. Germany launches first V-1 rockets at England and Anne Frank is 15 years old. On June 14th. the Jewish population of Corfu, some 1,800 Jews are transported to Auschwitz. On June 16th. Chelmno resumes its killing operations and a further 3,000 of Lodz’s Jews are 'resettled' to Chelmno. On June 18th. Russians break through Mannerheim Line as the Allies take Assisi. On June 22nd. there are the 1st. gassings at Ravensbrueck where 2,000 will be murdered by 'Zyklon B.' 700 of Boryslaw’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz.

On June 23rd. there are more of Lodz’s Ghetto Jews murdered at Chelmno as a newer Russian Offensive starts. On June 26th. over 480 of Fossoli’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz as US Reconnaissance Aircraft photograph the Auschwitz and Birkenau Murder operation. On June 27th. and with over 380,000 of Hungary's Jews who are already sent to Auschwitz, more than 250,000 of these Hungarian Jews have already been murdered at Auschwitz. Elsewhere the Americans take Cherbourg and on June 29th. some 20,000 Jewish Women are force marched from Auschwitz to the Stutthof Camp. Meanwhile the Koldyczewo Camp is liquidated. As 2,000 of the Jewish Survivors are shot into a pit. Hitler now sacks 2 of his most competent Generals, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in a fit of pique.

On June 30th. over 1,100 Jews from Paris are transported to Auschwitz as more than 600 Italian Jews are deported toward Fossoli, a transit Camp en-route to Auschwitz. Almost 2,500 Italian Jews reached Auschwitz from Fossoli. An appeal is now made to the British War Cabinet for the release of Joel Brand. On June 5th. 1945 the Allies section Germany and partition Berlin as the Allies now Govern Germany. On June 12th. Anne Frank would have been 16 years old. And on June 14th. Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler’s Foreign Minister is captured in Hamburg.

On June 26th. The United Nations Charter is Signed in San Francisco by 50 Nations. Robert Jackson departs Washington to meet with his Allied counterparts in London to discuss legal proceedings against Nazi officials. Numerous disagreements are discussed, including whether to use the adversarial system favoured by the Americans and British, or the inquisitive system favoured by the French and Soviets. For over 800 years, a declaration has been signed by various Countries on the need to punish those who commit atrocities in War as 23 Signatories agree to go forward with an International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. These are:

1) America,

2) Australia,

3) Belgium,

4) Britain,

5) Czechoslovakia,

6) Denmark,

7) Ethiopia,

8) France,

9) Greece,

10) Haiti,

11) Holland,

12) Honduras,

13) India,

14) Luxembourg,

15) New Zealand,

16) Norway,

17) Panama,

18) Paraguay,

19) Poland,

20) Russia,

21) Uruguay,

22) Venezuela,

23) Yugoslavia.

The Allies agree to prohibit the use of the defence of superior orders, although they agree to allow its consideration in mitigation of sentence. Perhaps the underlying concern with Nuremberg will be the comparative relationship some wish to place before the Tribunal, world events with acts committed against Cities and its peoples. Hiroshima, Nagasaki and even Dresden were used as some sort of equation that would somehow tip the scale of justice? In truth, the murders of 6,000,000 Jews is not comparative on any scale, is a separate issue of Crimes Against Humanity, where Laws of Governments and International States are supplanted by immoral codes and acts of murderous contempt for that rule of Law.

On June 3rd. 1946 General Alfred Jodl testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. A week later on June 10th. Arthur Seyss-Inquart testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On June 12th. Anne Frank would have been 17 years old. On June 14th. Franz von Papen testifies at his Nuremberg Trial and a week later on June 21st. Albert Speer testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On June 7th. 1951 Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Naumann, Otto Ohlendorf, Georg Schallermair and Hans Schmidt are all executed. On June 23rd. 1952 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Willi Rudolf Haase Hanged for his Crimes Against the Jews of Poland.

On June 1st. 1962 Adolf Eichmann is Hanged for his Crimes Against the Jews of Humanity, in a Ramla Prison! His ashes are scattered in the Mediterranean.

June 7th. 1979 Pope John Paul II visits Auschwitz and delivers a speech which should have emanated from the Vatican during many a Pontiff’s reign:

"..concentration camp. ..this place ..built for ..negation of faith ..in God and ..man ..to trample radically not only on love but on all signs of human dignity ..of humanity. A place built on hatred and on contempt for man in ..name of a crazed ideology. A place built on cruelty. On ..entrance gate ..is placed ..inscription

'Arbeit macht frei'

..a sardonic sound ..its meaning ..radically contradicted by what took place within. ..In this site of ..terrible slaughter that brought death to 4,000,000 people. ..in ..gas chamber of ..camp. ..In ..place of terrible devastation of humanity and human dignity there is victory of humanity. ..Can it still be a surprise to anyone that the Pope born and brought up in this land ..Pope who came ..from ..diocese in whose territory is situated ..Auschwitz ..should have begun his first Encyclical with ..words ..should have dedicated it as a whole to ..cause of man ..to ..dignity of man ..to ..threats to him ..and finally to his inalienable rights that can so easily be trampled on and annihilated by his fellowmen. Is it enough to put man in a different uniform ..arm him with ..apparatus of violence. Is it enough to impose on him an ideology in which human rights are subjected to ..demands of ..system ..completely subjected to them ..so as in practice not to exist at all. ..I have gone down to Maximilian Kolbe's death cell and kneeled in front of ..execution wall and passed among ..ruins of ..cremation furnaces of Birkenau. It was impossible for me not to come here as Pope. ..I kneel before all the inscriptions that come one after another bearing ..memory of ..victims of Birkenau in languages ..Polish ..English ..Bulgarian ..Romany ..Czech ..Danish ..French ..Greek ..Hebrew ..Yiddish ..Spanish ..Flemish ..Serbo Croat ..German ..Norwegian ..Russian ..Romanian ..Hungarian ..Italian. In particular I pause with you ..before ..inscription in Hebrew. This inscription awakens ..memory of ..People whose sons and daughters were intended for total extermination. ..I speak not only because of ..4,000,000 victims of this vast field." Pope John Paul II.