HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, October 29, 2018 16:11:03
"..mood in Grayeve was very heavy. All ..Jews expected bad times but they did not know that they were standing over an abyss and that their days were numbered. Poles talked openly of murdering ..Jews ..yet Jews in Grayeve as all over Poland never anticipated and did not conceive of such a huge tragedy and such annihilation as befell them a few years later." Dr. George Gorin.
There is little new in these few lines to offer peace to the Memory of those Jews of Grajewo, and while its truth is known to many, it is not quite known to all. Far too often the detailed space occupied by those Murdered of Grajewo, and all too many other spaces removed of its Jews, is lost in the very narrative content which is The Holocaust. I hope I have brought newer recall to those who Survived to know we are here Always to Remember, Never to Forget them. We are made aware of what the Survivor has achieved, but largely require a reminder as to what we allowed to happen to their compatriots from Grajewo and more tellingly, what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of Their Family, Friends and Neighbours for being Jews. There is a work, a book by Dr. George Gorin, Grajewo Poland, Memorial (Yizkor) and it is precisely about these, the Jews of Grajewo. This now is my effort to add to both memory and remembrance and is merely a supplement to that specific detail.
"..Ghettos ..torture by neighbors ..deportation to camps. So much diversity of murder in a small town." Evelyn Fine.
Much of this underlying narrative, which underscores the very essence of Grajewo's Jews, is written by those intimately connected to the catastrophic events which consumed this Community of Jews. Other contributing testimony's, whose flow of words echo the Jewish refrain that signalled those events which litter Polish history, add to the broader dimension which becomes The Holocaust itself. With an intolerance, indifferent to the slaughter of a People, 3,000,000 of whom were their own Polish Jewry, the fate of Polish Jewry was in cold relief here in Grajewo. For me it is essential, and while I clearly acknowledge that I owe more to History than it owes to me, that applies to Jewish History in particular. The loss of our own Humanity, cannot remain eternally lost without us attempting to gain at least part of what is detained within The Holocaust. This effort is gaining ground in our understanding. But it remains an ingrained loss, contributed to in no small measure by the attitude of Poles, Europeans and the World at large to the struggle and decimation of Jewish life under Hitler.
"..It was late at night and a community of Jews slept uneasily ..surrounded by a hateful wrathful world ..enveloped in black shadows of reaction and enmity." Dr. George Gorin.
For me, there is the thread of a further narrative echoing through this work on the Jews of Grajewo and it comes for their past and from those who wished to share their knowledge of that past. Their entitled integrity is a combined effort, and it is of the inescapable truth which tore Jewish Grajewo to shreds. So while this is merely a hint of what Grajewo must mean for those Jews intimately connected to its unravelling atrocity in The Holocaust, and for History and our Humanity, let us remember also the diversity of its Human dimension. No one can ever approach the deep loss felt by those whose very devastation is complete. In all that proved too much to have to bear, for what could still be done in the name of the oldest hatred, which is antisemitism we urge their memory to deliver their pain ever more increasingly. For me, empathy will allow for all of us to come closer to appreciating this huge loss, even when we can never know the totality of all that has gone and taken from us.
"..village ..built on that spot was therefore known as Vyerbove. After resting briefly ..Adam and Eve continued walking. Enchanted by ..beauty of their new surroundings ..Adam called to Eve ..Play ..Eve. ..This is how the future town built on this spot came to be known as Grayeve." Khaye Golding-Kayman.
What we have all too often, is a lack of the context in which the Jews themselves strove to Survive and in every event were forced to endure. If not, they would simply topple over at the point of a gun or in the Gas Chambers of Birkenau, Treblinka or Majdanek which would consume their very existence. We move carefully onto a History of a place, not wholly Jewish but steeped in the Jewish tradition of the education of its People. These were Jews of trade and diversity all the while coping with the ramshackle relations between their non-Jewish Neighbours. Here, the expression of peasants, who held petty grudges and aspirations beyond their means was driven by a church which stood for equally obnoxious sentiments as any hatred would confirm and professed them often. Grajewo, known also as Grajevo, Grayavah and Grayeve was a small provincial town in the Bialystok region of Poland where Jewish settlers began establishing themselves around the early 1700’s. By the end of that century the Jewish People had fully established a thriving and benevolent community there.
"..I simply seek a friend. I seek somebody I could tell about my worries and joys of everyday life. Somebody who would feel what I feel ..who would believe me ..who would never reveal my secrets." Renia Spiegel.
I had begun to write a piece of work in the faint hope I could formulate a recall of the Grajewo tragedy. Here though I need to stress fully that I cannot begin to ever know the loss to our humanity over the Murders of these Jews, and not just the Jews of Grajewo but for the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe who are The Holocaust. Also, and for the entirety of the Jewish People of The Holocaust, and we know their number, it is 6,000,000, but we cannot know them all on any other lvel that in a past sense of an immense loss. What we do know and must accept is that these Jews of Europe, these are in fact The Holocaust. Desparingly too, we have but the names for 4,500,000 of these Jews from within the catastrophe. While that is a monumental effort in itself, given Hitler’s clear attempt to obliterate all traces of any Jewish presence from within Europe on an individual basis, We cannot know these Jews personally.
"..I understood ..meaning of these gruesome deaths from ..stories ..Rabbi used to tell us in kheyder ..religious school ..but could not imagine that such a dreadful death would befall my own father in ..Hitler gehenem ..hell ..of torment ..suffering." Dr. George Gorin.
Without each and every individual atrocity, We cannot arrive at the depth of that Jewish Catastrophe that is to be the coming of The Holocaust. While we need to learn who Lejzer Hersz Abkevitz, Pinkus Abkiewicz, Shimon Kolko, Yosel Levitt, Abraham Mordecai Piorko, Yankel Rutski and Zalman Sutker were, we indeed learn who we are. Along with Ari Ibn Zaav or Sholem Zaidenberg we need to appreciate their place in the History of the approach to an astonishing destruction, brought relentlessly forward so as to sweep them from life. From amongst all of this we cannot seemingly extract further from those missing names of the 1,500,000 Jews of The Holocaust entire, still missing to us. So here, in these formative days of Grajewo's Jewish existence, which is getting further away from its rural persistence, the Jews operated a number of factories and many of them opened small shops.
"..attitude of ..Polish fascists and semi fascists even in such a dangerous situation as ..threatened German attack did not alter." Nakhman Rapp.
In places like Grajewo, the essential to add individually to what has been taken from us all must not be submerged by the essence of 6,000,000 personal, individual and human losses. According to the census of 1765, there were 83 Jews aged over one year old, and these from some 17 differing families. From amongst these, 6 Family's resided in their own houses and 11 other’s had actually leased their homes to ensure Jewish roots were being firmly established. Also, there were some 336 Jews who were living in 38 villages in close proximity to Grajewo and these Jews leased taverns or were occupied as small traders, especially artisans, craftsmen in both tailoring and tinsmithing. Until 1862 Grajewo was included in the towns of the Russian-German border zone, where Jewish residence was subjected to various restrictions, controls and bias. In the 1800’s many Jews in Grajewo exported agricultural produce and artisan goods across the border to Eastern Prussia. This was a cross border trade that had flourished with little of the anti-Jewish feeling to come forward later on.
"..I left for ..train accompanied by my Parents ..Brother and Sister. Tears were choking me and I felt like a person saving himself from a danger and leaving his dearest behind alone. ..Grayeve streets were dark and abandoned." Dr. George Gorin.
However, once the rhetoric of hatred had been inbibed and given free reign in Poland, an antisemitism which had sought to purge from its Polish christian midst its Jewish presence, it had been sought out again from that same hatred developed over the centuries. The church inculcated itself with vehemence in many anti-Jewish pogroms and when the words of Hitler would ring out, it struck a chord and resonated with the basest instincts of those Poles already converted to their own brand of Jewish hatred. In Poland, antisemitism had been given an almost universal expression and this hatred they now adapted and explored. By now, the Grajewo Jewish community numbered 197 or roughly 39% of the total population of the Shtetl of over 500 people in 1808. This had risen to some 727 Jews, or about 57% of the total population of around 1,300 people in 1827.
By the time we reached 1857 there were some 1,457 Jews representing some 76% of this still considered Shtetl population of more than 1,900 people. With the first Zionist Congress, held in Basel in 1892, the Jews of Grayeve were already caught up in Zionist thought. Home away from threats to their own integrity could not be contenanced on an on-going basis forever. Here, the whole Jewish Shtetl underwent a suprising shift in growth and by 1897 there were some 4,336 Jews living in Grajewo. With Rebbe Avraham Piorko, who was a prominent Hebrew teacher, he became a central figure in Grajewo and was much loved. An aspirational outlook blossomed once more and Reb Piorko inspired both the educated Jews and the scholarly Jews of the Town. By the time of the Zionist Congress that was held in Minsk in 1902, Grajewo was represented by Elimelekh Pomerants at its congregation. Here too, Miryam Markel-Mosessohn was part of an aspiring Yiddish Press in Grajewo at the turn of the century marking its progression.
"..we were more afraid of ..Poles than of ..Germans." Khaye Golding-Kayman.
With the Balfour Declaration of November 2nd. 1917 there was a great call for celebration for World Jewry and in Grajewo it was no exception. World Jewry could now look toward the prospect of their own Homeland in Palestine. In 1913, shortly before World War I, Moshe Avigdor Amiel became the Rabbi of Grajewo, a member of the Mizrachi movement with his pius influence so keenly felt. Rabbi Amiel did manage to escape the horror’s of The Holocaust and died in 1946 knowing then what we are still coming to terms with, the loss of his People. There developed in Grajewo also a strong sense of identity which had long been sought by them. From their aspirational and educating principles of furtherance, Jewish identity grew in evidence and relevance. Residents remembered here are Avrom and Itche Gershtonsky, Leyble Remigolsky, Simche Sarn, Izze Epstein, Mr. Gortshitsky, Gershuny Eisenstat, Chaim Friedman, Isaac Kolko, Mr. Lifshitz and the two Teacher's, Miss Kolko, who was Shimon Kolko's daughter and Miss Barkovska, and all were well respected.
"..gray and cold days with ..worries for ..coming winter. ..whole city gets ready. Homeowners buy loads of potatoes to be stored in cellars ..sheds replenished with firewood and peat. ..hamlet braces itself for survival of ..oncoming winter." Dr. George Gorin.
Grajewo became the source of culture for the local region and Zalmen Sutker, Grajewo's own theater director, set up a movie house in Shtutzin. Shtutzin, less than 10 miles away was presented with US style movies twice a week. The Great War of 1914-1918 did not escape the Jews of Grajewo, nor did it escape much of Poland. World War I was to be the War to end all Wars, given the depth of destruction meted out in the trenches. But side by side Polish Jew fought with non-Jewish Pole in furtherance of a greater deed than petty hatreds all too easily expressed in antisemitic tones. The end of WWI however, did not afford Jews any respite from the previous pettiness and pogroms were continually unleashed in Poland. 16 Jewish Youths from Grajewo, including the 3 Brother's Segalevitsh were set upon by non-Jewish Poles in Ogustove, now Augustow. They were being brought back to Grajewo and they stopped off in the Village of Belda for some respite.
There, the Polish escort Murdered all 16 of these Grajewo Jews and their bodies were dumped into a communal grave there.The Jews of Grajewo and Shtutzin had a shared liviehood going back over generations which was a vibrant and vital co-dependence. Grajewo had its own train station, where Buses met, and Trucks dispatched all manner of goods from the arriving trains. This made Grajewo the dominant hub in the area. Travel to Bialystok and Warsaw was effected here and all major Polish centres too could be reached. All those seeking to escape Poland too, to Palestine or America transferred from here and toward Germany and a hoped for prosperity. Unknown at the time, all such moves would also secure them safety against the murderous net Hitler was beginning to cast. Education still proved both liberating and steadying, so much so that a prayer and study house and Yiddish School was to become prominent in Grajewo.
"..a sunny spring day in 1921 when ..for ..first time ..left my beloved ..Grayeve ..a feeling of longing and loss nagged in my heart ..every house ..every street ..every fence ..connected with so many memories ..everyone ..a friend or ..acquaintance. ..a departure ..from Grayeve ..also ..my childhood." Dr. George Gorin.
In what was becoming a fortress for prayer and religious study, and what was now a burgeoning Town, Jewish Grajewo was thriving. The San Remo Conference, during April 1920, saw the Allied Nations, who had fought together in World War One, reaffirm their commitment to the pledge given in The Balfour Declaration of a Jewish sovereignty. This, providing World Jewry future hope of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine was to be grasped enthusiastically. Given that the murders of these 16 Young Grajew Jews had caused an upsurge in both local and national expressions of antiemitism, pogroms and other murders, that declaration appeared opportune In 1921, while census figures throughout Poland recognised the integrity of 2,855,000 Jews who were present within Poland, these numbers were not allowed to give Polish Jewry any real sense of stability or belonging.
"..Poles ..in Grajewo ..as well as in Shtutzin ..first murdered ..Jewish intellectuals and householders ..so as to immediately get their hands on their property. ..All classes of Polish society took part in ..slaughter." Khaye Golding-Kayman.
After the ravages of World War I there had been sought out many vicious accounts from amongst non Jewish Polish and against Polish Jews of both the whole Poland and from here within Grajewo. Perhaps most cruelly, and unaware what the ending of mass immigration to America would ultimately mean, with the passage of the Immigration Law of 1924 it carried with it greater restrictions for those Jews deperately seeking a way out of Poland and out of harms way. At the time this was simply a migration of Polish Jews on the grounds of economic consideration, though all manner of abuses played a leading hand in the decision making process. But this was not yet to become a matter of life over their death, a death which would eventually consume them. For more than 3,000,000 of Polish Jewry, that murder process came in a systemised, industrial, mechanised and annihilatory Slaughter.
Here too in Grajewo, while there were now some 2,834 Jews, or 39% of a total population of 7,346 residents of the Town, we understand a great loss was made of Jewish life in the world conflict. In 1928 there set in upon the area the deepest winter cold, an intensity of cold that was not recorded again until the occupation period just prior to Hitler’s attack on Russia in 1941. In 1929 there was a Jewish Revisionist Party founded in Grajewo and the era of Zionism, now speaking for a national shelter for World Jewry had arrived in all its forms. Also, and with the realisation of Hitler's confirming intention to strike at World Jewry, the prospect of taking Polish Jewry away from the scourge of an antisemitism that was 2,000 years in the making appeared less reactionary and more a realistic prospect for the sanctity of Jewish life.
"..silence does not last long. A door opens and closes with a bang. A boy with a brass kettle in his hand runs to River Street for tea. Slowly ..whole hamlet arouses from ..deep slumber. This is how it was in summertime ..every Saturday afternoon ..year in ..year out." Dr. George Gorin.
The essence of a more National identity did not leave the Jews, and those thoughts of Eretz Yisroel while taking shape, still had home firmly fixed under foot in Poland. However, since Hitler’s rise to power, the region itself became a hotbed of anti-Jewish feelings once more, empowered somewhat by the rhetoric of hatred coming from within Germany. Educationally, great determined studies were adapted and they were clearly refined by local Scholars which many non-Jewish Poles did not avail of, and this bolstered the misguided belief in an educated Germany undermining the racist hatred of Hitler. Amongst the Scholars to give hope to Grajewo were Dr. Emanuel Olschwanger, Abraham Mordecai Piorko, Professor Simon Rawidowicz, Dr. Zwi Woyslavski and Ari Ibn Zaav and many others, all are markedly renowned as innovators and leaders.
"..Particularly horrible was ..case of Miss Elkon ..a Woman ..mentally unbalanced person whom ..Nazi had dragged into ..Bogusha woods. They put out her eyes and left her blind and dying. A peasant had found her and brought her home in ..wagon." Nakhman Rapp.
With learning proving key to the growth of Jewish understanding, great strides were still being made collectively, for Jewish enterprise in Grajewo. In 1933 and then through 1934, 1935 and again into 1936 the sting of widespread Pogroms filtered back into Polish actions. The boycotts of Jewish Business and assaults against the Jewish People were never controlled, were sporadic and less coordinated. But still, they continued across Poland as if to sanction somehow the bile which Hitler presented now on a World stage. Gradually, Polish non-Jewish intentions became more clear and assaults upon the local Jewish integrity started to become more focused and even politically motivated and organized. In 1937, on what would be Dr. George Gorin's last visit to Grajewo before the Catastrophe, the chill of hatred failed to wrm the spirit of his visit and he was increasingly concerned for the future structure of Poland with its Jews locked within its rapidly closing borders.
"..a fiery antisemitic sermon in church and ..murderous instincts had been aroused. Peasants came to that market day with axes and sticks to beat and kill Jews and they had not forgotten to bring huge sacks in which to pack up ..merchandise from robbed Jewish businesses." Dr. George Gorin.
This was the atmposphere which had greeted Dr. Gorin on this occasion of his visit, which he attempted to make to Grajewo at least once a year. While Jewish strength grew through learnings, catholic church officials could incite the worst excesses of ignorant bigotry which many non-Jewish Poles subscribed to. It was not too difficult to attract this age old bias and bigoted hatred and it resurfaced all too often. Every strata of governance was emboldened and then embroiled in this push toward the very ignorance which should have been enlightenly shelved. The Polish government of Marshal Pilsudski, along with the rightist Sanacja was so debilitated by its focus upon the Jewish question. It is abundantly clear that it too became a bankrupt, undignified and politically ruinous right wing oppressor of its own Jewish strength of Population. This Polish government’s own failure to speak more loudly against the tirade of abuses suffered by Polish Jewry was an abdication of a duty of care and responsibility.
"..It doesn't suffice from them to merely see us die. They had to rape us in addition. Gestapo men and some Poles did ..job. Brother Jews! Take revenge for us and for our shame." Sarah Mayek.
What always allowed for this seeming acquiesence, which sought to further bolster the strength of antisemitic assaults, was both a culpable and calamitous duplicity. While Jewish property was under constant attact, Jewish businesses were robbed and Jewish houses were broken into. Jewish Women were regularly violated and these attacks were widely common place. With so many Jewish doors and windows smashed, and far too often, and with the physical assault against any Jewish neighbour becoming too regular, Jewish life suffered greatly. Even after what appeared an enlightenment post WWI, even when so much promise and expecttion had been raised, the chill wind of conflict bloomed. Then, with the Munich Pact signed between Britain and Hitler on September 30th. 1938, and with the appeasing of Hitler's hate filled aspiration, this agreement practicably ensured for the Jews of Europe, Poland and Grajewo that they now knew they were to be abandoned to the whim of a Hitler hell bent upon destroying them.
"..Thursday ..day before war broke out ..entire population was at ..railroad station. ..heart rending cries of ..mothers whose sons were leaving for ..front mixed with ..shouting of those who had not been able to leave earlier and were now in panic. Drunken Polish soldiers leaped from ..cars into ..Jews ..shouting that ..war had come because of ..Jews and that now they would get even." Nakhman Rapp.
No piece of paper can have so defined the betrayal of all Europe than this abandonment of the very integrity of individual nations here in Munich. In the intervening year, in which European Jewry was somewhat lulled into a false sense of security again, it never matched the certain shock waves of despair that had wrung out after the treachery they initially felt, and so accutely. Hope was in abundance though, and by 1939, with 3,850 Jews constituting 40% of Grajewo's population, artesans, tradesmen skilled and un-skilled with Doctor's, Teachers and other professionals being well established, optimism could offer the hope that the disquiet would not. By this time some 400,000 Jews had already left Poland for Palestine and elsewhere, and all this, covering the past few years. However, this still saw 3,250,000 Jews recorded as Polish Citizenry at the time and though hope was held tightly on to, and with no inkling of what was coming, troubled Polish Jewry on the whole, sank back into the sanctity of their belief that all was well.
"..I ran to ..window to see what was happening. A thick column of smoke rose to ..sky blocking out ..light. Were it not for ..constant firing and explosions ..one might have thought that ..city was not being attacked but merely put to ..torch. Not being able to see anything through ..window ..I went ..onto ..porch. But as soon as I put my hand outside ..I was hit by a piece of shrapnel which tore off ..2 fingers. I fainted and my wife carried me indoors." Yosef Kalski.
Imitation is never the best form of flattery and that should certainly be subscribed to the Polish conduct and their efforts to resemble the Nazi assaults and Murders being reigned down upon the Jewish People in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. Right up until it became Polish Jewry's turn to feel the weight of Nazi aggression, in full and even in Grajewo itself, Grajewo was immediately impacted by Hitler’s Invasion of Poland on September 1st. 1939. Here, Polish sovereignty was all but quashed and under the yoke of Hitler's aggression, Polish Jewry and the non-Jewish Pole would suffer these consequences, but not as The Final Solution of The Jewish Question would contend. Almost immediately, Polish Jewry was set to be Murdered in their entirety, amongst the very many Poles who had fallen defending their Country, were the many Jews who had fought alongside their erstwhile Cousins.
"..Remember this day ..remember it well ..you will tell generations to come about it one day. ..we have been shut away in ..ghetto. I live here now ..world is separated from me and I’m separated from ..world." Renia Spiegel.
Jews, even affected as they were by the rampant antisemitism present within Poland, and this did not disappear once they entered the Military, they joined up for the exact same reasons that National pride must dictate. Alongside these were those Polish Jews who had come from Grajewo to stand squarely for that very reason which dictated what would be a unity of spirit. However, that was barely reserved for Jews in Polish Military service once Poland had tasted defeat. Here though, for the loss to the Jews of Grajewo, and I mention barely a few of those lost to us, it cannot be forgotten the good and decent non-Jewish Pole who saw nothing different in serving alongside any Pole, Jew or not, in the service of their Nation, and its pride. With the close proximity of Grajewo to the Polish border, this meant that these regional Poles and Jews were the first to fall in battle. While any of these military survivals were treated wholly differently by the invading Nazi’s, it was especially so for the Jews.
"..There is very little documentary material available on ..subject. ..Polish Army ..defeated ..left no written records of its men taken prisoner ..scanty files of ..Polish Government in Exile in London hardly mention ..fate of ..Jewish prisoners of war." Shmuel Krakowski.
Bearing in mind there was little of any Polish Military command structure after Hitler's victory, the Polish Army command had run away and across the Romanian border. Petty squabbles once again settled in and age old hatreds came to the surface to either blame or accuse the Jews for the defeat. With German inflammation of such divisiveness, former comrades in arms saw the Jewish plight as a method to ameliorate their own predicament. With the formative Einsatzkommando operating with impunity, identifying Jewish pow's was often gifted these Einsatz supplementary forces. Of course, there is little substantive evidence for what was politically motivated or even militarily expedient. But with regards the treatment of the Polish Jewish Military, past comraderie was placed else where. Certainly, German treatment of Polish pow's was severe, though that Jewish status emerged to ensure as Jews, they were brutalised incrementally more savagely than their former non-Jewish military colleagues. The Jews indeed received the most barbaric and brutal of treatments, whether they were Jews of the military or not. As to the Jewish soldiers treatment by their non-Jewish former Polish Military, once the defeat had settled upon them, which was clearly subscribed by Nazi intention, former shared heroics were selfishly confined to self and was tribal.
"..I see before my eyes my Brothers ..Sisters of my birthplace Grajewo ..who died under torture and in great pain. I hear their last desire unspoken ..tell of our deaths. ..Let not our memory ..memory of our sorrows be forgotten. ..Let ..memory of our martyrdom remain as a headstone for ..few survivors of our city where they may come to weep and recall ..tragic loss. ..for our people ..let it remain as a spark which ignites a great flame ..a constant reminder." Nakhman Rapp.
The Jewish People were singled out for being Jews and it is a reprehensible course which then segregates them out, and also within the Polish Military any mutual code was displaced. Jews were made unequal from their non-Jewish Polish comrades despite their equal effort in fighting against the common enemy. Once battle had been done though, and from amongst the prisoner’s of War were these Grajewo Jews forced to die, Chaim Epstein, and though Yakov Shia Kaminski was captured, he managed to escape but would later be Murdered in the Ghetto with his Parents. Any and all forms of Survival was a temporary measure required by Hitler for those Jews whose fate within Poland he had sourced and then secured. There was Benyomen Kureyvowski, Chaim Kurzhondkowski, Chaim Mendel Levine, Yosel Levitt, Yankel Rutski, the Son of Falk Rutski the Painter, Tobiashora, Gershon Viernik, Moishe Viernik, Moishe Yitzhok, Leibl Zeligson all lost for doing what Citizens’ have been doing for Century’s, fighting to protect their Homes, their Nations, their status in Statehood.
"..They took ..youth and especially ..males into ..synagogue and tortured them for 2 weeks. There in ..synagogue it was a real hell. Such tortures ..it would be better to die rather than suffer so much. They twisted their arms ..ripped out their tongues ..tore out their nails. They whipped them every day in ..morning ..100 lashes each. When one of those tortured fainted ..they threw him into water with chlorine and lime ..and when he regained consciousness there was another new torture ..jumping over various barricades ..over benches ..tables." Christina Helene Nadolna.
The Town itself fell victim pretty quickly and though many of the Polish administration took flight and made its way to Bialystok, there were many Jewish residents who both chose to stay or could not afford to flee their homes. Those intial 2 weeks of September were crucial in establishing German clear intentions, as many places of Jewish worship or study were attacked and even burned down. With the killing of many of those Jews, who were completely at a loss as to such scenes, this was an unimagineable horror from supposedly civilised a nation. Jewish Grajewo was often times traumatised in the past, now it was more entrenched and from an external source. The enforced transport of many Jews to places unknown was a further concern for all Jews, both present and returning. Meanwhile the brutality against those Jews remaining knew no bounds as Dovid Rapp, the 17 year Son of Itsik Rapp the baker, was quartered alive with swords by Nazi murderers. On September 17th. 1939, and though the Jews of Grajewo could not have known it, while 20 of Laskarzew's Jews were being murdered in their homes and streets, Russia occupied the Eastern portion of Poland.
"..young engineer Kirshboym. ..was not from Grayeve ..came as a refugee from Warsaw. ..was happy to jump from ..2nd. story and tried to run away. Poles ..standing around and taking pleasure in ..Jews' suffering ..caught ..Jewish engineer and threw him into ..big pit near ..shul. ..pit was a ..big ..garbage pit ..Germans ..made near the shul. After they threw him in ..unfortunate engineer swam around and grabbed ..boards of ..rim with his hands and tried to crawl out of ..excrement." Yan Kalski.
We learn the names of othrs of Grajewo's Jews, Moyshe Pinievski was amongst the bakers of Grajewo but it was Khaym Leyzer, who had a bakery on Shul Street whose Daughter was blown apart with a handgrenade. These Jews faced the wrath of the German's for no good reason other than their Jewish antecedence. Khaym Leyzer's Son Srolke, just simply disappeared. A few residents also known to Grajewo History included Avraham-Itsik Faynshtayn, Shabtsi Frida, Mr. Genakhovski, Itsik Gershtanski, Sender Guzhik, Mr. Gvirtsman, Mr. Kahane, Tsvi Kaptshavski, Mr. Kats, Khaim Katsprovski, Beynesh Kolko, Mr. Kravtsinski, Ruvn Malakhovski, Mr. Markus, Elimelekh Pomerants, Khaim Itsik Ravidovits, Henekh Raykhelzon, Mordkhe Rembelinker, Mordkhe Rinkovski, Alter Tsuker, Mr. Vapinski, Elihu Vaks, Dr. Tsvi Vayslavski, Dr. Velikovski, Dr. Viner, Itsik Vitkievits and Mr. Yezherski. Amonsgt the many Jews taken away were the 15 year old Son of Khaytshe Baykovski, Abrasha Baykovski and Khaym Fridman, the Son of Feyge Malke Fridman. Khaym Fridman was the only one of these Grajewo Jews removed to a killing site in the Bogusze Forest who managed to escape and return.
"..After that they stood them all up in rows and each tenth person had to jump through ..second story window. If anyone jumped and lived ..Germans killed him on ..spot. They twisted ..Jews' hands with barbed wire ..and with ..same wire they twisted their heads backwards and threw them into ..cellar of ..shul like that ..so that they would die there. ..dead bodies of ..tortured were only taken out a year later ..completely decayed. You could not recognize who anyone was. ..workers who were driven together for that work became deathly ill with several diseases. ..corpses were thrown into a pit with lime that had been in ..cellar." Christina Helene Nadolna.
Other’s taken away for Slaughter were the Rabbi, Itsik Ayzik Grosman and the owner of the mill, Avromtshe Ayzenshtat. Such was the onslaught in those formative days, that for those Jews who did manage to flee, they began their return only once it appeared German influence could be assuaged by Russian intervention in their areas. Under the Soviet occupation of September 20th. 1939 until June 22nd. 1941, when Hitler launched his operation Barbarossa and Invaded Russia, Jewish businesses were nationalized and Polish Jewry West of the demarcation line were left to the mercy of Hitler’s murderous legions. On September 21st. 1939 Heydrich issued clearer instructions as to the Einsatzgruppe aktionen to be taken against the Jews of all Poland and this too was keenly felt in Grajewo. Gradually too, the very Jewish complexion of Grajewo settled into a post apocalyptic calm and business resumed as it had before. The Jewish People were not oblivious to the on going threat to their presence, livliehoods and even lives, and though many were resigned to a fate as yet unknown, there were many who spread the word of those atrocity's to disbelieving ears and incredulous minds.
"..standing around ..laughing at ..zhyd ..submerged ..in ..filth. When they saw ..young man was crawling out ..ran to him and with iron shovels split ..unfortunate's head into pieces." Yan Kalski.
The Russians for their part entered Poland on the side of Hitler and his regime, and here, some of the most influential Jews of Poland, along with their Families, were extracted by the Russians. The Russian administration were somewhat bemused by the Polish non-Jewish conduct toward their Jewish Neighbours. This anti-Jewish antipathy cannot be stated without acknowledging the great rift that was present amonsgt the Russian elite and their Jewish counterparts in Russia. The Jews of Russian were not always seen kindly or treated well. During March and April 1941, military subscription was brought in by the Russian Red Army and all those of Military age were conscripted into Stalin’s realm. The Jews of Grajewo were not slow in signing up and those who went were, amongst many, Chaim Adanstein, Leibel Dorf, Gershon Gringross, the Son of the Butcher, Zorach Gringross, Shamai Marcus, Yosel Mayek and Yankel Roimer. All went on to fight against the Nazi terror which tore apart the very existence of Jewish Grajewo.
"…we sat down on ..earth with our feet tied together and so ..night was passed. ..night was very terrible. First ..because they would not allow us out to urinate ..people suffered a lot. Second ..at such a time all kinds of thoughts occur. One says ..they will set us on fire ..another says something else." Mayer Kletski.
On June 19th. 1941, and from Grajewo itself, a number of Jewish families, the Beykowskis, Yosef Bialostocki and his family, the Kirshenbaum’s, the nurse Mania Kaplan and Aaron Leizerson were all moved to what might be considered safety, the hinterland of Russia. Some of these Grajewo Jewish residents, and many other Polish Jews, and even non-Jews were exiled from Poland into deepest Siberia. For these Jews expelled, exiled, removed, for those who survived the rigours of Russian climbs, they indeed Survive what Hitler had intended for them. In Grajewo, the old synagogue, which had been burned down by Hitler's horde was replaced by a theatre, described as beautiful and which could safely accomodate the seating of 1,500 of those attending Plays, Shows and Concerts. The intention to dismantle the study system and the belief system of the Jewish People was fixed but circumvented.
"..I often returned to find there consolation and a retreat from ..strange wild world." Dr. George Gorin.
Hitler’s legions did him proud as they had burned all the synagogues of Grajewo, and elsewhere throughout Poland, their Synagogues became recognisable targets. A Grajewo communal prayer house was conducted in Moishe Piniewski’s home. Moishe was another of Grajewo’s baker’s, and so some semblance of Religious life resumed. Although in somewhat more cramped surroundings and with an air of strick secrecy surrounding it, Judaism was given light in the still darkness. A part of the Yiddish School too was set aside for Religious activity and this was ably conducted by Anshel Kotchak. When the Germans set fire to the large synagogue Yitshok Grobgeld succeeded in saving one Holy Scroll and a number of prayer books which were of great use during this time. By June 24th 1941 a German military kommandatur arrived in Grajewo and it settled into its Headquarters on Pilsudskiego Street.
"..Grayeve Ghetto was larger than that of Shtutzin. Not just one small street ..but several streets and ..2 or 3 well constructed buildings." Khaye Golding-Kayman.
Normality of sorts for the theatre actors, who so graciously strode the stage, was for all too many of them their swan song as they did not Survive Hitler's intentions. Nor did any of Grajewo's Children who had wistfully watched so many of these fine performances. All Grajewo's Jews were either Murdered by the Nazi's and their collaborator's, on the spot or within Majdanek, Treblinka or Auschwitz. Then, as Hitler's forces prepared for Barbarossa, the unprovoked attack on his former ally Mother Russia, many of those already exiled Polish Jews would now be saved from certain annihilation. The Germans recaptured Grajewo on June 22nd. 1941, and instituted a reign of terror against its Jewish Community. As the Germans reoccupied the Town, Assaults, Rapes and Murder were immediately conducted against these innocent Jewish inhabitants. The Ghetto within Grajewo, which would eventually contain more than 3,000 Jews was in existence the following day, from June 23rd. 1941.
"..In ..morning ..overseers came in and asked with a smile ..So ..little Jews ..How did you sleep." Mayer Kletski.
Within Grajewo itself, and with it its immediate regional Jewish life, all was forfeit to the whim of the Nazi administration and also to the local antisemitism of fascist Polish organizations. In what has been termed the Bermuda Triangle of atrocity against Polish Jewry, this triangulation was the area of Bialystok, Grajewo and Lomza, the Polish non-Jewish population was freed from restraint and were driven enthusiastically toward atrocity against their former Jewish Neighbours. I remember here, as I took my own persoanl journey from Warsaw to Malkinia, and I would be setting foot in the Treblinka Death Camp, which had consumed 900,000 Jews from Europe, Poland and Grajewo, I witnessed signs which pointed to Augustow. I also noticed the very names of these 3 Cities and Town's which were forming that triangle of Destruction Bialystok, Grajewo and Lomza.
"..A city is like a living creature. It has a heart that feels ..moods of melancholy ..frivolity ..enthusiasm ..worries. It seems there were a lot of Grayeves ..each ..a different face ..depending on ..different circumstances." Dr. George Gorin.
There too the signs pointed towards Szczuczyn, all of these places bridging that abyss between my own knowledge and its integrity that was buried in each of these places I mention. I sat on my train journet and realised that this cascading effort in atrocity, which reached in from Germany and would consume Polish Jewry in almost its entirety, was particualrly rampant along the border areas in those initial stages. Warsaw and hence Treblinka would become part of that onslaught while Grajewo had been reeling from its effects from day one. With anti-Jewish attacks escalating even further, and immediately after Hitler's invasion of Russia, the Jewish predicament went from precarious to annihilatory. The Stronictwo Narodowe, the ‘SN’ was a staunchly anti-Jewish element and they were instrumental in the attacks against many of the Jews who found themselves beaten and even Murdered in Grajewo and elsewhere.
"..After ..Germans entered ..our lives ..changed completely. We were in constant fear that we would be deported to ..Camp. We knew that it is happening. We were very worried about our future. We met our neighbors and discussed what would happen to us. We were afraid ..still afraid." Runia Lunski.
When, on June 25th. 1941 the Yellow Star decree was enforced, few in Grajewo saw other than a distinguishing mark rendering them prey to easier recognition, even though the banner of its pride was somewhat raised. The full scale of what Hitler had intended for all the Jews of Europe was now more clearly on display, locally, Nationally and within Europe as a whole. The divisiveness of anti-Jewish feeling was keenly felt and the segregation of communities impacted sorely. Resonating within the Jewish presence throughout Europe, as newer strains of anti-Jewish violence entangled its Jews, and while here in Poland and here in Grajewo, it was more immediate the echoe grew louder, vocifierous and stronger. On June 29th. 1941 local non-Jewish Poles attacked their Jewish Neighbours and 10 of Grajewo’s Jews were Murdered and a further 30 of the Town’s Jews were injured.
"..People smile again in harmony with nature ..grateful not only for ..fact of being freed from ..bondage of Egypt ..but also from ..severe ..long ..lonely winterpictures of Grayeve stand before my eyes, etched in my soul. They are unforgettable, like still impressions and happenings of the childhood years which remain a part of us for the rest of our lives." Dr. George Gorin.
Then, on June 30th. 1941, with the German occupation forces facilitating a further bloody assault upon the Jewish Community, with a further 500 of Grajewo’s Jews, who were rounded up and confined to the marketplace and here, where the non-Jewish Poles stood, they brutally attacked and injured 100 of these innocent Jews out of vindictiveness and because they could. This all appears in a running commentary on hatred's most vile expression, an antisemitism that has persisted for far too long. Given the very educating experience and principles of civilised reasoning, how could any enlightened society turn to the barbarism of brutality, atrocity and mass Murder. However, on July 3rd. 1941 a further round up was sought which saw barely 300 Jews surrender their person, fearing what they now knew awaited them. These who arrived, as suspected, were savagely beaten and then detained in the local Theatre. Here they remained right through till August 1941.
"..One night ..Germans came to our apartment and took us to ..Camp that was on ..edge of ..Town. ..They gathered all ..People from ..area. There was not much food. We hardly ate anythin." Runia Lunski.
Some of these Jews were forced to jump from the floors of the Shul to their deaths. For these Jews, and unless they had not survived the non-Jewish Poles assembled below, they were brutally killed with shovels and pry-bars. Velvl Piekarevitsh, the Son of the Staviski blacksmith Avrom Shleyme, was one of these so brutally Murdered. No amount of interpretation can deliver to the reader the maximum terror and horro of such incidents. That this seeks to add to a memory all too many would allow to fade into the shrouded history of our terrible past, words find newer meaning in their emphasis. Velvl Piekarevitsh himself, who had jumped through the window of the Shul and ran toward the Jewish cemetery, was one such Grajewo Jew who is in Memory for the horror inflicted upon him.
"..On Wednesday July 25th 1941 at 10:00 am ..they drove all ..Jews together in ..middle of ..market square and ..town kommandant Greiss read aloud for them ..decree from ..high command." Mayer Kletski.
Giving chase, the non-Jewish Poles caught up with Velvl and threw him still alive into the lime pit near the shul. What then followed was the enforced labour, continued assault and the constant threat and enacted Murders of some 40 of these Jews. This entire atrocity proceeded with a relentless zeal. Released for a selection from the Shul, and from amongst the entire Jewish Community, as many as 10 more of these incarcerated Jews were Murdered. Amonsgt those brutally taunted, assaulted and brutalised there was Mayer Kletski and he informs us of the feelings of terror and horror as a Survivor of that nightmare. With that said, what no one reading any such account can comprehend, nor will they come close to the terms with which they are decribed. We recognise for its completeness the significance of testimony in delivery of the essential truth that we seek.
"..Jewish nation is a criminal nation and as such has earned a hard and eternal punishment of hard labor and imprisonment. They are forbidden to live free and together with other peoples ..because they do not have pure blood. Sooner or later they must all die. They must be obedient to every German ..under penalty of death. ..Jews will be distinguished by a yellow star ..which they must wear on ..shoulder and breast as a sign of their shame." Greiss.
On August 7th 1941 between 100 and 300 Jews, including Children, were shot in the local Cemetery and some 1,600 to 2,000 of Grajewo’s remaining Jews were then confined to create The Grajewo Ghetto. The Ghetto itself was enclosed and bounded by Dolna, Lazienna and Zielona Street. It was established on August 10th. 1941 with Zalman Sutker as its President. Zalman, who was heading a Judenrate with 1,600 Jews initially, were all contained within the Grajewo Ghetto boundary. Zalman Sutker, who was born April 24th. 1892 oversaw this Jewish Ghetto population expand toward 2,000 over the coming days. The Jews of Grajewo at the time worked closely with the Judenrate president, all seemingly believing that this mechanism would truly represent the route toward their very existence. Active amonsgt the Grajewo Jewish Community were Joseph Bialystotski, Luba Fabilinska, Julian Glatt, Chaim Goldberg, Abraham Grinberg, Yehuda Grinberg, Leyzer Leishke Grossman, Shloime Gumovitch, Shmuel Kaminski, Karbowski, Berl Khilare, Berl Kletski, Meyer Kletski, Joseph Marcus, Iosher Tevel Oz and Lea Popovski the Secretary.
Tuesday October 7th. 1941 "..In exceedingly severe fashion ..politics of antisemitism ..applied. ..arbitrarily on October 7th. order given by ..officer. Jewish personnel personnel sent to Koltubanska ..put under ..command of ..officer ..known to be ..antisemitie. Jews ..removed from other formations ..segregated ..discharged en masse." Stanislaw Kot.
Amongst other's who simply understood they were hopefully facilitating the relief of their own Jewish People and controlling, with expedience, their own Community's relief from the trauma which surrounded them were Neiman Reubin, Moishe Slovatitski, Pinyeh Suraski, Tennenbaum, Yitzhok Voyslavski, Sholem Zaidenberg, Yitzhok Zharkowski and Vovek Zilbershteyn. While we look back to History and recognise the tortuous times the Jews lived in, at the time, and while these informed Jews clearly recognised that the Jewish serving soldier in the Polish armies fared no better than any civilian Jew within Poland, they contended with it being a Polish assault. However, at the hands of non-Jewish Poles, it became routing and though they somewhat expected better from the more accultured and supposedly classically civilised forces of Hitler's Germany, they were to be so cruelly betrayed by their own belief in all humanity.
"..pictures of Grayeve stand before my eyes ..etched in my soul. ..unforgettable ..like still impressions and happenings of ..childhood years ..part of us for ..rest of our lives." Dr. George Gorin.
Now though, with Hitler fully engaged in Russia, many scores were settled by the Polish military against the many exemplary Jewish military commanders. All due to that aged old hatred, Jewish officers and the ordinary Jewish recruits were severely treated and totally discredited on the basis solely of their Jewish antecedence. Maligned in many ways this insensitive, intolerable and indifferent outlook spilled out and over the national status of the Polish Jews. All of this was to be the focused experience for many all too civilian Jews in Poland in the wake of defeat. In many Villages, Towns, Cities, Shtetl's the length and breadth of the Country, Jewish life and existence was at the mercy of yobs of Polish miscreants. These roving bands of brigands were totally unfettered by an absent Polish government which had clearly run away from any and all responsibility for its nation and its People.
Thursday January 1st. 1942 "..Hitler aims to destroy all ..Jews of Europe. ..Jews of Lithuania are fated to be ..first in line." Abba Kovner.
The wildly diverging strains of 3,000 years of antisemitism in the World became polarised here in Poland at a time when Jews too were aligned and had been fighting for the better good of the Polish nation. However, and no matter how exemplary had been the Jewish conduct in the recent battle to save national pride, the Jew was still a Jew and was deserving of nothing other than a derisory, contemptable and a wholly despicable treatment. Unfortunately, this state of affairs was not solely the Jewish experience in only Poland. The varying assault upon the Jewish presence was rampant throughout The Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and in the Balkans region amongst the Croats. Tragically for History, it is difficult to name any Country which did not possess the abiltiy to show an immense intolerance toward the Jews.
"..Jews of Grayeve ..were kind hearted people ..proud of their city." Dr. George Gorin.
Such was the hatred that was latched on to, the intolerance shown was never compensated for by
church which seemingly shared such a sentiment as was rife with sheer religious indifference. Often seen and witnessed even with a fervour which some of the christian churches clearly and callously stoked, the strains of any christian tolerance and human charity was consigned to the remaining vestiges of a sadly lacking concern. As the criminal pyres raged and the flames consumed the Jews of Europe, a conflagration that was unprecedented and unparalleled in all of History, Grajewo was gripped by its own sense of foreboding. During June 1942 most of the young Jewish Women of Augustow arrived in an enforced attachment to the Ghetto and were settled into ever cramped and delapidated surroundings.
Saturday August 15th. 1942 "..pogrom of Jews in Poland ..a preliminary probing operation ..to test ..behaviour of conquered nations. ..pogroms help ..police ..become more efficient ..intimidate. ..Shaulises ..Latvian fascists ..well trained in ..murders ..preparing. ..crimes against ..Jews ..to be looked upon as a ..warning." Polish Freedom Tribune.
Then, and unlike previous events when Pogroms forced the Jewish People to consider their national status, this time, and while they considered it would all pass by, something more cruelly stringent was in the air. Here, while awareness of the great wrongs being done to Polish Jewry does not seem to limit the very vehicles of Polish freedom, such tomes are clearly expressing some satisfaction at the Jewish plight. This polish freedom tribune was noting this too as a warning of worse to come. Not just that, elements of the Polish state were so confident in the very nature of the atrocity against their Polish Jews being accomplished by roving bands of Shaulises, the Latvian militia willing to adopt all and any methodology in the procurement of the Jewish Slaughter, little protest was ever stressed. Such mercenary undertakings, whether Latvian, Polish or Ukrainian should have greatly rankled Polish sensitivities.
What with the Germans occupying the whole of Poland now, with Polish sovereignty now non existent, it beggars belief that other nationals could be thus employed. Why there was no need to protest these other foreign nationals behaving with such impunity upon Polish soil. Perhaps the answer indeed lies in the fact that the abusive treatment of the Jewish People was considered an acceptable loss to Polish pride at the time? Through whole swathes of the Polish nation, many government agencies, churches, groups and individuals all turned a very blind eye to what befell their Jewish Community. That a nation, on the whole grew deaf to any Jewish pleas is enough of an accusation which History owes to posterity to accuse as many as can be identified for such intolerances and indifferences.
Thursday August 20th. 1942 "..200,000 Ghetto residents ..already ..deported. ..lootings ..with ..German Police ..Lithuanians ..Ukrainians ..Latvians all taking their turns. ..succeeded in finding out ..way to kill .in ..Treblinka ..is ..gas chamber. ..24 hours a day ..dredging machine ..digs a deep ditch. ..corpses ..simply tossed into that ditch." Armia Krajowa. The Polish Home Army.
What we knew of the time, from both the residents of The Warsaw Ghetto, who were the Jews of Warsaw and its surrounding districts, is accurately stated in the pages of dispatches sent to the Allied powers. We do not need to enter here into the debate as to why der Einsatzgruppe reports had been intercepted but were largely ignored with regard to their Jewish content. But we are certain that the very detail which contained the excess and Murder against 100's of 1,000's of Jews throughout The Baltic States, Poland and the Ukraine were known to Allied intelligence and recorded as such in Nazi telexes, the OSR's or Operational Situation Reports. Also, and in the many other such statements made and these were made on a regular basis by the supposedly resisting Polish Home Army, such was the truth that could not ever be denied.
As such, that very truth and cognisant awareness of the awakening resolve to Murder all of Poland's Jews has found all too many willing now to deny the very fact of what here has been clearly acknowledged with its factually truthful integrity. With the expellation of Warsaw Ghetto Jewry toward Treblinka, this ensured that these 200,000 Jews were recorded as having being transported to be Murdered in the Treblinka Gas Chambers. Here too, with the corpses to be interred in the ditches dredged by the dredging machines on a 24 hour basis, and on every single day, such information never appear to have formed the Polish resistance toward this genocidal effort. On behalf of the Jews who were being exterminated, until it was enacted by the Jews themselves, resistance was in very short supply from those more ably equipped to do so, the non-Jewish Polish forces of the state.
"..I talked with Zalmen Sutker ..Julian Glatt ..Leyzer Grossman ..Vovek Zilbershteyn and others I met in ..Judenrate." Khaye Golding-Kayman.
On October 25th. 1942, and with the arrival of 600 Jews from the Rajgrod district, this was to be a fore warning of an approaching storm for all the remaining Jews of Grajewo. On November 2nd. 1942 the Ghetto itslef, in accordance with The Final Solution protocol was surrounded by Police units, SD and SS from 4:30 am. With measured and attentive force the Jews of the Ghetto were brutally dragged from their homes and made to gather in the square. Any attempts to hide or even resist was met with immediate death and during this whole liquidation process, 6 entire Jewish Ghetto Family's were murdered on the spot. The Ghetto, which had lasted until this day had contained as many as 3,000 Jews. They had been drawn from Grajewo itself, from Bialystok, Grodno, Jasionowka, Krynki, Pruzany, Rajgrod and Sokolka and all of the smaller Shtetl's and Villages with pocketed the surrounding areas.
Then, on November 11th. 1942, when those few survivng Jews of Grajewo's Ghetto faced the consequences of their own final end, no outside clamour for their safeguarding was ever muted, motioned or heard. After its final dissolution, with at least 2,500 of these Grajewo's Jews having been sent straight to Treblinka, the hollowness to what remained echoes throughout Poland as a desolation of the fountain of Jewish existence. Many others of these Grajewo Jews, still managing to resist toard a bitter end would be held over for later deportation to Auschwitz. The final impact on the entire Jewish existence in Grajewo was both colossal and terminal. Any of the remaining 2,500 Grajewo, and those otherJews from the district, who were either Murdered on the spot or were transported to the Slave Labour Camp and Ghetto at Bogusze, these then formed that subsequent Auschwitz transport.
"..We did not know where we are going to. We stopped in Czestochowa. In ..ghetto there was family. ..husband pulled me out of ..carriage. ..Germans did not fire. ..perhaps 2 soldiers for 250 Jews ..they did not notice us. Somebody from ..car threw us a coat." Runia Lunski.
For these, the very remnants of Grajewo Jewry, who were told they would be sent to a Labour Camp in the area of Silesia, where Auschwitz and Birkenau awaited them, they were duped further as they by-passed the Treblinka Death Camp along from Malkinia. Then, by December 15th. 1942, most of the remainder of Grajewo's Jews had been finally readied for transport to be resettled in Treblinka and where extermination awaited them there also. Zalman Sutker and his entire Family were included in the Treblinka resettlement and were indeed expelled toward Bogusze and then onto Treblinka. On December 16th. 1942 with his Wife, Ida Vilenska Sutker, Father, Meir Icko Sutker, Mother, Basia Itke Wojewodzka Sutker, Berl Sutker and Feiga Sutker, Zalman entire Family headed for a fate only they can know and toward what they may have felt was a certain destruction.
"..On January 2nd. 1943 ..Germans ordered ..Jews to pack up and prepare to leave ..next day." Nakhman Rapp.
However, while rumours abounded that this transport was being sent to the crematoria of Treblinka and annihilation there, hope, that last feeling to cling to, was their consideration. For who would believe such things could be, and this became their reality. Initially, the rumour was not believed and as the Bogushe Camp was emptied of 5,000 of its 7,500 Jews, amongst them Leyzer Grossman, Zalman Zutker and his Family, Treblinka was their final destination. After that, Birkenau now awaited the residue of Jewish Grajewo existence with their entire presence all but finally eviscerated. This terminal period arrived for these Jews on January 6th. 1943, as assigned to the Augustow transport and resettled in Auschwitz. As Grajewo is now declared Judenrein, or cleared of its Jewish People, their History is extinguished to a faded memory upheld by fewer and fewer of those Survivor's who truly knew and lived through the catastrophe. On January 7th. 1943, the Augustow transport arrived, and on the ramps at Birkenau, of the 2,000 Jews who were summarily assessed, 296 Jewish Men and 215 Jewish Women were separated out for work.
"..highlighting Grajewo. ..A cousin of my father’s escaped ..carnage and joined ..partisans. ..defeat of Russians and occupation by Germany was done in ..blink of an eye. Eyewitness reports exist in ..Yizkor book so there were a few Survivors. But of course they fled. Grajewo was Judenrein so very quickly." Evelyn Fine.
This temporary reprieve to work in the Camp, did not extend to the remainder of the transport as 1,489 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were immeidtaely gassed. This now sees Grajewo’s few remaining Jews, who were transported here to Auschwitz and destruction in Birkenau, complete the transition toward their destruction at Hitler's behest. Much of the sheer evidence of Jewish existence, from the German Polish border through Grajewo and into Poland, heading deeper and deeper Eastward, was almost completely obliterated in an account it has proved impossible to wholly reclaim. Of course, there were vestiges of Jewish persistence, but while most of Grajewo's Jews had been reduced to ash, and the culture of that hereditary life had been brutally vanquished, study resurrects barely their memory. Despite what The Final Solution of the Jewish Question sought to achieve we have sifted through that clear intention to obliterate not only all of European Jewry, but the very evidence of their transport through History and time and the very evidences of all that had been enacted against them. For the study of such Jewish eminence, the echo of any Jewish past no longer resounds with its usual vibrancy and the crucifying and hollowed resonance which marked the Jewish presence within Poland.
"..On January 3rd. 1943 ..last Grajewo Jews left ..Bogushe camp forever. In jammed cars ..they left ..Prostken railway station and rolled on through Bialystok ..Warsaw ..Treblinka. When ..train passed Treblinka and did not stop ..a ray of hope shone among ..unfortunate. They did not yet know that there were other Death Camps besides Treblinka." Nakhman Rapp.
In places like Grajewo there is deafening quiet, a depleted and destroyed presence no longer vibrant nor tangible. All those Jews of the East, Murdered, riven from places with their decimation sustain a very vocal stillness, stubborn with certainty that time will not allow us to forget them. Of all Jewish presence in the areas of former Jewish existence, Graveyards to a Jewish past, but hidden under a pile of blood and the ash of their Existence, we tread across lands saturated in atrocity. It is an understatement for the Polish underground of the time to not only conclude that some 3,000,000 of Poland's Jews have been effectively Murdered, it would be disingenuous for them not to do so. Knowing too well the full order of that destruction in places like Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka and every single Community where Jews had lived fruitfully for 1,000's of years, words cannot be left to any attempt to undermine this truth. What has awakened a Jewish and non-Jewish scholarly endeavour to Remember, Recall and acknowledge their Annihilation drives forth the Memory to be recorded.
Tuesday March 23rd. 1943 "..Insofar as ..can be ascertained ..fate of ..Jews has undergone a further deterioration. Considering barely several hundred thousand Jews have remained out of 3,500,000 one has a fair insight concening ..scale of atrocities ..perpetrated." Polish Underground.
But for those, the witness who also was the Perpetrator, the Participator and the willing, complict, duplicitous collaborator in the scale of the atrocity waged against their own Jewish Citizens, their words must not prove culpable in any attempt to ameliorate what we know. The Grajewo Teacher, Ezra M. Obodzinski, was part of that very resistance, though his was a Jewish Resistance, that was active. Ezra was a participant in the Bialystok Ghetto uprising, a resolve that fought so valiantly from August 15th. till August 22nd. 1943. Ezra had served well already the student body of Grajewo and alongside other Teacher's like Beykowski, Yisroel Borekh, Fromer, Haika (Chaja) Grosman, Josef Jambor, Kureivovski, Moshe Pomerantz, Lea Popovski, Chanan Rubin and Abraham Shlonsky, Velvel (Vovak) Silberstein, Dora Wapinska and Shlome Wronsberg, these others taught too the values that life could bring to their students. That the student body of Grajewo was hugely dissolved and Murdered makes us all the more willing to listen and to learn from the examples those like Ezra have set. However, as Hitler unfurled his Murderous campaign and resolve to destroy all Jews, many of these Teacher’s too suffered the fate of their Student’s.
Ezra, after escaping to the Knyszyn Forest joined the group of Vafroid Jewish partisans but he was subsequently killed fighting against those same Nazi's in the region who were Murdering his own People. Many Jews throughout Poland spoke of the fate of their People and many of them died with a defiance upon their lips so largely omitted from History. From amidst the nations which had courted them, even as Jews, allowing them to establish themselves, even as Jews, few others fought hard to protect the continuing onslaught upon their very existence. Even as non-Jews, the war against Hitler was being waged and no account was gven to the Jewish People over what else Hitler had asssigned them. When Gisi Fleischmann wrote her letter to the Daughter she had resigned herself to never seeing again, we become witness not only to the trauma of the Jews of Europe, of Poland and here in Grajewo, but we find a very distinct heroism that was present amongst these very communites. From amongst the 6,000,000 Jews who were annihilated, culled, executed, exrtracted and always murdered, Jewish Resistance persisted, even when pressed hard against the force of a bullet.
Monday September 6th. 1943 "..Fate has willed us apart. ..Yet ..same fate has also willed that during ..years of our people’s greatest misery ..your mother is fulfilling a great mission in order to ease this terrible suffering. If I survive this difficult period ..I think I will be able to say that I have not lived in vain. In this spirit you must bear this separation. ..suffering of ..People of Israel stands above any personal pain." Gisi Fleischmann.
We can all wish to stand above personal pain and do so reluctantly, and while many even wish to condemn the Jews for the Slaughter inflicted upon them, we cannot legislate the Jewish mood of hope or expectancy. Who would foresee, from the nation of German's who should have acted with all Humanity, the barabarity that was unleashed, unfettered and unprecedented. Remember too, that what Elie Wiesel sought to insist, and that while not all victims were Jews, All Jews Were made Victims by Hitler and German intervention. From that very clear premise we know, and while we are very certain that Hitler sought to enslave the Poles, Hitler even allowed for their demise at a cost to productiveness, but here any comparison ends. To enter into the destruction of a People, wholly intended and offer up any form of comparison, to do so would be unjustified in the course of History. Relevance clearly shows that with Poland and its Jews, it was with typical Hitlerite inconsideration for their lives that their lives were lost.
While some 3 million non-Jewish Poles paid for that sought after slave labour with their lives, this was not immediately sought. However, none of the actions against any other of the People's of Europe was as systematically legislated for and directed as was The Final Solution of the Jews of Poland and then all the Jewish People on Continental Europe. That the non-Jewish Poles were not sougtht out for total eradication, slaughter, annihilation nor extermination is clearly expressed. Every facet of Hitler's claims for the Jews of Europe sought out the Jewish People for an unparalleled atrocity. The Polish Jews and their entire being on the Continent of Europe, were already forfeit as Jews to the whim of Hitler. When Poland was assailed in 1939, Polish intelligentsia was sought out too for Murder, but all and any Jew was sought out for Slaughter, all 3,000,000 plus of them.
"..Grajewo ..Judenrein ..can sleep peacefully. No more Jews in Grajewo. But ..earth of Grajewo shall not rest for a long ..long time. Long ..very long shall sleep be taken from ..eyes of those in Grajewo who helped in ..great crime. ..pain of ..murdered Women ..Children ..Fathers ..Sons ..shall long disturb their rest. Mortal fear shall grip them by night and black melancholy shall torture them by day for ..awful deeds that they have done. ..curse which our martyrs cast in ..final moments of their being shall pursue them eternally to ..end of their days. ..Then ..blood of martyrs shall be quieted." Nakhman Rapp.
What has since emerged from the trauma of realisation, has seen a resurrgence of a Jewish persistence of spirit, and in places like Poland which seeks to justify its unjustifiable position with regards to their Jewish Community, the Jewish People persist. More than 90% of Polish Jewry was wasted in a claim to destroy them all. On the back of this intolerance, which then sought the assistance of a monumental indiffernce to all Jewish struggle, Polish Jewry was submerged in such cruelty, it is unfathomable. Largely lost to all eternity, more than 3,000,000 of Polish Jewry has not been given up to a past forgotten. Nor has their destruction abandoned the call for a State which would have secured more of a safety net for them than the World provided. With the Right to Return, this Law, The Law of Return was passed on July 5th. 1950 and it signalled for the entire World of Jewry, the remnants of Polish Jewry and those Jews of Grajewo who Survived, as we speak of them a space they can call Home awaits them.
Ever since the inception of the State of Israel, created out of the trauma of Survival and our abandonment of them, on May 14th. 1948 for what must be the accepted moral and ethical realisiation of that Jewish space. After what we allowed to happen to their People, the 3,000 year Diasporan Jew could finally cease their wandering, if they so choose. Here in Israel, the weary Jew, the World Jew, what is left of the Polish Jew and what remains of the Grajewo Jew can settle amongst their fellow Jews in a Land promised to them. I do not solely speak of a mandate of Jewish Humanity, but of a god of Judaism and christianity who acknowledge that right of return. That return fully recognises an equality that would be enshrined in what would be wholly deliverable to all Israeli Citizens, whether they are Jewish or not. In the gravest of terms, which persist to this Day, life for the Jewish People is not enshrined in their liberty, livlihood nor their ability to contribute to all and any community they live amongst without fear.
"..past ..will never return. ..only thing that remains are memories ..sweet ..lovely. ..Dniester River ..which keeps flowing ..distant ..strange ..cold ..which hums ..not for me anymore." Renia Spiegel.
The Right of Return.
I Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an Oleh.
II Aliyah shall be by Oleh's visa.
An Oleh's visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel, unless the Minister of Immigration is satisfied that the applicant
i is engaged in an activity directed against the Jewish people; or
ii is likely to endanger public health or the security of the State.
III A Jew who has come to Israel and subsequent to his arrival has expressed his desire to settle in Israel may, while still in Israel, receive an Oleh's certificate.
The restrictions specified in section 2 (b) shall apply also to the grant of an Oleh's certificate; but a person shall not be regarded as endangering public health on account of an illness contracted after his arrival in Israel.
IV Every Jew who has immigrated into this country before the coming into force of this Law, and every Jew who was born in this country, whether before or after the coming into force of this Law, shall be deemed to be a person who has come to this country as an Oleh under this Law.
V The Minister of Immigration is charged with the implementation of this Law and may make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation and also as to the grant of Oleh's visas and Oleh's certificates to minors up to the age of 18 years.
So when the Jews went in search of a European meaning to a tragedy of the Shoah, they found a precedent had been set in The Holocaust term. For that tragedy alone, which met 6,000,000 Jews and Murdered them wholesale, there is a greater need to maintain reference to them within that term than to deny them the last vestiges of our human decency denying them its space. So the meaning is clear. The Jews of the World, whether they emerged from the deep trauma of a hostile environment and from the murderous tentacles of The Holocaust, or whether they now wish simply to live amongst like minded, spiritual and efficatious Jewry, Israel afforded them a space to call their own. Even though the Jewish State is under constant threat of its destruction, we are morally obliged to support and assist the after our broken covenant with Humanity. I have made an effort to steer clear of politicising the terms of reference given to The Holocaust, but the right to Jewish existence must be given a consideration above all other's by dint of what the World allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of their own, Our own.
"..senseless murder of 6,000,000 Jews is difficult to understand ..even more difficult is that ..World was silent. ..I stopped trying to understand it because it defies logic ..I prefer to use ..lessons I have learned ..stand ..against all evil ..never give up ..treat people with fairness ..forgive your worst enemy ..think of one thing you can do to make ..world better." Eva Moses Kor.
So while I have listed some of these, these Jews of Grajewo which We have all lost, who were Murdered intentionally and were chosen systematically by Adolf Hitler, and solely for being Jews, no account will ever be complete. For Hitler who epitomises an enemy of our own Humanity, each and every Jewish name, mentioned here in the account I can barely comprehend, they all stand as an accusation of the inhumanity that was allowed to be shown and as an affirmation of a loss we will seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget. The account is not in the least bit as complete in detail as it should be and toward the Memory we seek to Remember for them, it is sadly incomplete by many 1,000's. While every attempt has been made to identify with Grajewo's Murdered, it is likely too that many who were born elsewhere were Murdered here. It is also a case of happenstance that might include those Married to a Jew of Grajewo. There was for some, who were merely a Jewish visitor to the Grajewo an assault upon them which forms their enclosed status as a Jew of the Town that was Murdered.
Lejzer Hersz Abkevitz, Boruch Abkewicz, Brajna Abkewicz, Fishel Abkewicz, Khana Abkewicz, Motl Abkewicz, Rywka Abkewicz,Wela Voula Abkewicz, Brynke Abkewitz, Layki Abkewitz, Rochel Abkewitz, Shayna Merka Abkewitz, Velinki Abkewitz, Chaszka Khasia Abkiewicz, Mendel Abkiewicz, Mosek Abkiewicz, Pinkus Abkiewicz, Wela Sara Abkiewicz, Ben Abkiewicz, Jochewet Abramska, Sara Abramska, Jakub Abramski, Josef Abramski, Matatiahu Abramski, Szejna Abramski, Szymon Abramski, Taibe Abramski, Tova Abramski, Mordekhai Abramski, Rivka Abramski, Yaacov Abramsky, Yokheved Abramsky, Kivel Abramson, Guta Adamshtein, Awezer Adamski, Chaim Adamski, Faiwel Adamski, Guta Adamski, Lazar Adamski, Guta Adamstein, Abram Adamstein, Khaia Agushevich, Moshe Agushevich, Zelda Agushevich, Cyla Tzipora Ajzensztadt, Cypora Ajzensztadt, Jakob Ajzensztadt, Mina Ajzensztadt, Jacques Ajzensztat, Jankel Ajzensztat, Yakob Ajzensztat, Avromtshe Ayzenshtat, Abram Bajkowski, Hersz Bajkowski, Khano Baykovski, Cipa Bialystocki, Cypa Bialostocki, Dawid Bialostocki, Dawid Bialystocki, Rachel Bialystocki, Rakhel Bialostocki, Yokheved Burshtein, Aviezer Dorf, Breina Dorf, Ester Dorf, Frida Dorf, Luba Dorf, Moniek Dorf, Sara Dorf, Yisrael Yaakov Dorf, Yitzkhak Dorf, Yosef Dorf, Peshka Fabritzki, Abraham Fainstein, Hadasa Fainstein, Khaim Fridman, Menukha Fridman, Yacob Leib Fridman, Malka Fridman, Chaim Friedman, Chana Friedman, Faige Malke Friedman, Menocha Friedman, Shaindel Friedman, Liptza Frydman, Sarah Frydman,Doba Chana Glas, Dora Glas, Tzura Glass, Chaim Goldberg, Abraham Grinberg, Chaja Khava Grinberg, Khaia Grinberg, Yehuda Grinberg, Yisrael Grinberg, Abraham Isak Gringrass, Itsik Ayzik Grosman, Khana Grosman, Masia Grosman, Mina Grossman, Natan Grosman, Rachela Grosman, Riwka Grosman, Yitzkhak Grosman, Juda Gruenberg, Chawa Grunberg, Frida Zmojewski Grunberg, Afroim Guzik, Jankiel Guzik, Kalman Guzik, Motek Guzik, Sara Guzik, Chaja Kac, Rubin Kaminski, Avrum Kaminsky, Chana Kaminsky, Tzvia Kaminsky, Refael Karmin, Avraham Mordekhai Katz, Chonon Wolf Klecki, Sheina Zelda Klecki, Dov Klecki-Kaletzki, Hershel Tzvi Klecki-Kaletzki, Khaim Yehuda Klecki-Kaletzki, Shprisha Kolka, Gitel Kolko, Hersz Kolko, Izzak Kolko, Moshe Kolko, Nella Kolko, Reina Rakhel Kolko, Reizl Kolko, Sprysza Kolko, Szymon Kolko, Yaakov Kolko, Arie Leib Levit, Mendel Lewin, Yda Hinda Lejzerson, Srolke Leyzer, Sara Liner, Berko Malachowsky, Josef Malachowscki, Ezra M. Obodzinski, Velvl Piekarevitsh, Chemio Piorko, Miriam Piorko, Mojzesz Piorko, Mosze Piorko, Mosze Piorko, Relka Piorko, Sara Piorko, Tzipa Piorko, Mirjam Piurko, Rela Piurko, Lea Popovski, Mina Mindo Radak, Dovid Rapp, Yehuda Reimer, Chaja Alta Rozenbaum, Abram Rynkowski, Chackiel Rynkowski, Chaim Rynkowski, Rachel Rynkowski, Rywka Rynkowski, Ahuva Luba Sarna, Rejza Serejski, Ester Sosnowicz, Basia Itke Ida Sutker, Berl Sutker, Feiga Sutker, Ida Sutker, Meir Icko Sutker, Zalman Sutker, Mordechy Vapinski, Rachel Vapinsky, Chana Waks, Lea Waks, Meir Waks, Mejlach Waks, Rachel Wapinska, Chaya Alte Wiernik, Dina Zilbershtein, Szulamit Zylbersztejn.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, September 28, 2018 16:39:12
This modern page from the rampage of The Holocaust, a page mostly written by Natalie Mehlman Scharf, begins with her birth in 1925. As Hitler is gaining influence and while Europe is wrestling with the devastation and trauma after World War I, supposedly the War to end all Wars, Adolf Hitler has entered the political stage. Across Germany, and certainly within Poland, punitive measures are being sought which will decrease any influence the Jewish People are allowed to have within their own communities. Here, as antisemitism gains a newer voice, the threat to Jewish antecedence is not wholly appreciated. As the Schutzstaffel or SS is borne, Hitler now has a personal bodyguard which will be known to infamy as the pliable tool in the destruction of 6,000,000 of European Jewry. Also, Hitler's first volume of his assumed book, Mein Kampf, his so called struggle is published and the warning signs as to the future treatment of the Jewish People is more clearly spelled out.
"..I was born November 15th. 1925 ..a ..10 year old little girl. I recall on Easter how ..Poles were coming out of ..Church full of scorn and anger at us ..cursed Jews ..for killing Jesus their God and Saviour. We stayed indoors till Easter was over." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
As Europe was composed of many differing factions, all vying for political power, the catholic church was unrelenting in its own issuance of edicts aimed against the Jewish People. Such pastoral letters would have fallen on fertile ground in Jaworzno and a particular pastoral letter from the Austrian Bishop, Johannes Gfollner of Linz, states most irreverently and without charity, that it is the duty of all catholics to adopt a moral form of antisemitism. This gives many antisemites leverage in their campaign to bully, abuse and take from the Jews what belongs to the Jews, especially within Poland. The following day of this pastoral letter, on January 30th. 1933 Adolf Hitler is appointed German Reichskanzler. This single event, as if to confirm the status of the Reich was in accord with the church, they would strike their bargain. All through the swathe of the 1930’s, amidst the political turmoil and financial unrest, the Jews of Germany and Austria faced a critical onslaught against their very integrity.
"..Marszalek Pilsudski died in 1935 ..start of our gehenna ..our hell." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
By May 12th. 1935, when the Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski dies, ever more anti-Jewish measures escalate their opportune moment, ever more rancid and glaring, and within Poland, tangibly so. The government of Poland, and in fact most of the Polish political parties will call for discrimination, economic boycott, expulsion, and physical violence against their Jewish People. Young Natalie is becoming aware of the difference here presence is causing and she is not yet 10 years of age. Meanwhile, the Polish catholic church with most of its priests and the catholic press all advocating a more pronounced assault, the Jewish presence within Poland was under a consolidated and direct attack. Even catholic schools administer to the whim of bigotry and downright racism. Places of learning will sanction all manner of discrimination and or violence against their Jewish Community in School’s, Colleges and Universities.
Friday August 16th. 1935 "..solution of ..Jewish question ..is ..business of ..Fuhrer ..not ..individuals." Heinrich Himmler.
Such was the succession of anti-Jewish rhetoric, it was difficult to hear above the rabble, the ameliorating terms of any ‘christian’ efficacy, tolerance nor understanding. The political will of the few was shaking the branch of the tolerant many and the entire infrastructure of any moral probity was being lopped off, root and branch. Such was the clamour for a victim, all too many rode the intolerance mode of hatred and indifference to what was being stated became a muted symbol of the culpable and complicit nature of duplicitous agreement with what was and would continue to emerge, until The Holocaust was fully formed. Along the way, individual assaulting of Jews gave way to individual killings of Jews until the growing spectre of mass killing, in the few, the dozen’s, the 100’s and then the 1,000’s became common place. By August 25th. of that year we even hear similar words from a protestant pastor, Martin Niemoeller, and with words no so called ‘christian’ should ever have uttered of an assault upon the human tolerance toward the individual, due to their difference.
Sunday August 25th. 1935 "..dark and sinister and under a curse for they brought ..Christ of God to ..cross but are also responsibility for ..blood of all ..righteous men who were ever murdered." Martin Niemoeller.
Martin Niemoller, a reformed and then ardent anti-Nazi protestant church minister, who was convinced of the greater wrong to be achieved in even supporting Hitler, managed to initially support what Hitler stood for. Here, while he still preaches that the Jews are ‘The Christ Killers', Niemoller is playing directly into the hands of those he opposed on a theological and religious basis. For Niemoller, it is clear to him that the history of the Jews is both a dark and sinister influence and as the age old hatred that has blighted human existence, Niemoller has liberally expounded and endorsed most readily, that the Jews were the culprits in the killing of christ. This church devotee’s antisemitic rhetoric of more than 2,000 years of hate filled illegitimacy, stands alongside even the most sinister of Hitler’s pronouncements. It is difficult, given the reverence attributed to Niemoller over his other wordy claim to fame, that when they came for all other’s he did not speak nor did he voice any concern over the Jewish plight.
"..First they came for ..socialists ..and I did not speak out because I was not a socialist. Then they came for ..trade unionists ..and I did not speak out because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for ..Jews ..and I did not speak out because I was not a Jew. Then they came for me and there was no one left to speak for me." Martin Niemoller.
Then, when it came for Martin Niemoller to be taken away, he recognised no one remained who would speak for him, because they had become inculcated in the Nazi crimes of hatred and murder of the Jews and others. So instead of Niemoller speaking out in earnest for the tolerance necessary to be truly ‘christian’ and though he did refute the Hitlerite legacy of ‘Race, Blood and Soil, Pastor Niemoller was consigned to concentration in the Dachau camp. When many of those who appear exemplary in their ministry, they are exposed critically when on September 15th., when the racist Nuremberg Laws are passed, and Jews are defined biologically by 'race,' there is little of any concerted effort to be heard in protest. The National Citizens Law now strips away Citizenship from its Jews and with the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, for European Jewry, this 'Lawlessness' became the Law unilaterally promulgated against them.
"..My poor kind Father asked a few of his customers ..begged them please help me ..my children are starving give me a few potatoes ..a few onions a carrot to make a potato soup ..for we are so hungry. Every one of them closed their doors and told us. ..I went with my Dad to help him carry ..food ..he could hardly walk ..he would say ..you eat I am full ..you are growing." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
I had already completed what I intended to write on the place of Jaworzno within The Holocaust and then am focused on what seems appropriate to alter that earlier intention. When I am reminded of Friendships and recognise that a Camp guard, extradited from the US to Germany might yet evade 'justice', I am urged to write even more on why we must never relinquish our hold on memory. I for one know where responsibility lies and I will contribute further to the understanding of Jaworzno’s place in The Final Solution of The Jewish Question with an unbounded accusation. With those resigned to a terminology which is used to conceal the clear cut intention to Murder all Jews, and let us not be complacent, die endlosung der Judenfrage was and always was intended on becoming, The Holocaust for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, All Men, Women and Their Children of them. Essential in all aspects of what I have been delivering has considered the power which does not belong to us to forgive.
"..They told us don’t ever come to us. We cant even talk to you ..besides we have no food ourselves. Yet in ..back I saw a garden brimming with loads of fruits vegetables ..chickens ..cows ..pigs a veritable food haven." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
For these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, including those many here at Jaworzno, forgiveness does not belong to me, nor to the Survivors and certainly not to any judiciary which singularly failed the loss to these many Jewish People. What belongs solely to those 6,000,000 Jewish Victims themselves is the essential in forgiveness, a gift that is freely given and these Jews have no ability to deliver it. I hold firmly to the contention that No one has Any right over that ability to forgive other than those directly involved in the Catastrophe itself. For those who Survived, they are at liberty to forgive those who rampaged against them, bullied and sullied them, abused and battered them and truly brought them to the brink of extinction. However, that does not reserve the right for anyone to then Forgive for the abuse, the barbarity, the execution or the annihilation which 6,000,000 Murdered Jews then suffered for which their ability to seek an apology or render any acceptance of it, has been so brutally slain.
The two positions are demonstrably and interminably separated by the final Catastrophe which overtook these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, those who did not Survive. Here too, though mine is a replacement detail for those who should and did not do anything, nor enough to alleviate Jewish suffering or stem the flow of atrocity toward them, my accusation bears no semblance of any forgiveness whatsoever. As a consequence of an intolerable atrocity, The Holocaust, fully underwritten by a World’s indifference to the Jews of Jaworzno and the struggle of 11,293,300 Jews to Survive, we owe a debt to All Jews which will Never be repaid. It is an irony that the policy of a Jewish State that might have saved more, was unacceptable to far too many Jews of the time. But how could these Jews of Europe, let alone Jaworzno know the horror that was to come? As the exacting detail that was set out by The Wannsee Conference shows, far more Jews than were destroyed would have been annihilated.
"..That’s ..way it was. I lived it. I remember it all." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
It is our fortune that those like you Natalie have Survived as a consequence of some haphazard form of luck which remains inexplicable. Sadly too, and for you Natalie this is a further tragedy, you have to relive a horror so blatant and cruel that we can come to understand or remotely comprehend what was so wrong back then and what continues to be an unlearned lesson in this world today. Much of what I write here is incomparable to what those, like Natalie Mehlman Scharf, Aron Krakauer or those like Ruth Marshansky and Nathan Roth came to know of. For me, it is to these Jews, both lost to us and those who survived the destructive efforts of far too many, who wrote words to deliver truth to us, it is for these that we must thank, and in Remembering their glorious effort to Survive and afford us their Testimony, recognise their uniquely precedent efforts. For those who have undergone or have learned of those experiences, this will trouble History for eternity.
"..I didn't have any experience of a Polish worker giving me food ..I do remember ..area where they had their lunch and ..they did leave rather generous ..if you want to call them ..potato peelings from boiled potatoes." Nathan Roth.
Also, and for those who still managed to Survive, we come to learn a horrid detail of a terrible lesson which 6,000,000 Jews fully experienced and cannot ever relate to us in person. Though many have left tiny capsules of their past, we cannot gain the terrible tragedy of their lives without constructing from the detail of other’s who suffered similarly up to the point of their own Survival. For that reason, I am eternally grateful to those like Natalie for the detail of her story and I write it down, not just for posterity, but to catalogue a Crime against all of Humanity which we must learn appropriately from. The truth we come so glaringly close to becoming a witness to, which Natalie and other’s relate is so evidential that this one person is now so enabled to relate it to us. Natalie allows for our intervention into a horror we cannot begin to know in any form of reality to feed our sense with terror so horrifying it seizes us and consumes our ability to suggest the inhumanity in human beings can be restricted to those we know are the evil doers.
"..Dear Patrick. I am 91 years old ..a faded old beauty ..born in Jaworzno ..Poland. I came from a family of 8. My father and Mother Ichak and Rosalia Mehlman. Kind law abiding people along with my three sisters Eva 29 ..Regina 28 ..Salusia 12 years old ..my nephew Willy 6 ..my niece Frieda 6 months old ..that I never saw." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
Dearest Natalie, this piece, so appropriate to Jaworzno, or Neu-Dachs given its German name, related to you specifically as a member of this Jewish Community, who were forced into a Labour Camp where too few of the 1,600 to 3,700 Jews detained emerged. There your fellow Jewish neighbours were drilled into an extinction immeasurable in human terms and significantly so for Your close proximity to the scene of the atrocity itself. So before I go any further with my response to your willing ability to share with this World what you experienced, I wish to repeat a sentiment I share with all Survivor’s. I have always made it a point, when I meet with Survivors, to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For the whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration, Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get the opportunity to greet you in person, I apologise to You for the inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust, who cannot direct their own appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved on their behalf.
"..In 1942 was slaving ..starving ..infested with lice ..eaten by bedbugs in a Concentration Camp in Czechoslovakia ..for 3 years until ..blessed day when we 350 very lucky young innocent girls ..were liberated by ..raggedy tired but victorious Red Army." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
In each of you Survivor’s, the World entire has been saved. It should not matter that I have issued this statement many times, but each time I do, it is with a profound respect for what you manage to achieve, in spite of the enormous injustices other’s have caused you. I took time out to learn a little more of the specific detail of Jaworzno and I wish to provide some basic facts about this little space, tragically present for its Jewish Citizens amongst The Holocaust. The town we will come to know is called Jaworzno, which lies in the Silesian Province of Southern Poland and was a mere 40 kilometres from what was to become the most sophisticated Murder Mill in all of History, Auschwitz and Birkenau. Here, within Jaworzno itself, local Jews and others from the Town and surrounding areas were worked toward Death to ensure the Destructive capacity at Birkenau was kept at a peak requirement. Jaworzno is some 22 kilometres Southeast of Katowice and about 301 kilometres Southwest of the Polish Capital, Warsaw.
Jaworzno has been in existence as a cross roads to the furthest reaches of the East ever since the 13th Century. Jaworzno opened its first Coal Mine in 1767 and this is where capital gain would meet the decapitation of its Jewish presence. By 1795 the spread of the Austrian Empire had gained sovereignty over Jaworzno and after annexing it from Poland, it became ensconced into the fabric of a more Austrian concern. Mining was to prove a stable enterprise as it enriched the locale and by the end of the 18th. Century there were close on 100 Jews residing within the Jaworzno Township. This Jewish influence steadily increased to close on 1,000 Jews throughout the 19th. and early 20th. Century. For the burgeoning community, both Jewish and Polish, an upturn in Jaworzno’s status moved the entire community more gradually away from a rural economy and more towards an industrial complexity of business.
"..Natalie Mehlman Scharf Survivor of Concentration Camp Gabersdorf part of Camp Gross Rosen now part of Poland." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
Here, by the turn of the 20th. Century, and by which time the Town had become a City, life fitted both sets of the community. For the Jewish People of Jaworzno however, this was with a tentative acceptance of any Jewish presence by the non-Jewish and Polish majority. The Jews, from amongst a more voluble and learned status than perhaps the Poles enjoyed, still became a more acceptable influence. By the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, of the 13,000 residents of Jaworzno, more than 1,300 were Jewish and 12 of these were members of the City Council. Both sides of the community suffered the incongruous nature of hostility in War and learned of their dead with equal solemnity. For Jaworzno between Wars, the World conflict did not consolidate that very close proximity to tragedy with any shared grief for the losses to the Jewish community. From amongst the still virulent antisemitic legacy of a church led antipathy towards the Jewish People, the community continued along a similarly strained path.
By the time Hitler Invaded Poland on September 1st. 1939, more than 1,800 Jewish People now lived in the City of Jaworzno. Their presence became a beacon for further biased and even brutal action rallied against them and the German presence instilled in the Polish community a more fixed attitude against their Jewish Neighbours. The German occupation saw the Ghettoisation of all local Jaworzno’s Jews and then the Jewish People from the surrounding areas and Jews from Chorzkow, Katowice and Siemianowice were all moved into the cramped space that formed the Ghetto of Jaworzno. For the Jewish People, and from the moment of the Nazi occupation, both the local Jews and those of the entire area were severely brutalised and many were even murdered. Here, as elsewhere, Hitler's carefully phased segregation's came into focus and in the latter part of 1940, with still more added restrictions upon Jewish life, the ability of the Jewish Community of Jaworzno to interact further with any degree of equanimity with their local neighbours was more abruptly curtailed.
"..Monday August 28th. 2017 07:00 am. Dear Patrick ..In June 1942 my whole family was still alive. In march 1943 most of them were gassed and burned in Auschwitz a town a walking distance from Jaworzno near Krakow were I was born." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
Along with sporadic assaults, there was the continuous confiscation of Jewish goods and the property's and lands of Jewish ownership were stolen from them. As well as the steady flow of Murders meted out to any Jew which both Nazi or Polish non-Jew saw fit, these were a regular occurrence in and around the City limits. For instance, on the Night of July 12th. 1942 more than 2,092 Jews were rounded up by the SS details officially ascribed to the area. With the assistance of the local Police force, the gradual evacuation of all the Jews were transported towards Auschwitz and then Birkenau and toward their eventual Destruction there. Fewer than 12 of these transported Jews of Jaworzno were admitted to the Auschwitz main Camp and the remainder were Murdered in Birkenau. Here, the fate of the last Jews of Jaworzno is intertwined with what remained of the Jews of Silesia, and from amongst the last Ghetto's still to be liquidated in both Bedzin and Sosnowitz. Few Jews from Jaworzno had Survived the early onslaught, and if not Murdered by der Einsatzgruppe aktionen, transports to Ghetto's awaited them further afield and the end result of being either gassed or shot was never far from them.
"..taking of my brother and my brother in-law ..March 42 ..left my Mother ..Father my 4 Sisters and my self completely broken ..minimal rations constant wailing ..fear ..who will be next of us to be taken. ..Taken where. ..To be beaten ..cut ..raped ..we were like dirt in ..street to be swept away." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
The following year, and on June 15th. 1943 the Jaworzno Camp, or Camp Neu-Dachs given its German title was numbered 3,296 in Hitler’s labelling system, was also an Auschwitz satellite Camp. The camp itself was established for the extraction of Jaworzno’s those coal reserves still contained and some 1,600 Jewish prisoner’s would be enslaved here. In order to keep both the power station there burning and also ensure adequate stock of coal reached Auschwitz, enslavement of the local Jewish populace was ordered as an essential. Subsequently, and along with the Bedzin, or Bendin Transport of August 1st. 1943, which contained the last x2 remaining Jewish Family's of Jaworzno, and these were amongst 2,000 Jews drawn from the Bedzin Ghetto itself also from Gleitwitz and from Kattowice, and these are all transported to Auschwitz & Birkenau and certain death for all too many of them. Of these x5 transports of 2,000 Jews each, that is in excess of 10,000 Jews, some 1, 689 Jewish People were subjected to selection for labour and were not immediately gassed.
"..I will tell you how Hitler exterminated our entire family. ..March 1940 ..they arrested Mendele and took him to Berlin. ..2 years in jail ..released ..sent ..to Fiaski near Lublin and after 6 months to Majdanek and from then on there was no sign from him." Aron Krakauer.
Of the 8,400 of these Jews, including the last Jewish Families of Jaworzno, were the Jews from Bedzin, Gleiwitz, Kattowice, these the remnants of Silesian Jewry all extinguished at Hitler's behest. Hitler had clearly identified with the raw materials to be gained in pursuance of his twin aims, the War and The Final Solution. He saw in its promise a sustained war effort that would allow him his final resolve of that very Jewish Question which was to proceed at all costs. Let no one in History deliver to you any other recourse than that which Hitler had established for the Jews, ahead of World domination, his Weltanshauung, there stood The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. Unhindered and unhampered by any other concerns, the youth of Germany was squandered in a defence of a failed ideology that the majority of the German nation were in awe of. That it was an awesome brutality which would remain unrelenting until the very end of the flaccid life of the instigator himself, Adolf Hitler, is now measured in 6,000,000 selectively sought our Jews of Europe for systematic slaughter and 50 to 70 million dead in total, as a consequence of World War II.
"..And yet ..lives of ..Poles went on like before. ..They ate ..worked ..loved ..had children ..cows were grazing in ..fields ..Polish children ..My former friends were playing evenings in ..snow ..while we Jews at 4:00 pm had to be in our homes ..waiting in dread for ..morning." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
Hitler of course had established many layers of perversion to gain his ultimate aim, this destruction of the Jews of Europe and here at Auschwitz & Birkenau and its many sub-Camps, one of which was here at Jaworzno, Hitler could exploit the already brutalised Jewish labour force. As Jaworzno itself was so near to the Jewish embattled population, at the very doorsteps to their own destruction in the Gas Chambers at Auschwitz & Birkenau, life became a temporary reprieve for those Jews Hitler could exploit further. Here, the labour camp at Jaworzno was doing just that, opened to exploit the Coal reserves in the area, and the production which kept the power station working also stoked the very furnaces of the destructive processes at Auschwitz and Birkenau which obliterated the last traces of any Jewish presence from the area. Aron Krakauer, a former resident of Jaworzno and Survivor of Auschwitz informs us of the fate of His Parents, Wolf and Lieba, and his siblings Mendele and Mentze, all of whom did not Survive.
"..I have suffered a lot. I ..don't know how I survived." Aron Krakauer.
For me personally, arriving in this arena of both a terrible wrong and an immense horror, I don't EVER claim to know all the answers. This is why I have no wish to create the impression I am any authority on The Holocaust. I merely put words to an acknowledgement that those, like Yitzhak Arad, Professor Bauer, Yisrael Gutman, Lucy Dawidowicz are clearly the enlightenment I have sought. There have always been 6,000,000 reasons why this odyssey has been important for me. I cannot know what it is those I mention know, with certainty, with surety and with a front row seat to all the inexplicable horrors I flick through on a daily basis. Their understanding of what I seek to comprehend is set in a Memorial to 6,000,000 of their fellow Human Beings, all Murdered because they too were Jews. I have struggled with what emerged as my 4th. Book on The Holocaust of the Jews of Europe, but I have delivered it to posterity knowing that what Hitler sought to achieve, and Belzec was merely one instrument of that solution, at Jaworzno, Jewish People known to Natalie never returned.
"..Wolf and Lieba Krakauer lived in Rinek 3 ..Jaworzno ..ran a clothes store ..where both Jews and gentiles used to order suits. ..In ..1938 ..when Polish Jews were expelled from Germany ..family relatives ..arrived and stayed in ..house until they found a place to live. Lieba was especially loved by ..family." Ruth Marshansky.
Wolf and Lieba Krakauer were both murdered during the period of The Holocaust, Lieba was transported to Auschwitz, and quite possibly from the transport of July 12th. 1942 and Wolf was also transported to Auschwitz, the following year in August 1943. I have endeavoured to ask various questions all the way through the writing process, certainly of those, like Natalie who provide the key to opening up a further aspect of The Holocaust all too often not quoted. These confidants, for whom I remain eternally grateful, have guided my awareness of the subject of the loss which is contained within the terms and the tenets of The Holocaust. As the World of war against Hitler progressed, here at Jaworzno camp more than 3,600 prisoner’s remained alive incarcerated. But of these, 3,000 were forcibly marched West and away from the liberating Russian Armies to deny the fundamental truth of a false ideology which could not ever explain the inequities of the horror’s Hitler and his follower’s heaped upon the Jewish People.
"..I was grabbed by ..SS April 17th. 1942. And never saw my dear kinfolk again ..and now ..deniers ..marching Nazis with arms and permits and trump defending them ..they had permits there were nice people amongst he said. Americans not just ..media ..fair Americans ..good folks in our land speak up." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
It is more important as time progresses us from this period, that we know from those who knew, what we are searching for in terms of comprehending any part of this atrocity. It is vital and essential that the Survivor, who will lend us the essential truth of their Survival, gives us a glimpse, almost a snap shot of the horror that consumed 6,000,000 Jewish lives. While communicating with Elie Wiesel I was struck by his determined approach and his suggestion that I should seek to not deliver a version of The Holocaust that was anything but an historical account. This has left me struggling to proceed with this, my 4th. attempt at a literary endeavour. I sought too to revisit Babi Yar, the most devastating single event within this destruction of the Jewish People, so as to deliver a narrative full of the sense of pain and abject despair for those Jews forced to endure and die in horrendous circumstances? How could I come close, ever, to understanding the magnitude of feeling each word that has been carefully wrenched from their deep seated experience, in order that it delivers for us all, everything we need to know.
"..Jaworzno went on day in and day out ..until in January there was an air raid. ..Russians were coming. ..air raid I remember were ..American ..planes were coming across. ..seeing ..American star ..hoping that they were going to start dropping bombs here." Nathan Roth.
Survivor’s like Natalie can lend us the insight into a catastrophe which destroyed 33,771 Jews in those 2 days at Babi Yar and went on to annihilate 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. I merely borrow their words, ensure I achieve the form of care necessary for them and then lend them back to all who wish to experience what History has yet to learn from. My journey will not end until my understanding of the complexities of The Holocaust allow me to comprehend why one man can so direct his hatred onto so many other's and its result is the Destruction of 6,000,000 Jewish People. I am bereft too of any understanding as to how this World stood so idly by, acknowledging the knowledge of it all, while ensuring they kept that knowledge in house and away from a World that would damn them for doing so! For me therefore, if the Slaughter of The Jews of Europe is to be the defining expression which is, The Holocaust, then places just like Jaworzno are key to appreciating individual losses on an intimate and more concentrated scale.
"..Our Dear Mother Lieba was sent ..July 1942 to Auschwitz ..our Dear Father Wolf ..August 1943 to Auschwitz and Dear Mentze also ..same at ..end of 1943. ..In January 1945 she was still there ..when ..Russians came closer they evacuated ..camp deep into Germany and on ..way ..shot ..90% of ..survivors." Aron Krakauer.
Also, and surely the 'Survivor' is not only the Jew who emerged from within the ravine at Babi Yar, or the City of Jaworzno but is the Jew who emerged from within Hitler's immediate grasp also? I don't propose to know the despair of any Jew who faced this terrible, on going ordeal and 'genocide', but I know of that desperation and feeling of abandon through study, research and a human empathy which feels shame for those who stood so idly by. I carefully calculate from all of this, that any Jew who came out of the Death and Concentration Camp, from the Ghetto or who crawled away from Jaworzno, Babi Yar or Ponary, that Jew is the bearer of an extraordinary insight into an intolerable evil and is an accuser of such despicable intolerance's and our indifference to their plight. What is intelligent of having such knowledge when the lives of 6,000,000 Jews are being destroyed with an other’s will. Can it be that such intelligence is greater than the sum total of abandoned lives, because simply, they were Jewish lives. The answer to the sheer indifference shown for these Jews is written in the vaults of government buildings in Europe and then throughout the World.
"..Uncle Wolf and Salla were shot on ..May 15th. 1942 in Z'abna. Aunt Leta was sent in February 1943 to Auschwitz. Little Hani at ..end of 1943 also to Auschwitz. Nechemia and Shlomek perished in ..camp. Yetke and Shaul to Auschwitz. Erna and ..children to Auschwitz. With Joshua and uncle Zagorsky ..I was all ..time together at ..camp. He died in July 1944 and poor Joshua was taken in August 1944 with ..sick transport to Auschwitz and from then on there was no sign of him." Aron Krakauer.
For me, this is an ever spiralling curve of learning, and I have yet to catch the tail end of what is known, by those who knew, know and were made aware of. For what The Holocaust is, there are People like Natalie who know all to well the answer! So if we then accept, for argument sake, that Hitler's intention was indeed to destroy all of World Jewry, as Wannsee insists, then from inception to an almost complete accomplishment of that fundamental demand, 6,000,000 Jews paid an inordinate bill and too heavy a price for us to contemplate. We must also accept within that remit, that Hitler gained such impetus from a World's indifference, that we too are historically blighted with an acquiescence in the gravest crime ever to be inflicted upon the Jewish People! What we thus gain from the perspective of Hitler's hold on power, when the function was initially perceived that the Jews could indeed be destroyed, and continually all the way up until 1945 when that full intention was catastrophically applied, any Jewish choice was totally removed from the Jewish People.
"..April 1942 they expelled ..Bragers from Kweltze to Hshanow. They couldn't take anything and dear mother lent them 1,000 Marc ..60 Dollar. Mrs. Brager was meant to write to her children ..but regrettably ..they took ..Bragers together with Mother immediately thereafter. I was with their son together during 18 months at ..camp and I don't know what happened to him later." Aron Krakauer
For those Jews within Hitler's reach, who looked to us, as 'christians', even catholics, and saw our fall from grace, we have to express clearly that what had been deemed by a so called civilised humanity, that this was a catastrophe of unparalleled brutality that is unequalled in all of history. Not just that, our failure to stand against this pernicious model of Hitler’s evil, runs concurrent alongside the greatest genocide ever inflicted upon a single People which remains as criminal as it is morally reprehensible. So for the Jews who would emerge from within the dragnet of Hitler's clear goal to destroy them, these must be included amongst the list of Survivor's an understanding and appreciation of the intention to murder them. That said, the Survivor clearly remains outside that term which held the Jew within The Holocaust's reach. Like I have said, I cannot know what The Jew of The Holocaust knows, but I can know of, from a moral perspective, that any christian duty should have sought to deliver all Jews from any victimisation, harm or that capacity for destruction which consumed them.
."..Dear Salomon ..I am writing now ..first letter after ..war. You can't imagine in what a state I am. Besides being physically broken .my soul is completely broken. I am living without a family, without friends or acquaintances. I feel so lonely." Aron Krakauer.
We are the accused and we must set about accepting that responsibility so that our future generations do not have to? I think that Yehuda Bauer argued in his worthy book, Jews for Sale, that The Final Solution to a Jewish Question was Hitler's responsibility. But the outcome for the Jews of Europe must become the responsibility of all those who seek to ensure, we acknowledge the wrong done to the Jewish People, here in Jaworzno or wherever they were met with such enmity and hatred. The part the World played in allowing this all to happen is a detail we all must be reconciled with. Whether the World seeks to attribute to the destruction of 6,000,000 Jews our responsibility, or seeks to placate this with some unintended functioning, this is immaterial. The very fact that the World lost 6,000,000 Jews to a terrible accounting, while we added a crime to History, that is incomprehensible.
"..marched us ..west. ..maybe 2,000 of us ..from ..camp. ..day and night. ..SS used to come and pick some people to go back and pick up the corpses and bury them. 100's and 100's shot." Nathan Roth.
There are those who might suggest antisemitism had a hand in this account which must resound and reverberate where it is a clear expression from the many who perpetrated the crimes? But lest we forget, the christian god sent his only son to die for us, so the christian god is not only culpable in the Crucifixion, that god stood aside while The Holocaust was vented upon the Jewish People and clearly, it was not the Jewish People that delivered christ to what god intended. Think then how any man can conjure with a title for a Book that has Jews for Sale as its header, and then we might approach a small detail of what Professor Bauer wishes to share with me, with You, with this World and with History! If we can come to terms with what the World allowed to be achieved in The Holocaust, we can perhaps accept that within Jaworzno, in the depths of The Holocaust, innocent People were callously slain to satiate a hatred that should never have been allowed to persist.
"..Sometimes I claim to God ..why I was ..only one of ..family ..who survived. I am not happy to be alive. Now I understand ..saying ..It would be better not to be born." Aron Krakauer.
Quite often I find myself repeating a sentiment I have held dear for quite sometime, and it is difficult not to allow this to become sanitised when in fact it is a sentimental reflection upon what is lost. It is for that reason that I restate, The Holocaust has NEVER just been a part of History for me, and has ALWAYS been an affront to my person, as a Human Being. I have been entrusted with certain memories which I pass along in Remembrance of those Jews, from Jewish Community's just like the one at Jaworzno almost completely extinguished, in order that we never forget them! Also, I have been given an opportunity, which I managed to promise to a Survivor along the way and that I would at least visit all x6 Death which Hitler had established in Poland. I felt it as a duty to do so that I could retrace the search for words I would use to describe the places of such a calamity. That said. I owe it to those like Natalie to ensure, Jaworzno is not only a mention from with The Holocaust, it is a place that establishes the depth and breadth of the Catastrophe which is The Holocaust of the Jews of Europe.
"..God bless all liberators of this time in history. My family was gassed and burned in Auschwitz Poland. My dear late husband Bernard Benny Scharf ..only survivor of his family and I met in 1946 Fell in love and came to our blessed land in 1947. We have 2 children ..Jeffrey I. Scharf MD Andrea R. Scharf Gal ..3 Grandsons." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
Clearly, the Jewish grasp on life was to become an eradication which ensured by the conversion of a rhetorical hatred from one man. Hitler, whose vented rage contorted to a final resolve which was eventually accomplished by many who aspired toward similar hatreds was exacted in Jaworzno as equally brutally as it was in Auschwitz, Babi Yar, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Ponary, Sobibor, Treblinka or Tuchinka. Here, while I have always clearly stated that I am not an authority on The Holocaust, and that clear distinction belongs to the many fine Writers who experienced what it is I seek to know, I have become well aware of the opportunity my words have given the many who seek to add to their understanding of this greatest wrong! I have never equated anything I have experienced with anything from The Holocaust that so tormented a People or brutalised all too many of them and radically dealt in the Destruction of 6,000,000 of them for being Jews. From any sense of perspective, that is where my work for their memory clearly begins and ends.
"..To ..deniers I tell you. You deny as much as you want. ..only thing that will ever set you free from ..hatred that you have for my Jewish People is not ..shameless lies that you spread about us. This ..Truth! For Truth Shall Make You Free." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, August 17, 2018 00:07:16
Who would believe how the Germans would and did act as civilisation and enlightenment were confronted by a Jewish People so used to oppression. Fundamentally, the Jews of the Diaspora had never considered itself exposed to the capricious nature and terms of any systematic annihilation, though brutalisation had been meted out to them for millennia. However, all too many Germans and other nationals became emboldened by the hate filled words of Hitler and enacted upon his rancid vocabulary with like minded and unequalled a murderous interpretation. Embedded in German minds, and as the tide of hatred spread wider and fanned out across Europe, the Jewish People were labelled as guilty of all that ailed them, and as Jews they were wholly detained. Wherever the Jewish People were found, these Jews were contained as Jews and they were subsequently Murdered as Jews. This is true whether they were found and shot or gassed, starved or hanged at the Death Camps, Killing Sites or the Ghetto’s. Places like BabiYar, Belzec, Kovno, the Warsaw Ghetto or here at Delatyn all reverberate with the stench of atrocity.
What we now know of Delatyn, its name in German, Polish and in English, or Delatin in Hungarian was also known as Deliatin from its Yiddish name and even to its Russian transference as Delyatin. It is also known as Dilyatyn in its Ukrainian form and is all so often written as Delyatin, Delyatyn, Diljatyn and Dilyatyn. No matter how the name was spread, all Jews of Delatyn came to know the horror that was to present itself to them. None of this consideration however, what its space name, none of these did make a single bit of difference to Jewish existence. Wherever the Nazi’s were to find a Jewish presence, that Jewish existence would be eradicated. Nor had Hitler’s murderous intention prevented what was a pliant mass of other national’s, who colluded in this final resolve, applying Hitler’s demands for all and any Jews to be murdered where they were found. Everywhere, and there were all too many with their own negative outlook toward the Jews, immediately readied themselves and became more than willing to act in a murderous fashion, no matter their own national allegiance.
What is also certain, in all of these spaces occupied by the Jewish Murdered, is that the Jews had been given no choice whatsoever but to resist the hatred against them with their very lives. In the first place, any of these Jewish People, who were being singled out systematically and sought out from their community’s, had nowhere to escape to, and certainly nowhere to hide. For the longest while they might well have considered that physical work awaited them as resettlement transports anticipated their removal. Finally though, and while these detained and entrained Jews might well have realised that certain death then awaited them, what was the entirety of these Jewish Families expected to do? For those Jews who could actually manage to escape, it became perfectly clear to all those on the outside, that escape would be a futile exercise in retribution levelled against those remaining on the inside. Also, we have now considered the worldly expressions of the time, and while we heard the refrain that one Jew was too many, this all was as an example of the Jewish abandonment.
Clearly abandoned by a World not seeking to import a Jewish Question, let alone any problems they might incur, European Jewry was decimated. Individually, isolationist intolerance that was evoked amongst nations and was an expression clearly raised, did not allow for Jews to be considered worthy of World assistance. In fact, for the world to then accept what it considered it had no wish to import was abandoned to Hitler and his nazi cohorts to resolve its own Jewish Question. Though East European Jewry, Polish, Ukrainian, Byelorussian or Russian Jews might well have been unaware of World intention ranged against them, or of the shameful debate over who actually wanted them, such vast tracts of a continent ruled over by Hitler’s legions was a collective raged against Jewish existence where escape proved impossible. There is also a certain loathing I have encountered, but only in certain small Jewish quarters, against those very Jews who were forced to make a choice were no choice existed.
Those who dissent my understanding of this observance, of a no choice ordeal for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, can say what ever they wish about the Books I have placed before the World. There are x4 books now which are stand alone in their condemnations of what was perpetrated against all of these 6,000,000 Jews and for what we as a supposedly christian grouping of nations allowed to happen. Should I have written these books when I am clearly a non-Jew, aiming shots at non-Jews for what we, an ostensibly ‘christian’ grouping, both perpetrated and allowed to happen. My opinion is of course I should have written even more on the subject of The Holocaust and I should not be denied that opportunity because I am not a Jew. For the many of you who have lent me their details on Family, who have measured your responses as to loss, the comments on places like Delatyn and Jaworzno are important. While there are so many other atrocity’s within The Holocaust term, please do not consider me unappreciative of that shared experience concerning these corners of that vast narrative.
While it is essential that I write, I do not have any ulterior motive in assessing the human loss of those Jews other than Always to Remember, Never to Forget. I am here to stand for 6,000,000 European Jews and in their stead I afford a missing voice to the resonating echo of their fading presence. In this History that has taken these 6,000,000 Jews of your kin from us, this is where I will gain a little more from the search which I have begun. I am deeply indebted to the many friends who have allowed me to add more words to the overall cost to you all by your shared concern for what must not disappear, what must never be forgotten and must always be remembered, 6,000,000 Jewish lives plundered from us. I also acknowledge the greater debt owed to the Jewish Survivor who is troubled consistently by our demands to know more than we have yet learned. For you too, the Jewish People who must struggle more with that very loss, know too the sentiment of that loss is pertinent and personal to me.
For those of you who seek out the same pathway toward this learning from the incomprehensible, it is a journey that I travel willingly and we each do so in communion with a cause greater than mere memory can hold. So for those who read all I have to say, I will return to the scenes of the most despicable crimes ever perpetrated. That said, in each and every Jewish Community were atrocity was visited, were unconcern was expressed and intolerance’s were enacted, individual spaces hold individual traumas the like of which we cannot know and therefore, bear no comparison to anything History has lent us previously. In my effort, I will do all that I can to pay due respect to the position of those places such as Chelmno, Delatyn, Majdanek, Ponary and Rumbuli, where the totality of what was achieved in each and every space dedicated to lost but not forgotten memory, all are adding to an atrocity now detailed as the murder of 6,000,000 Jewish People.
What began in Hitler’s fetid mind as The Final Solution of The JEWISH Question, die Endlosung der JUDENFRAGE, became what is acknowledged by most as The Holocaust. There are lessons to be learned even from the lost, who can so expressly teach us, even from within The Holocaust, the moral warnings to be learned about intolerance and even indifference. Much of the information that so many of you have passed on to me is in relation to spaces not unheard of but little known. For what transpired here in Delatyn, or many such little Towns, Shtetl’s and Villages, much of which is still as yet unknown to History, we broaden our understanding by acknowledging the significant detail of individual places were atrocity was significantly meted out. You have given meaning to these places of People, and a personal insight into what Bialystok, Delatyn, Lodz, Sobibor, Treblinka or Wlodawa must establish as the Jews who had entered them were extinguished from.
But before we delve fully into the complexity of the overall atrocity that is The Holocaust, I will draw your attention to Delatyn, an almost insignificant Shtetl in the midst of the greater tragedy which is The Holocaust. Here, this tiny holding, which thrived with 3,000 Jews, has added to the more losses of the Jewish lives who were murdered in situ. Also, Delatyn’s Jews were Murdered elsewhere or in Belzec, and is recognised as part and parcel of the greater tragedy that is 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe. Before we arrive at the overall calamity though, we must immerse ourselves in the history which took the Jews of Delatyn more than 500 years to fully establish. While Hitler envisaged Poland as a massive graveyard for Polish Jewry, and eventually then for the Jews of Europe, Delatyn remained isolated from the immediate effects until 1939 when Hitler sent his invading forces into Poland. Of course, and all too often and far too regularly we come across individual atrocity's which defy our conscious ability to discern.
As with any form of comprehension that is a measure of the incomprehensible, Delatyn is a Shtetl or Town which has given its sizeable Jewish community to memory. Delatyn is but one such instance where we are brought to the limits of our eager understanding of that certain fall from grace of a supposed civilised German nation. Here was an Eastern Galician Shtetl, which at the time of The Holocaust ambled along, residing as it did so along the course of the River Pruth. Here, on the approaches to the Carpathian mountains, such idyllic splendour was crushed beyond human understanding when Hitler’s forces established a brutal regime fixated on the Jews and their destruction. Prior to World War I, the Shtetl of Delatyn was a tiny part of the old established Austro-Hungarian Empire mixing amongst compatriots with daily struggles they seemed well able to cope with. Even between the two world wars Delatyn belonged to the Polish nation and only added to the catastrophe for Polish Jewry once it was enacted by the Hitlerite arrival.
Delatyn was now home to more than 3,000 Jewish People, a rather vibrant, energetic and productive Jewish community until Hitler's invading Armies breached their often times strained persistence amongst their Polish non-Jewish neighbours. Assault and brutal enactment’s raged against the Jews here but it was not until after Hitler invaded Russia in June 1941, when the escalation toward a Final Solution was concentrated also upon Delatyn Jewry. Firstly though, we have to recognise that there was a presence of Jews here in Delatyn around 1370 ad and their establishment as a community was almost unremarkable in the more than 200 years for laws to establish any rights to all who resided within its confines. The first written mention of Delatyn dates from 1370 and in 1578 the Magdeburg’s progressed the law and then prosperity was fully confirmed with the establishment of a salt mine business emerging there. Within 300 years the industry of salt extraction prospered further the entire area and the realisation so of the medicinal soothing quality of the salt springs brought a further flourish of resource, as a resort was established.
Delatyn is now becoming more and more cosmopolitan. By 1765 there were 87 Jews living in Delatyn and then in 1880, with a population of 4,495, of these 1,577 were Jews. This represented 35.08% of the population. By 1890 there were 5,195 residents of whom 2,096 were Jews representing 40.34% of the whole population. In 1900 the Town had grown to where 6,018 resided in the community and 2,397 of whom were Jews representing 39.83% of the population. By 1910 there was a community strength of 7,852 citizens and 2,997 Jews making up 38.16% of that citizenry. However, by 1921 there was a fall of some 1,879 inhabitants in the Town to 5,973. While 1,576 Jews represented 26.38% of that population, the Jewish presence here also decreased by some 1,421 Jews. With that substantial decrease, while it was quite possibly as a consequence of the effects of the First World War, we merely speculate. But here too, while this can be seen also that as a consequence of the 1,879 of the Towns non-Jewish community who were no longer on the census figures, 458 of these were other than their Jewish Neighbours.
However, in extrapolating from figures, it is all too easy to overlook in Human terms the cost in People this presents to us. From here also, and while the number of Jews are adding to the growing community and is gaining ground, for all Jews who could now gain any source of prominence in and around Delatyn, this increased steadily. By the commencement of World War II, that is borne out, as there were more than 3,000 Jews now living in and emulating their non-Jewish neighbours in and about the Town and in all spheres and walks of life. Here though we reach the invariable encroachment upon all Jewish life, as in September 1939, Poland fell to Hitler’s German forces in some 26 Days. Though fighting in various parts of Poland continued for another 6 days, effectively, Polish resistance ended with the capitulation of Poland in Warsaw, September 27th. 1939. For Delatyn, this all proved pivotal in the approaching crisis as it was the escape route for the Polish government seeking exile as it fled and abandoned the Polish nation.
The Polish government, fleeing through the Delatyn area enroute toward Romania, it is already conceded and recognised that no comfort could be gained for the Polish people’s left behind. Here in an abandoned nation, 6 million Polish citizens would eventually die, including the 3,000,000 Polish Jews who were systematically sought out for Slaughter. By the time of the Russian participation, September 29th. 1939, Stalin’s forces were moving swiftly to occupy the eastern sector of Poland and this included Delatyn. That same October a pseudo-Election was drawn up in the area, in which 93% of the population, of the now Western Ukraine, voted to leave the Ukraine and enjoined the Soviet Russian state. Delatyn was now a satellite community on the outskirts of Stalin’s realm and was affording of a limited security to the Jews seeking to remain here. During March and April 1940 Russian influences increasingly sought to deport from enormous tracts of these newer Soviet lands vast numbers of Jewish, Polish and Ukrainian political, religious and military leaders into Kazakhstan and Siberia.
While this exile amounted to an immediate and seeming saving grace for those Jews of Poland deported further East, many still succumbed to Russian atrocity. Then, with Hitler’s invasion of Russia, June 22nd. 1941, Delatyn was bombed and the position for any Jew within Nazi reach took on a far more destructive complexion. While Delatyn had a Judenrate established that July, located in the middle of the Shtetl, and the orderly curtailing of Jewish activity became central to the Nazi demands, hope was still extended to the belief that Poles, Ukrainians and indeed Jews were being liberated. On June 23rd. an advance party of motorcycle dispatch riders, units from General Karl von Stuelpnagel’s 17th. Army arrived in Delatyn. For his part Stuelpnagel would become implicated in measures aimed at suppressing Jews and then murdering them along his lines of communication. All the while, Stalin’s NKVD were ranging far and wide, assailing and murdering anyone they considered enemies of the new Soviet proposition.
On July 1st. the Germans fully occupied Delatyn and while the Jewish treatment was abuse and more abuse, the annihilation in greater numbers took its time arriving. In nearby Nadworna, which had been treated to an assault that saw 2,500 of its Jews already been Murdered at Bukowinka on October 6th., Delatyn was merely held in preparation for what was inevitably coming. This was more than half the Nadworna Jews of the Town murdered, which could not be suggested as other than intentioned. In Delatyn itself, a similar murderous operation was commenced which sought out the Jews from the non-Jewish Poles. On the night of October 15th. 1941, an elimination force surrounded Delatyn and here on the following day, October 16th. the Director of the Tatarow Border Police force, SS Haupscharfuhrer Ernst Varchmin ordered the 3rd company of Police Battalion 133, under Commander Rehbein to assist in the collection and murder of the Jews of Delatyn.
The rounding up of Delatyn’s Jews was the signal for the destruction to commence and when all of these Jews were gathered together, they were all taken to a woodworking factory where a final selection was made. Some of the younger Jews were kept as a workforce for the foreseeable future while the remainder, some 1,950 of Delatyn’s Jews were taken to Olchoviec and shot. Their remains were interred in 3 mass graves and a troubled calm settled upon the area. However, this mass assault would be but the first of five distinct aktionen against the Jewish Citizens of Delatyn. While most of the listed victims of the Jewish Murdered that took the Jews of Delatyn from us was accomplished during the years 1941, 1942, 1943 and 1944, Jews too were Murdered during the period of German occupation in 1939, and not ostensibly by German hands. Some of these Jews of Delatyn, those young and capable enough to be considered for forced labour were either shot in Stanislawow, during what would be the second action against them, or then transported to The Belzec Death Camp.
As a result of the third action, 200 Jews from Tatarow were brought by Varchmin and were murdered alongside some Jews of Delatyn. The fourth action took place in March 1942 when 200 of Delatyn’s Jews were detained and a further 256 Jews from the neighbouring villages and towns were corralled together in Delatyn itself. From here they were all taken to the nearby Jewish cemetery and murdered, 456 Jews then interred there. Trawling through the districts during the Summer, killing operations continued and toward the end of 1942, more than 200 Jews from Delatyn and the surrounding area were deported to The Belzec Death Camp. By September 1942 the Polish newspaper, basically translated as Polish glad tidings, ‘The Wiesci Polskie’, suggested that there were sources in Budapest who had reports from the Pruth River Valley and that the area from Delatyn to Worochta was now declared Judenrein. It becomes obvious to all who are reading the details of this intelligence information that the very meaning could not be interpreted other than that all Jews had been cleared from the area, eliminated, Murdered in killing aktionen, or in the Death Camps.
But Hitler’s annihilating agents had not quite done with Delatyn. During July 1943, a partisan group led by the Russian, Major-General Sydir Artemovych Kovpak was surrounded and decimated by the forces of General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov in the vicinity of Delatyn. General Kovpak’s partisan’s had even included a number of Jews who had escaped the transports from Skalat to The Belzec Death Camp. Here though, they all fell to the superior fire power ranged against them and in Delatyn, the fifth killing action against their Jews was carried out during the winter of November and December 1943. While Nazi forces were being driven back from along the Russian Front, forces aligned with them, the renegades and collaborationists of Vlasov’s Army now surrounded Delatyn. During the night these combined forces started the shelling of the Town in a softening up exercise and as the people ran out into the street their panic played into the hands of the Murderers who shot them as the emerged.
Eventually though, the Nazis gathered all the Jews who remained in the town centre and ritually tortured and abused them. Partially alive, and even the dead Jews were not spared the final detail, they were loaded into trucks and taken to the Olchoviec forest. Here, some 712 Jews and 95 of their Ukrainians compatriots were finally interred after the remaining living had been murdered. At the end of 1943, the town was proclaimed finally free of its Jews as the remaining Delatyn Jews were sent to Stanislawow. Perhaps as late as January 1944 those expelled Jews of Delatyn finally perished. In Delatyn itself, the Nazis spent their short time remaining there confiscating and robbing all they could from Jewish homes, lands and estates. It is estimated that all but a handful of the 3,000 Jews of Delatyn had been murdered in Delatyn, its environs and the areas that surrounded it. All throughout the period, resistance took on a distinct flavour in the areas around Delatyn and Stanislawow. That said, the role of Jewish Resistance must not be overlooked.
Local Jews, some escaping transports to the Death Camps, Jews escaping from other Camps and Ghetto’s gravitated toward the resistance movement and made their way back toward Delatyn. Resistance therefore, as it was concentrated in and around Delatyn, and for long periods during the War, recognises that many of those Resister's fell in an unequal battle against a far superior equipped enemy. A resistance movement, and local to them emerged here at Delatyn. Amongst these, and there is a great need to add to their account for their bravery, persistence and tenacity are:- Mosze Akselrod, Egber Berisz, Jakow Goldner, Jakow Hecht, Dawid Huberman, Fimek Jarysz and Gitel Kolki are amongst the many killed in action. In fighting the extended reach of Hitler’s hatred for their own People, their heroism has yet to be fully measured. By the time in March 1944, when the Russian Army had reoccupied Delatyn, the addition to Hitler’s Final Solution for the Jews of Delatyn had been resolved here.
However, the end for Jewish fears did not conclude yet, as the sway of assault and counter offensive moved backwards and forwards across the entire region. On April 19th. Hitler’s forces were again within the limits of Delatyn’s confines. Eventually though, the weight of Russian offensiveness told and was pressed home and the Nazi’s were finally evicted on July 26th. 1944. From here, and through the Jablonica pass the Russian forces gathered its resources and assailed Hitler’s 6th. SS Army in Hungary, thus ending German presence in Hungary too. Today, in the Olchoviec Forest, at the northern tip of the town there is the collective graveyard, the final resting place to much that had previously existed of the Jewish presence of Delatyn. Though many other’s occupy the same space, this site belongs to the majority Jewish Murdered by systematic and sought out Hitlerite intention. Here, during the period 1941 till 1943, the local and area Jews were shot and interred here and throughout the entire area also.
While the memorial to the Jews of Delatyn carries an inscription in the languages of the area, recognising the Jewish presence has been all but obliterated, we cannot fully confirm the place of execution of all these Jews. On May 8th. 1945, as World War II comes to an end in Europe, the World must now come to terms with what it knew, what it chose to know or decided ignore with regards to the Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. As part of that assessment, and in relation to what emerges from the tragedy of Delatyn, on May 6th. 1968 this vicious SS Hauptscharfuhrer Ernst Varchmin, a brutal antisemitc hater, and others of his kind, were tried in the Higher District Court, the aptly named Stanislawow Trial, at the ‘Landgericht Munster.’ Indicted over the mass Murder, the group and individual shooting’s and the deportations of 1,000’s of Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians into The Death Camps and not just from Delatyn but from Bukowina, Dolina, Jablonica, Kalucz, Nadworna, Rohatyn, Stanislawow, Tatarow, Worochta and Wyskow.
Finally, to bring a curtain down on the scenes of atrocity abounding in and around Delatyn, on July 13th. 1972, Ernst Varchmin was sentenced to life imprisonment by the West German Federal Supreme Court, the ‘Bundesgerichtshof’ for his Crimes Against Humanity, mostly Jewish Humanity. But Humanity could not be stilled and much that has been taken from Jewish existence here has proven that not all recognition of the acts of depravity has been totally lost. Also, and in a form of commemoration, in a poems titled Shot by Stephen Herz he actually mentions Delatyn. Here, along with many lost Jewish Community’s and from among those other places of atrocity, we hear the name Delatyn ring out. Herz focuses also his accusation as he relates some of his lines to those who also participated and perpetrated these crimes.
"..shot in the synagogue
shot up against the wall in the headlights
of the truck
shot in the farmyard by the dung heap
shot in the hospital, the maternity ward
shot in the city, the town, the shtetl
shot in their houses, in the streets, in the market square
shot in the cemetery
shot in the warehouse after machine-gun muzzles were pushed through holes in the walls
shot in the roundups trying to escape
shot in bed
shot in their cribs
shot in the air, the baby thrown over its mother's head
shot because they stole a potato
shot because they were betrayed for a kilo of sugar
shot because they weren't wearing the yellow star
shot because they were wearing the yellow star
shot by the Einsatzgruppen
shot by the Reserve Battalion of the German Order Police
shot by the Gestapo Firing Squad
shot by the Waffen SS and the Higher SS
shot by the Hiwis-Ukrainian, Latvian, and Lithuanian volunteers
shot by the Hungarian Fascist Nyilas, the Arrow Cross
shot by the Polish police and Polish partisans
shot by the Croatian Ustasa
shot by the Romanian army, police, gendarmerie, border guard, civilians, and the Iron Guard
shot by the Wehrmacht
shot by old men in the German Home Guard
shot by young boys in the Hitler Youth
shot in Aktion after Aktion as if it was "more or less our daily bread"
shot in the search-and-destroy mission, the Jew Hunt
shot in the "harvest festival," the Erntefest
shot in order to make the northern Lublin district judenrein
shot in Zhitomir, Poniatowa, Jozefow, Trawniki
shot in Lomazy, Parczew, Bialystok, Kharkov
shot in Bialowieza, Lukow, Riga, Poltava
shot in Miedzyrzec, Khorol, Kremenstshug
shot in Slutsk, Bobruisk, Mogilev, Vinnitsa
shot in Odessa, Lvov, Kolmyja, Minsk, Rovno
shot in Majdanek and Brest-Litovsk
shot in Neu Sandau and Tarnopol and Rohatin
shot in Dnepropetrovsk
shot in Kovno, Pinsk, Berdichev, Tarnow
shot in Kamenets-Podolski
shot in Krakow, Szczebrzeszyn, Siauliai
shot in Stolin, Kielce, Lutsk, Serokomla
shot in Drogobych, Luga, DELATYN
shot in the Warsaw Ghetto
shot in the ravine of Babi Yar
shot in Bilgoraj, Nadvornaya, Stanislawow
shot in David Grodek, Janow Podlesia
shot near Zamosc." Stephen Herz.
Finally, as the names of the lost are a memory of what we will ensure must never be erased, and these names that are listed below are but a tiny account of those who were finally Murdered. However, they do fully stand as symbols of those grave wrongs which have never been judicioulsy accounted for. In my effort, and while there are many Jews of Delatyn presented with their given Surnames, I have only chosen to list those who are identified in both Forename and Surname. This leaves an immense hollow where memory does no credit to the burden of Remembrance. It is important for us to recall though that of the fallen, we can know there was the presence for all too many of an entire Family with but a Surname known. The future tragedy, with no one left to represent them as they were, those who were all destroyed at the same place and on the same date, we can only look to the names presented.
This effort though, where names are either listed or not, could have included many other’s of their families names, the relatives and kin without fuller names but we know they had lived. All too often what has been written into the detail of the crimes commited against these Jewish People, where there might be a spouse name that is missing, or the names of Their Children which cannot be recalled from our past, we should never allow for their presence to be forgotten. Though there are many Jewish Murdered who have been listed and are not to be forgotten, their contemporaries must form another account given over to the scarcity of the information that must prove necessary. We have thus far gained little of the fuller content of the atrocity delivered to the Jews of Delatyn here, but we persist in memory of the more than 3,000 Jews of we know are lost to us.
Moses Abasch, Israel Aberbach, Abrum Abosch, Hersch Abosch, Jakub Abosch, Mosze Akselrod, Chana Aldesberg, Chana Altman, Israel Anzug, Mendel Auch, Dawid Auschusman, Frida Auschusman, Hersch Auschusman, Abrum Auschustman, Abrum Aviusdemon, Meiler Babed, Eugenia Bandel, Jakub Bandel, Pinia Bandel, Rifka Bandel, Yosio Bandel, Adam Bartfel, Josef Bartfeld, Sara Bartfeld, Kramer Bartko, Hersch Berger, Ilias Berger, Schaia Berger, Yuda Berger, Egber Berisz, Karl Bernstein, Tuli Bibmoni, Moses Bilberg, Asias Birkenhelt, Dawid Bitman, Isak Bitman, Naftaly Bitman, Rifka Blach, Burah Blai, Burich Blai, Halia Blai, Maia Blai, Moses Blai, Rifka Blai, Issio Blater, Chaim Blei, Dawid Blei, Herz Blimenstesch, Jakov Blitner, Chana Bloch, Chaim Bloch, Dwoira Bloch, Michel Bloch, Pinkas Sammel Bloch, Samson Bloch, Schmala Bloch, Tomas Bloch, Elias Bluch, Kasimira Bluhspefi, Hersch Boder, Abrum Bomer, Osias Breitler, Abram Bresler, Abrum Bresler, Israel Bresler, Pinkas Bresler, Sara Bresler, Singer Bresler, Tauba Bresler, Aron Brin, Wolf Brunwaser, Chana Buchwald, Enta Buchwald, Leibusch Buchwald, Michal Buchwald, Ribel Buchwald, Salomon Chasker, Adas (Adam) Dachs, Frida Dachs, Schimon Dachs, Sora Dachs,
Abraham DEMNER, Feiga DEMNER, Josef DEMNER, Moses DEMNER, Seida DEMNER,
Isak Dener, Lea Dener, Frida Denmer, Frida Denner, Isa Denner, Liba Denner, Pin Denner, Salamon Denner, Salamon Diamant, Josef Dikker, Efroim Dinet, Maks Dinet, Cirla Drimer, Dawid Drimer, Stelko Drimer, Yosio Drimer, Yoslio Drucker, Abrum Druker, Chana Druker, Jakub Druker, Hersch Dulberg, Naftaly Dunker, Fredi Einstein, Moses Endelstein, Cirla Enkerentent, Schaia Fange, Chaia Fanzer, Aron Felzenstein, Frania Fenster, Frima Fenster, Josifa Fenster, Rifka Fenster, Zauder Fimel, Abraham Flamer, Sosim Flor, Zoia Flur, Leiso Fraim, Herz Franwal, Chana Fridfertig, Dwoira Fridfertig, Itzak Fridfertig, Moses Fridfertig, Rimka Fridfertig, Boruh Fridfertik, Reg Fridfertik, Juda Fridman, Yuda Fridman, Naftaly Fritz, Alter Fuchs, Elsa Fuchs, Emma Fuchs, Enta Fuchs, Hersch Fuchs, Moses Fuchs, Schpak Fuchs, Emma Gah, Pincas Gas, Samuel Gerner, Fichs Gildenrad, Frida Gildenrad, Inka Gildenrad, Isa Gildenrad, Israil Gildenrad, Mordko Gildenrad, Osias Gildenrad, Rafail Gildenrad, Rifka Gildenrad, Sura Gildenrad, Yosio Gildenrad, Berta Ginselrad, Feifel Ginselrad, Frania Ginselrad, Mordko Ginselrad, Pina Ginselrad, Rifka Ginselrad, Liman Girt, Pepi Gitman, Semon Gitman, Simon Gitman, Chaim Glaser, Emma Glaser, Emner Glaser, Hersch Glaser, Ivan Glaser, Mordko Glaser, Isa Glauser, Schirinda Glauser, Freilia Goh, Isa Goh, Jakow Goldner, Sala Goldstein, Yister Goldstein, Yonas Golstent, Israel Gommer, Sala Gommer, Schaider Gorder, Ruchla Gortstein, Isa Grifel, Berta Grin, Mordko Grin, Dawid Grinberg, Moses Grinstein, Herz Grosman, Moses Grosman, Grin Gruber, Hersch Gunderman, Dwoira Gutes, Grischko Gutes, Leib Haber, Frida Haf, Samuel Haf, Rifka Haftman, Leopold Hammer, Sala Hammer, Salamon Hammer, Jakow Hecht, Hersch Herman, Salamon Herner, Grin Hersch, Nuta Hersch, Marian Hilman, Rafael Hindelrat, Salomon Hofman, Perla Hoker, Dawid Huberman, Salomon Hunderman, Sura Hunderman, Sara Imerkler, Fimek Jarysz, Stein Kalin, Sala Kamil, Israel Kandil, Fraer Kanfer, Glonton Kanfer, Dino Kard, Marcus Katz, Leib Keifer, Israel Kenig, Israel Kirchiner, Kastrol Kischner, Polbert Kleimer, Jakob Klingelfeld, Chaim Knol, Fischel Knol, Hersch Knol, Leon Knol, Leibusch Kofer, Aron Kofler, Dawid Kofler, Leib Kofler, Schaiba Kofler, Gitel Kolki, Josef Kolmenberg, Mina Kolstan, Dwoira Komarnik, Guda Komarnik, Israel Komarnik, Motio Komarnik, Blima Komornik, Chaia Komornik, Dwoira Komornik, Feiga Komornik, Emma Komornik, Isak Komornik, Israel Komornik, Mechel Komornik, Michael Komornik, Ruchla Komornik, Schloma Komornik, Rosa Korkel, Frida Korn, Karl Korn, Lipa Korn, Poem Korn, Yuda Korn, Bartko Kramer, Beila Kreitman, Leon Krisman, Mina Kudasch, Selven Kudisc, Atonas Kuker, Marcus Kuker, Pinkas Kuker, Piza Kuker, Sura Kuker, Schmidt Kupfer, Lea Kupfer, Pincas Laert, Ester Laet, Emalin Lagutman, Moses Lakriz, Dwoira Lander, Leon Langer, Reiklei Leisor, Leib Lenowel, Rifka Libman, Osias Libtez, Ruchla Lorbert, Fimel Lortel, Isak Marat, Saul Margman, Issak Margosched, Dr. Isak Margules, Dr. Leib Margules, Solomon Marh, Dawid Marks, Blai Meier, Leib Meier, Leib Meiseles, Yuda Melna, Senda Mendel, Sobel Mendel, Rifka Mendel-Freir, Jakub Menschenfreind, Adasch Michal, Israel Moker, Pina Moker, Pinkas Moker, Rosa Moker, Yonas Moker, Avadia Nadel, Gusen Nadel, Haskel Nadel, Michal Nadel, Hersch Neiman, Hersch Neuman, Leit Neutman, Guda Nodel, Jacub Nodel, Hersch Norman, Naftaly Orenstein, Sander Orenstein, Alexander Osadze, Tkinaliy Paster, Mendel Pauker, Otto Peril, Abraham Petranker, Chaim Petranker, Hersch Petranker, Josef Petranker, Leib Petranker, Selven Petranker, Maia Phemer, Mosa Pheter, Moses Pheter, Haftman Piker, Ten Piker, Isak Piler, Rifka Piner, Pinkas Pirkel, Froila Pitnia, Maia Pitnia, Moses Pitnia, Motel Pivtnia, Yusa Pitnia, Chaim Plac, Hersch Plac, Ihalo Plac, Isak Plac, Ansa Plivler, Hersch Plivner, Sima Posternak, Abraham Preminger, Jakub Preminger, Abraham Quartler, Chana Quartler, Abraham Radgaur, Martin Radgaur, Moses Radgaur, Abraham Ransner, Husler Raschner, Moses Rasentrendler, Chaim Reiser, Isa Reiser, Leib Risel, Rifka Risel, Israel Rodser, Leib Rodser, Rosa Rodser, Osias Rosen, Strois Rosmus, Traus Roten, Rifka Sager, Salomon Sak, Abraham Sandel, Elia Schafer, Herman Schafer, Leib Schafer, Muso Schafer, Otto Schafer, Pinkas Schafer, Tekla Schafer, Moses Schaffer, Dawid Schaufman, Rubel Schazberg, Hersch Schechter, Zita Schefr, Isak Scheiner, Israel Scheiner, Leib Scheiner, Pinkas Scherf, Hersch Scheringer, Hecht Schimon, Israel Schiz, Frima Schlaer, Mendel Schleimer, Jacub Schneider, Fanz Schort, Salomon Schraf, Touba Schreier, Abraham Schuchter, Moses Schuchter, Emma Schunsenger, Rita Schunsenger, Chana Schwarz, Ester Schwarz, Gedowin Schwarz, Samnel Schwarz, Samuel Schwarz, Marcus Seger, Rifka Serwaser, Salo Serwaser, Chaim Sisler, Michail Smik, Buruh Sobel, Josef Stal, Jakub Stander, Pinkas Stanger, Frael Stein, Froel Stein, Froim Stein, Etna Steinbach, Isif Steinberg, Michael Sternberg, Abraham Storg, Boruch Storg, Emma Storg, Eugeniy Storg, Fimel Storg, Huda Storg, Leib Storg, Moses Storg, Schimon Storg, Yonas Storg, Salomon Straus, Schimon Streiberg, Alter Strum, Gisela Strum, Polin Strum, Hersch Suker, Mania Sunderman, Perla Sunderman, Abraham Tabasch, Ila Tage, Elsa Tager, Feila Tager, Osias Tager, Salamon Tager, Schaj Tager, Dawid Tank, Hersch Taper, Elias Tauber, Moses Tauber, Emelian Taubman, Josef Taubman, Leib Taubman, Moses Taubman, Schimon Taubman, Yosio Taubman, Ida Tauborg, Feder Taufman, Josef Taufman, Moses Taufman, Bertko Teibman, Leib Teibman, Pepe Teibman, Leib Teisman, Babcia Toker, Isak Traurer, Frida Trauser, Josef Treimer, Emanuel Triper, Chaim Wakner, Dr. Kornela Walah, Ida Waldhorn, Jakub Walthorn, Friz Wantelberg, Hersch Weingart, Chaim Weingarten, Hersch Weingarten, Sima Weingarten, Ester Israel Weis, Ciba Wener, Dawid Wener, Emma Wener, Salomon Witman, Jacub Wulderman, Berl Wunderman, Gidal Wunderman, Pinkas Wunderman, Selda Wunderman, Simon Wunderman, Zachariy Wunderman, Ida Yarlih, Aron Zangler, Fipel Zauder, Moses Zauder, Mordko Zawder, Salamon Zawder, Abraham Zeider, Fimel Zeider, Hersch Zeider, Isak Zeider, Marko Zeider, Salomon Zeider, Chaia Zial, Jacub Zial, Natan Zifer, Abraham Zimer, Emma Zimer, Hersch Zimer, Israel Zimer, Josef Zimer, Wolf Zimer, Karol Zimerman, Lina Zimerman, Mordko Zimerman, Sanda Zimerman, Seida Zimerman, Senda Zimerman, Moses Zimet, Maria Zimringer, Binamin Ziper, Rifka Zuker, Salomon Zwerk.
Through these final deeds, the Surnames of The Lost cannot be forgotten and though they are not as accurate an account as we would wish to have known, these are the Surnames containing losses to Delatyn of 3,000 of its Jews, and perhaps more. All too often too, the names hide the depth of the tragedy meted out to these Jewish People for merely being Jews. My great fear in searching through the Catastrophe though is in missing a single name, not by intent nor omission purposely, but not seeing what is there to be recalled and therefore Remembered, the names of Human Beings whose act of life was extinguished because of a hatred for their existence.
Abash, Aberbach, Abisz, Abosch, Abosh, Abush, Abusz, Abysz, Adlershtein, Ajtman, Akselrod, Aldesberg, Altenhaus, Altenhauz, Alter, Altman, Angstrajch, Ankertrajch, Anzug, Arnold, Aron, Auch, Auerbach, Aurszpringer, Aushesman, Auchussman, Auschusman, Auschussman, Auschussmann, Auschustman, Austein, Avieusdemon.
Babed, Babette, Balai, Balok, Bandel, Barlas, Baron, Bash, Bartfel, Bartfeld, Bartko, Bauer, Bawar, Beisner, Berle, Berger, Berisz, Bernstein, Bibmoni, Bikel, Bikil, Bilberg, Birkenhelt, Bitman, Bittman, Bittmann, Bivering, Blach, Blai, Blaj, Blater, Blatter, Blay, Blei, Blimenstesch, Blitner, Bloch, Block, Blokh, Bluch, Bludstein, Bluhspefi, Boder, Bomer, Boniuvka, Breitler, Bresler, Bressler, Brig, Brin, Bring, Brinshtein, Bronshtein, Brukel, Brunwaser, Buchwald, Burger, Bursztajn.
Calmus, Cauderer, Ceuder, Chasker, Chtorh, Comarnic, Cyglob.
Dachner, Dachs, Daniel, Deen, DEMNER, Dener, Denmer, Denner, Deutsch, Deutscher, Diamand, Diamant, Diamond, Dicker, Diker, Dikker, Dinet, Dojtner, Dornfeld, Drimer, Drucker, Dulberg, Dunker.
Edelstein, Eichenstein, Eilenberg, Einhorn, Einstein, Eisenberg, Eisner, Elenberg, Endelstein, Engel, Engelman, Engelmann, Engler, Enkerentent, Erlich.
Faler, Fange, Fanzer, Feder, Feierwerker, Feler, Felzenstein, Fenster, Fernhoff, Ferster, Feuer, Fimel, Fischbach, Fishbakh, Flamer, Fleiser, Fliegler, Flor, Flur, Fogel, Fojgel, Forster, Fraim, Franwal, Freier, Freiwald, Fribler, Friedfertig, Fridfertig, Fridfertik, Fridlender, Fridman, Fritz, Frydfertig, Fuchs, Fucs, Fuks.
Gah, Ganc, Ganz, Gas, Gelber, Gerner, Gildenrad, Ginselrad, Girt, Gitman, Glaser, Glasman, Glauser, Glazer, Goh, Goldberg, Goldner, Goldstaen, Goldstein, Golstent, Goldsztein, Goldsztejn, Gommer, Gorder, Gortstein, Grifel, Grin, Grinberg, Grindlinger, Grinstein, Grosman, Grossfeld, Gruber, Gunderman, Gutes, Gryn.
Haber, Hacher, Hacker, Haf, Haftman, Halem, Hammer, Hass, Hausler, Hecht, Heiferman, Helem, Heller, Helm, Hendel, Henig, Herman, Herner, Hersch, Herszkowicz, Hertl, Hilman, Hillman, Hilt, Hindelrat, Hittmann, Hoch, Hochman, Hofman, Hoker, Horenreikh, Horner, Hornreich, Horowicz, Huberman, Hunderman, Hundert.
Jahr, Jar, Jarysz, Jung, Juran.
Kalin, Kalman, Kalper, Kalperfeld, Kamiel, Kamil, Kaminer, Kandil, Kanfer, Karabczewski, Kard, Katz, Kazwan, Keifer, Kenig, Kerker, Kirchner, Kischner, Kitner, Kleimer, Klein, Kleiner, Klingelfeld, Klingenfeld, Knobl, Knol, Knoll, Knor, Koch, Koenig, Kofer, Koffer, Kofler, Kolki, Kolmenberg, Kolstan, Komarnik, Komornik, Komornyk, Kopelman, Korkel, Korn, Kornsztein, Kotz, Kraemer, Kramer, Kranz, Kratz, Krauthamer, Kreindler, Kreitman, Krekar, Krell, Kremer, Kressel, Kriegsman, Krigsman, Krisman, Krothamer, Krygsman, Kucer, Kudasch, Kudisc, Kugler, Kuker, Kupfer, Kusznir, Kwartler.
Laden, Laert, Laet, Lagutman, Lakriz, Landau, Lander, Langer, Lappe, Larisch, Lauber, Lautman, Lautmann, Laytner, Leibovitz, Leisor, Lenowel, Lewin, Libman, Libtez, Lichtenschtein, Lichtenstein, Lifschitz, Lifshitz, Linder, Linka, Lipschitz, Liser, Lorber, Lorbert, Lortel.
Maier, Majer, Malter, Marat, Margalit, Margman, Margolis, Margosched, Margules, Margulies, Marh, Mark, Marks, Marmorstein, Marton, Mauthner, Mautner, Mayze, Mazes, Meiblum, Meier, Meiseles, Melna, Mendel, Mendel-Freir, Menschenfreind, Menschenfreund, Menshenfrend, Menshenfroind, Menszenfreind, Michal, Moker, Moster.
Nacbar, Nachbar, Nadel, Nagelberg, Nagler, Neiman, Neuman, Nodel, Norman, Normand, Normann, Nottes
Ohrenstein, Orenstain, Orenstein, Orensztein, Ornstein, Osadze.
Paster, Pasvag, Pauker, Pelc, Peril, Perl, Petranker, Petrower, Phemer, Pheter, Piker, Piler, Piner, Piper, Pirkel, Pitnia, Pivtnia, Plac, Platz, Plec, Plirtz, Plivler, Plivner, Posternak, Preis, Preminger, Pressler, Pribler, Printz, Privler, Priwler.
Radgaur, Raihter, Ransner, Raschner, Rasentrendler, Ratner, Regenstreif, Reghinstraif, Reiser, Reizel, Remler, Respler, Riesel, Risel, Rizenberg, Rodser, Rosen, Rosenberg, Rosenblatt, Rosenfeld, Rosmus, Rot, Roten, Rotfeld, Rozen, Rozenberg, Rozenfeld, Rozenkranc, Rubin, Rusel.
Safran, Safrin, Sager, Sak, Sala, Sandel, Schaerf, Schafer, Schaffe, Scharf, Schauman, Schazberg, Schechter, Schefr, Scheiner, Scherf, Scheringer, Schimon, Schiz, Schlaer, Schleien, Schleimer, Schletter, Schlosser, Schmerler, Schmerzler, Schneider, Schoenfeld, Schorr, Schort, Schraf, Schreber, Schreiber, Schreier, Schtorch, Schtrum, Schuchter, Schunsenger, Schwartz, Scic, Seger, Seid, Serwaser, Serwasser, Shinold, Shitz, Shlemer, Shmertzler, Shreier, Shtaner, Shvartz, Sielber, Silber, Silberhertz, Silwer, Sisler, Smik, Smolinski, Sobel, Socol, Somer, Sovol, Spigel, Sprechman, Spritzer, Spund, Stal, Stamler, Stander, Stanger, Stein, Steinbach, Steinberg, Stern, Sternberg, Storch, Storg, Straus, Streiberg, Strum, Suesler, Suker, Sunderman, Szafer, Szauber, Szic, Szneider, Sztigman, Sztrum.
Tabasch, Tagar, Tage, Tager, Tagor, Taler, Tahler, Tank, Taper, Tauber, Taubman, Taubmann, Tauborg, Taufman, Teger, Teibman, Teig, Teisman, Thaler, Tillinger, Toi, Toker, Touibman, Trajber, Traurer, Trauser, Traysser, Treimer, Triper, Troper, Tuchmann, Turteltaub, Tzigenlaub, Tzoiderer.
Vaingarten, Videlman, Vilder, Vizelman, Vogman, Vunderman.
Wakner, Walah, Waldhorn, Walthorn, Wantelberg, Weber, Weich, Weingart, Weingarten, Weingold, Weinreb, Weis, Weisberst, Weissberg, Weissenberg, Wener, Wiener, Wiesel, Witles, Witman, Witteles, Woal, Woinilower, Wulderman, Wunderman.
Zager, Zangler, Zankel, Zauder, Zauderer, Zaunkoenig, Zawder, Zeider, Zeuder, Zial, Ziegenlaub, Zifer, Ziglaub, Zilber, Zilberherz, Zimer, Zimerman, Zimet, Zimmer, Zimringer, Zinger, Zin, Zins, Ziper, Zirler, Zisler, Zommer, Zucher, Zuker, Zwerk, Zyngier.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, August 11, 2017 15:40:46
It is with all honesty, that I threw every emotion I could muster into ensuring, not only do we Remember that 6,000,000 innocent People were Murdered, because they were Jews, but that we lay claim to its memory and place the full ferocity of its conduct and implementation where it belongs. On a pyramid scale, Hitler stands atop of this pile of iniquity, of the human carnage which ensued and of the total disregard for any morality which was clearly on display. No one should argue other than this position which has been properly raised by Raul Hilberg to damn and even condemn those who aided and abetted Hitler’s endeavour. That is unless of course you are a denier!
"..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable." Raul Hilberg.
Underneath this single insignificant man who became a significant person in the dishevelling influence of civilisation, are the guilty, the complicit, the duplicitous, the perpetrator, the participator, the collaborator, the mealy mouthed, the haters and the bystander who chose to look the other way. Of course not all of these are equally as guilty here. I would strenuously argue that avoiding the atrocity is less reprehensible that participating in it, but just as morally bankrupt. For those who issued the laws and decrees, and for those who fulfilled them to the devastating degrees achieved, all share an enormous guilt.
"..Every day they keep issuing new laws against ..Jews. Today ..for example ..they took all our appliances away from us ..sewing machine ..radio ..telephone ..vacuum cleaner ..electric fryer and my camera. I don't care about ..camera any more ..even though they didn't leave a receipt for it ..like when they took ..bicycle." Eva Heyman.
What Eva Heyman did not, nor could not know was, that Hitler and his regime were in the process of taking away 6,000,000 Jewish lives so as to profit further from their demise. Under guise of carrying forth these laws from Hitler demands, would come an entire echelon of mass Murderer's, Himmler, Heydrich, Eichmann and the entire cadre of SS, Wehrmacht, Polizei, Collaborators from many nations and all other willing executioners. There were spectators to the growing and escalating hatred and those like Hugh Greene of the Daily Telegraph actually reported what he saw.
"..I was in Berlin at that time and saw some pretty revolting sights ..destruction of Jewish shops ..Jews being arrested and led away ..police standing by while ..gangs destroyed ..shops ..even groups of well dressed women cheering. Maybe those women had a hangover next morning ..as they were intoxicated all right when this was taking place. I found it ..utterly revolting. In fact to a German journalist who saw me on that day and asked me what I was doing there ..I remember I just said very coldly ..I'm studying German culture." Hugh Greene.
From here, an advantage point underneath the fuller deeds to segregate, emasculate and destroy the Jews, states of nations read these reports and chose to do nothing. These too are as guilty as any of those who stood idly by and watched as innocent Men, Women and Children were disregarded from life because they were Jews. Now these witnesses are never going to be as guilty as the bystander who so much as profited a bean in some way from the deepening Catastrophe that was rapidly unfolding for the Jewish People. The scale of the entire atrocity lasted some 12 to 13 years, from 1932 till 1945 and yet the full crescendo of The Holocaust enactment was during a period of some 4 to 6 years during that period, from 1939 till 1945.
"..Only one judgement is passed on ..executioner ..he ceases to be a human being. Though looking on his victim as Less Than Human ..he becomes his own executioner ..he executes ..human being inside himself. But ..victim ..no matter what ..executioner does to kill him ..remains a human being forever." Vasily Grossman.
Exactly what Vasily Grossman states as the degrading personality of a debased person, allows us to see through the obfuscation of facts and figures to identify those individuals responsible for their own actions. Still again, atop this myriad of those guilty of many facets of the same crime, The Holocaust, we cannot ever engineer all people into the blame for what some, even many from varying and possibly all states chose to do or decided not to do. So once again we stand away from the atrocity and seek to afford blame to those who were rightly guilty so as such acclaim cannot be rendered upon those who were innocent. We should never involve these innocent, and there were many, in what needs to be certain is guilt in the process of this Jewish Annihilation.
"..When I stand before you ..to lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment." Gideon Hausner.
The indictment of course is for Gideon Hausner to label all those would be accusers with the ability to reign over their accused. That he did so, with an integrity supported by truth and honesty is the worth of any man aspiring to deliver Justice to those previously denied it. Remember too, Gideon Hausner did not accuse all Germans. He accused Adolf Eichmann as the accused who railed against Jewish antecedence and delivered for Hitler, the 6,000,000 lost voices of those quelled in the culling of all civilisation. Believe me! I am one who feels the best voice to add to the missing voices from The Holocaust are those Jews who know, those Jews who saw and those Jewish People who witnessed what no Human Being should ever have been a witness to. So for me, what Chaim Aron Kaplan acknowledges is a clear knowledge of what we now seek to know of.
"..anyone ..attempting to write ..on ..nature of Nazism ..will not be able to express ..truth ..Nazism's cruelty and barbarism. ..no writer among ..gentiles is qualified for this task. ..a Jewish writer who lives ..life of his people ..who feels ..suffers their agony ..cannot find a true path here. Only one who feels ..taste of Nazi rule ..only one who ..bared his back to ..lashes ..only ..a writer ..if he is a man of sensitivity ..might be able to." Chaim Aron Kaplan.
It is above all my hope that you will best accredit my obvious intention with the emotive sensitivity I believe I deliver in what stands as a motto for me in that I seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget what happened and indeed what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 Jews. So I too am here to accuse those of their guilt! So please accuse, please blame and please ensure that for those who respectfully deserve our integrity to speak for them, that they are all Remembered in all honesty. We deliver them a posthumous memory with the surety we must accord to their murderer's, their executioner's and those willing to assist in this calamity for all Humanity an accurate indictment of their crimes.
"..I am happy to die amidst fighting Halutzim. We will take with us into our graves ..awareness that ..Jewish People will endure eternally." Yitzhak Katzenelson.
Yitzhak Katzenelson accords death with a certain victory that while Jews have been targeted for extinction, Jews will endure and Jews will certainly Survive. So while I am aware of the rawness of grief which the Survivor must feel, I share a sense of that grief giving way to optimism. The future is always bold. For me, while I am sure the Children of those who did not Survive, which is ably assisted by such grief, it remains too enormous for us ever to comprehend its manifest and compounding effects. But no one ever has the right to accuse anyone of a wrong that was not done by them. So if 6,000,000 accuser's look down on the German People, they will find many who are neither guilty nor attributable to these crimes for which they have paid the ultimate price.
"..misery ..SS inflicted on their victims defies description ..cool ..calculating manner in which it was inflicted is atrocious. ..to look back on this piece of human history fills us with horror." Elie A. Cohen.
As we continually look back we are, like Elie A. Cohen, all becoming more and more aware of what atrocity The Holocaust is for 6,000,000 Jewish People, and then on their behalf for World Jewry. We are becoming more aware to the atrocity, but believe me, we are not as yet awake to the mounting threat which has been led by the wrong lessons from The Holocaust period. Indeed, the Jewish People have been taught a savage and brutal lesson, both deeply wounding and even terminal in terms of how they relate to the rest of the World. I am torn here by two lessons which emanate from one of the finest writer's on The Holocaust theme, and while succinct in this passage, Primo Levi's message is blunt and to the point.
"..if ..world could become convinced ..Auschwitz never existed ..it would be easier to build ..second Auschwitz .. and ..no assurance it would devour only Jews". Primo Levi.
So we guard against the platforms of growing hatreds and must acknowledge our debt to those who delivered their experience to us. But we must never forget that such experience has been borne by all too many who should have been protected by any who would call themselves, moral, ethical or even 'christian'. But in all my efforts of concern, I am no less emotive, and I lend my own words and they are the words of this Irish, former 'catholic', who wishes so much more that should have been done and which could have been done was done. Hindsight is a wondrous option, but I am certain that I could not have stood back while lines of marching People were being progressed toward their final destruction, even if I had not gathered the reason for their removal from our midst.
"..I have always made it a point ..when I meet with Survivors ..to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For ..whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration ..Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get ..opportunity to greet you in person ..I apologise to You for ..inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust who cannot direct their appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved. In each of you ..World entire has been saved." Patrick Dempsey.
Here then, as we approach a rebuke of the total humiliation, the demoralisation of people, which indeed led all too many toward that spiritual shipwreck, these are not the 6,000,000 Jews demoralised though we allowed them to be humiliated. These rebukes however are for those who sought to forget the deeds they undertook to wreck such an amassed ship filled with the lives of 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish Souls. So to this day we now choose to Remember where once 6,000,000 lives have been taken to and while we will never know where all of them have been unceremoniously dumped, I have a wish to speak for them
".. A whole generation of Germans ..children and grandchildren of ..perpetrators of ..Nazi genocide ..have heard nothing from their parents and grandparents about what they saw ..and what they did ..in Auschwitz and ..other factories of death. It is time ..at long last ..to stop forgetting and suppressing." Irene Weiss.
It truly is time to stop forgetting and always remembering, which is all too easy for those in search of a comprehension as to why 6,000,000 Jews were systematically sought out for Destruction. For me though, we do not best serve this search with any bias or a wrongly placed anger and hatred for what was done and achieved against the Jewish People. Irene Weiss asks us, and we should accept our duty is to do whatever is required to add to 6,000,000 memories, but not at a cost to what identifies those who truly must be unmasked as the guilty. It appears to me that the Jewish mistrust of the World is well placed, and considering 2,000 years of anti-Jewish rhetoric, I too am appalled it has lasted too long. So when that fully vocalised hatred was converted into an annihilation process, an all too easily adapted and accepted programme by all too many, needs to be explored.
"..I have struggled hard to overcome ..hatred of those who cruelly destroyed my early life ..my family and almost succeeded in exterminating my people. ..I have come to realise ..there are no basically evil nations or racial groups. ..There are only evil people ..seekers after wealth or power." Maja Abramowitch.
But in accepting the reasoning of one such as Maja Abramowitch, how could I argue against all she knew and came to know, I would contend that not even she could forgave anyone for what was done to the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust. Forgiveness for these Destroyed Jews belongs to them solely, and they are no longer in a position to forgive. I accept that intrinsically there are only evil people who are individuals in amongst nations and racial groups. So before I get involved with even more work on Remembering why this is all a loss for us ALL, I will leave you with the knowledge that my words are mixed with those better presented to represent all that needs to be said, and believe me, Primo Levi has all I wish I could say.
"..I do not ..cannot know what I would be today if I had not been in ..Camp. No man knows his future. ..a man sets out ..almost never are our choices between ..two alternatives. ..every choice is followed by others. ..if I had not lived ..Auschwitz experience ..I probably would never have written. ..years have passed ..interposed ..artificial memory ..a defensive barrier ..between my ..normal present and ..dramatic past. ..I survived ..due ..to good luck. ..to survive with ..precise purpose of recounting. ..helped by ..determination ..to recognise always ..my companions ..myself ..men ..not things. ..to avoid ..total humiliation and demoralisation which led so many to spiritual shipwreck." Primo Levi.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, July 04, 2017 16:17:03
"..Statistics are remote ..they are unfeeling and they are never accurate in The Holocaust ..especially when it relies upon ..overtly secretive nature of Nazi collation." Patrick Dempsey. (der Einsatzgruppe and The Destruction of European Jewry)
We simply cannot promote the vagaries of any consensus related to the statistical analysis covering The Holocaust of the Jewish People. First and Foremost! We are making statements which might ensure the sweeping away of Human lives from the tenets of an Historical event we are here to present, represent and recall. The basis for accepting the 6,000,000 Jewish losses is in itself flawed and given that barely 3,500,000 Jews remain from what The Wannsee Conference assessed where available to Hitler for Slaughter, a highly marginal difference is presented. That difference is clearly expressed in 1950, but merely 5 years after The Holocaust would cease to claim more Jewish Victims, 7,793,300 Jewish lives would appear to have been lost from Europe.
Also, given the status of post War atrocity against the Surviving Jewish People, we establish a further precedent which for many a nation, which is prepared to admit to such losses as cannot be contemplated? I myself cannot imagine what an erroneous exercise we are involved in which would not encounter the emotional turmoil such a proposition as an estimate of Survivors must ensure. Surely what we have lost will never come to terms with what we seek to establish in that loss in terms of an assessment which can never be completely accurate?
"..Sonderkommando 4a in collaboration with Einsatzgruppe HQ and 2 Kommandos of police regiment South ..executed 33,771 Jews in Kiev on September 29th. and September 30th. 1941." OSR 101.
We take BabiYar as a prime example of this, and knowing that SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobels’ SK4a must have physically counted those 33,771 Jews of Kiev as they marched toward the ravine. However, we cannot then account for the fact that some Jewish Mother’s, hiding their Children on their Person were counted singularly and not as a Parent with Child. So Operation Situation Report Number 101 might well present the 33,771 Jews as they were counted, but might surely have missed those Jewish Children as they were concealed? As we look to the actual People who know the statistics of The Holocaust, and these are those Jews and their Community's who were swallowed up by Hitler's resolve to deliver them to his Final Solution, can we ever know truly what they experienced.
For me, there are those Survivor's, who will best attest to the losses and afford their personalised assessment as to what they have truly lost. These are Jews generally, who have had 6,000,000 of their own People ravaged and torn from their midst. These Survivoral Jews will also offer us an emotional discourse which we must follow. True, there are Historians of The Holocaust who have been offering us the objective view point of their own struggle, as Jews. That this is mixed with an emotional immediacy, and that of an endurance we cannot begin to imagine, commends them further in their effort to deliver to us, their Truth. Then, what some depict, like Richard Korherr, the SS’s Statistical Inspector in his own analysis, reckons that his figures made available a reservoir of over 10,000,000 Jews for the final push to resolve Hitler’s Final Solution.
"..total Jewish population of ..world ..estimated at 17,000,000 in 1937. Of these ..over 10,000,000 were in Europe." Richard Korherr.
This figure does somewhat differ from The Wannsee Conference total of 11,293,300 Jews which Heydrich and Eichmann asserted would be added to what History knows is The Holocaust. So when I speak, and I praise highly here those like Yitzhak Arad, Yehuda Bauer, Lucy S. Dawidowicz and Yisrael Gutman, I know of their emotional attachment and their Historical perspective is both ground breaking and objectively delivered. There are indeed so many Writer’s and even Historians, and so many more that I have had the pleasure to communicate with, that I commend. I willingly make use of all those whose extensive knowledge has been placed before us.
Then there are those, like myself, who seek to trawl past the inordinate catalogue of grief and atrocity to find that balance which affords a testimony to the Memory of those 6,000,000 Jews whose discourse is fast fading from what is such a recent History. I do not only speak here of the loss for those who Survived, which is an unaccountable travesty beyond compare, but I remonstrate with the negligence of History which so seeks to displace 6,000,000 Jews from the narrative which is, Their Holocaust. I have no wish either to join the largely ineffective debate over the final analysis which is a numerical exercise and both Statistical in staing the relationship of figures and on the margins of isolating the very humanity that has been lost.
"..Jewish Question ..Ukraine ..more difficult ..in ..cities ..Jews ..major part ..population. ..more than 50%. ..elimination ..profound ..consequences ..military economy. ..systematic shooting ..Jews ..by ..Order Police. ..in public ..assistance ..Ukrainian militia ..members ..Wehrmacht. ..Aktionen ..men ..women ..children ..all ages ..manner ..carried out ..appalling. ..executions involved. ..150,000 to 200,000 Jews ..executed in ..Ukraine." Peter Heinz Seraphim.
All too many Historians, both Jewish and otherwise, have derived differing views as to the accuracy of what has been delivered up in terms of the numbers lost. There are countless reports and evidences which will give us an idea that systematically, 6,000,000 Jews have been lost to us. But perhaps there are are far more lost than we have been able to calculate, those Jews who were caught up in the debris of the evidence, the Jews of testimony and those Jews who have delivered their first hand assessments. With the likes of Richard Korherr, Professor Peter Heinz Seraphim and SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle, all of whom offer us their view which is consistent with being arbitrary, we have no means to corroborate any final assessment with impunity.
Conversely, we require the statistics as they were produced to give us the means to examine what Hitler and his entourage not only attempted in this Final Solution but wholly managed in the final resolve which is The Holocaust. Allied intelligence too had formulated its own knowledge with the interceptions of wireless communications between der Einsatzgruppe in the field and those like Hoefle who operated in and amongst the Death Camp system at Aktion Reinhard. Hoefle, who would become Kommissioner for Jewish Resettlement Warsaw Ghetto, was ideally placed to afford us the snapshot we have so far gained. Hoefle’s commitment is certain and as he was also part of Stroop’s force tasked with quashing Jewish efforts during The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, his was not purely a bureaucratic effort.
Of course Hoefle was ideally placed to deliver an assessment which was factually based, though possibly distorted by the accounting system which was so hastily shelved and then destroyed upon the realisation that their goal would remain unachieved in its totality. But no amount of Statistical analysis, and again we are drawn toward Seraphim and Korherr who both gave Hitler the accounts he demanded, to find a way through this statistical maze. For these also could not acknowledge the fuller extent of the Annihilation, given the bridge between the killing space and the reception area of the final receipt of that Destruction at Hitler’s desk. But Hoefle did at least leave us a specimen of Hitler’s clear intention and it was bureaucratically liaised across the airwaves.
"..Einsatz Reinhardt. SS und Polizeifuhrer Lublin sends the Befehlshaber der Sipo Cracow a report on Einsatz Reinhardt for the 14 days up to January 31st. 1942. Increase to December 31st. 1942 for
i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 12,761,
ii) Belzec 0,
iii) Sobibor 515, and
iv) Treblinka 10,335,
Final Totals for the year ending on December 31st. 1942 are:
i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 24,735,
ii) Belzec 434,508,
iii) Sobibor 101,370, and
iv) Treblinka 71,355,
totalling 1,274,166." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle.
So, while we are given a clear insight into the destructive capacity, with this telegram from SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hoefle, the eventual assessment cannot be as definitive as it has been proposed. This Hoefle Telegram which was as we know, intercepted by British ‘intelligence’ and contains a final figure of 1,274,166 Murdered Jews for The Aktion Reinhard Camps alone. Given the lowest of the x3 estimates I will present, this is way below anything we might come to accept by some margin. Between 1,500,000 and 1,700,000 Jews were Murdered in the x3 Death Camps of Aktion Reinhard and this is closer to the truth of that devastating effect these x3 Death Camps impacted upon final catastrophe of The Holocaust. For my own Book, Hitler’s Belzec, I have assessed that some 884,700 Jews were Destroyed there.
Given the assessment which relates to each community consumed on a Monthly basis, 434,508 for Belzec, and as of December 31st. 1942 is speculatively way too low. There are some formative figures too which I would give and these have the most credence to their overall assessment of the tragedy. Especially placed before you are those assessments that would deliver to us The Aktion Reinhard Camp details as the have been presented to History. Those assessments, for which we will assess what Hoefle knew, and by dint of the interception of his Telegram to his immediate superior SS Standartenfuhrer Franz Heim, what the Allied nations also knew, will carry a burden of knowledge few can comprehend.
Heim, the deputy commander of the Security Police and SD for the General Government in Cracow is handed notice of what is the Final Death Toll from these x3 Death Camps, and including Majdanek also. But we know also that in excess of 1,700,000 Jews had their lives taken from them in the midst of The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps alone. But as we are fully aware, strenuous attempts to decipher correct figures from any documentation has been impossible to establish. Given that the Nazi attempts to destroy as many of their actual records as possible was successful, and so as not to the betray the truth of their efforts to the coming scrutiny of History, we must sift through the debris of ash that remained. However, that very scrutiny has been understood and undertaken by many and I will offer up the assessments made by a further x3.
1) Raul Hilberg has been the formative authority on the entire Destructive process in The Holocaust from early on. He assesses the murderous toll of Destruction at 1,500,000 Murdered Jews at:
a) Belzec 550,000 Murdered Jews,
b) Sobibor 200,000 Murdered Jews, and
c) Treblinka with 750,000 Murdered Jews.
2) Yitzhak Arad, the Authority on The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, assesses at 1,700,000 Murdered Jews as a closer value to our overall loss than has been presented so far with an assessment for:
a) Belzec with 600,000 to 700,000 Murdered, and these are at lease best estimates tabulating Ghetto and Community Census with Judenrate records and alongside Train manifests. All of which conclude with what is an estimate that cannot be fully quantified as all records remain incomplete and hidden to History.
b) Sobibor with 250,000 Jews Murdered, and
c) Treblinka with 763,000 Jews Murdered.
3) Martin Gilbert has extensively trawled all these resolutions and assesses the Final Total to be 1,690,000 Murdered Jews at:
a) Belzec with 600,000 Murdered Jews,
b) Sobibor with 250,000 Murdered Jews, and
c) Treblinka with 840,000 Murdered Jews,
and of course no assessment has proved definitive. As records and assessments have been made where People once resided and where they were brutally Murdered, they cannot portray the fuller evidence of what was actually achieved. The correlation of both assessment and consensus, which leaves both the Community stripped of its People, and the Destructive process open to a failing in the overall need to be accurately evaluated, leaves a Jewish loss without certainty as to Their Total Losses.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, June 13, 2017 21:24:59
"..Under these skies ..I can actually touch and feel their presence that no longer exists." Halina Birenbaum.
By definition alone, the term for The Death Camps cannot sustain alone the Camps which administered Death to those sent toward them. The Death Camps were a series of establishments where the systematic nature of the destructive capacity was driven by Hitler’s sheer demand for a Final Solution of The Jewish Question. On an industrial scale, these x6 Death Camps Hitler had established in Poland, for specific reasons and these dealt with the mechanised nature of the Slaughter. Untold numbers of Jews, and others, were dispatched from this life within their confines, or more than 3,600,000 Jews of The Holocaust.
I have now walked under those same skies Halina mentions and I too have felt the presence of all that 'no longer exists'. So wherever I go in terms of my own references with regard to The Holocaust, there are those who have given their lives so that we can learn. That learning should choose to ignore the terms of intolerance which were allowed to consume 'their presence'. I am constantly reminded by so many, who experienced these inhuman and atrocious events, and even by those who did not Survive, what humanity has lost. There is with a certainty from those Survivors, all of whom we seek out to this day for an understanding of what is our demand on them.
However, in all of History there is no choice I would sooner make than to reference from those Jews whose message compels us to learn. As we attempt to understand and seek out the comprehension of such events which always continue to escape us, we ask so much of those who seek to leave the awful nature of their tribulations behind. I am here to commend Halina Birenbaum, and I am indebted to her for her dedication to those messages I have been in search of for the past 20 years. Her clear acknowledgement that 'Hope is the Last to Die' has driven an element of my appreciation of that very need to comprehend. Halina Birenbaum knows all too well what she, along with all those Jews who managed to Survive all that Hitler threw at them, KNOW!
But there are 6,000,000 of Halina’s fellow Jews whose message has been somewhat blunted by events and are lost in the confines of those spaces assigned to their destruction. Those, whose terse reply to the atrocity inflicted upon them, and whose annihilation has not been allowed any form of justice, which we should demand on their behalf, seek a space in our History which many would deny them. I cannot share other than these Jews’ own 'personal evidence' as the reflections of their direst situation. And it is that systematic assault which swallowed 6,000,000 of these Jews whole. But, with those who Survived to add to the testimony of mounting evidence, we have a factual truth which measures the distance from the loss we should now feel belongs to all of humanity.
"..number tatooed on my left arm ..personal evidence from Auschwitz ..attracts ..attention of many people. ..an incomprehensible ..strange mark ....a painful souvenir of ..cruel times of Nazism ..for me ..a kind of certificate of maturity." Halina Birenbaum.
But I sincerely wish to tackle what it is I feel I have clearly stated, but that some feel I have become entrenched in. For me, there is a distinction between Concentration Camp's, Labour Camp’s, POW Camp’s and Death Camp's. While all of these Camps dealt in the Death and even Destruction of those Jews, or others, sent or detained there, it is these x6 Death Camps alone which were clearly elected as other than a containment facility. Now while the vast majority of those Jews who were Killed or were Murdered within the Camp system, where they were expelled from life, it is the Death Camp that was designed solely for the mechanised and industrialised scale of mass murder they can attest to. This fully brings me to a conundrum which Maly-Trostinets presents.
"..carried out ..execution ..70 ..80 people ..executed in ..Minsk ..trench ..dug ..persons ..to die ..placed in front of it ..shot with carbines. ..10 people ..shot ..by an execution force of 30 ..40 men. SS Standartenfuhrer Walter Blume.
Maly-Trostinets was at once a Russian POW Camp some 8 miles from Minsk, and it was clearly established as such and a Labour Camp for the procurement of personnel for military demands. But here, and I have no authority either way to decide or even declare the appropriate status of a Death Camp, though I recognise their form, and this is where I suggest Maly-Trostinets does not conform to the recognised nature of those x6 Death Camps Hitler had established in Poland. I postulate an opinion merely as a choice made to differentiate between the x6 of these Death Camps that are in Poland, and the Concentration Camp's, of which there were many 1,000's, that were spread far and wide and wherever Hitler's forces reigned, including Maly-Trostinets. Over the duration, two Einsatzgruppe's, both B, under SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann and Einsatzgruppe C under SS Brigadefuhrer Otto Rasch were located at varying times in and around Minsk.
"..Einsatzgruppe B reported regularly ..to ..Reich Main Security Office. Written reports ..every three weeks ..small matters ..by radio. ..reports ..submitted to me." SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann.
With units of SK1b, EK 7a, EK 7b, EK7e (Vorkommando Moscau) and EK8 heavily involved in and around Minsk and its environs, it was these detachments which singled out the Jews foir Slaughter at Maly-Trostinets. By Sunday 13th. July 1941 Einsatzgruppe B had established a camp in Minsk at the civilian prison, and Jews are murdered in those first days of German occupation. Here is where SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler came to witness for himself what Hitler had ordained as he was present at a Minsk ‘Aktionen’ in August 1941.
Monday September 29th. 1941 "..large scale anti Jewish action ..carried out in ..Lachoisk .. Minsk ..920 Jews ..executed 'entsprechend behandelt' ..with ..a kommando of ..SS Division Das 'Reich'. ..village may now be described as 'free of Jews'." OSR 92.
The arrival of the first Jews from Hamburg signalled an altering in the status of Minsk as merely a local Ghetto and this, on November 10th. 1941, was but part of the Reich transports toward Minsk. As we approach May 8th. 1942, the use of the Gassing Vans were put into temporary service at the Killing Site that is Maly-Trostinets. As has been witnessed along the full axis of Einsatz efforts, when the bullet and the shooter became too close for their own comfort, it was decided that the killing apparatus should be removed from the immediacy of the sensitivity of the personnel. Let us not forget it was this exact same personnel which shot 1,250,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children.
"..received ..Fuhrer Order concerning ..killing ..Jews ..Gypsies ..Soviets." SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann.
What I have always sought to suggest, as in those x6 particular Death Camps, which I have seen defined as such, was their capacity to destroy all those Jews, and others, detailed to them for Destruction. This does not diminish in any way the capacity for Murder seen at Dachau, Gross-Rosen, or in fact Maly-Trostinets. At Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, the mechanised manner and industrialised scale of the Slaughter has been clearly recognised. Their Gassing capabilities have become witness to a mass Slaughter beyond our comprehension and their status, with a Murderous consequence for all those Jews sent toward them, was immense. The Catastrophic effects were felt by more than half of the 6,000,000 People of the Jewish who have become recognised as the Jews of The Holocaust.
"..I am in Warsaw ..I am here. ..hard to grasp who I actually am. But it is actually here that I understand and know everything most precisely." Halina Birenbaum.
With Hitler's Final Solution gaining momentum, Belzec nor any of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camps was capable of an influx of any of Minsk's Jews. der Einsatzgruppe 'B', operational throughout Byelorussia was systematically slaughtering the Jewish population there. At will, and with the containment in any of the East's holding pens, which were being cleared of those POW's now dead from Disease or mistreatment and even Murder, all was being prepared for a newer Jewish intake. But these Labour Camps and the POW Camps all now made way for the further containment of those Jews who are being steadily forced East. Of those Jews now detained in and around Minsk, Minsk's Jews too were shot or otherwise Murdered as soon as appropriate measures could be exacted. Killing operations against the Jews in the wider Byelorussian, Russian and Ukrainian arena's continued with Einsatz aktionen and at a pace unprecedented in all of History.
"..Nebe ..turned ..to ..Werner ..ordered him to have ..me ..to Minsk. ..blow up a bunker ..mentally ill patients inside ..at Mogilev. ..Nebe had ..window bricked in ..gas hose. ..fixed ..exhaust ..touring car. ..five minutes ..nothing ..happened. ..eight minutes ..unable to detect any result. ..second hose fitted onto a transport vehicle belonging to ..regular police. ..another few minutes ..people ..unconscious. ..vehicles ..running ..ten minutes." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Albert Widmann.
So what do we do about the status of Maly-Trostinets, as a Russian POW Camp and as a formative Labour Camp under Einsatzgruppe 'B's jurisdiction. I guess we have to draw a line in spaces where The Holocaust connects with each of us. We surely must decide on when The Holocaust commenced and when Hitler’s Final Solution was ground to a halt. Otherwise we might be forced to accept the detail of Kielce with 42 Surviving Jews who were Murdered in 1946 by Polish bigots. This, even after so much had become known of what 3,000,000 Polish Jews had been forced to endure and had succumbed to Hitler’s designs for them. More than 1,000 Jewish Survivors were Murdered in Poland, immediately after liberation had freed them from Hitler's hold.
Or do we include the Jews murdered in the pogroms prior to World War I, in a period between 1903 and 1906 when more than 700 Jews were Murdered for being Jews? At Odessa in 1905 over 400 Jews were killed, at Bialystok in 1906 where as many as 200 Jews were killed, at Kalarash in 1905 where 60 Jews were killed, at Kishinev in 1903 where 49 Jews were killed or at Siedlce in 1906 where 39 Jews were killed, and all of these were prior to Hitler's rise to power. Of course, these pogroms and anti-Jewish hatreds cannot be allowed to cloud the certainty of what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Given Hitler's rampant hatred for the Jews and the repugnance of an antisemitism which proliferated these areas of the East, we recognise and identify with the labels we have attached to the places of execution, death and destruction. There should be not confusion, no ambiguity over this certainty with what we wish to add to History. Which is where I arrive now to add to an impression which a POW Camp and Labour Camp’s status also wishes to add to our knowledge and appreciation as to why intolerance must never win again.
The villages of Maly-Trostinets and Bolshoi-Trostinets, situated some 8 miles from Minsk were the centre of Einsatzgruppe operations against the Jews of Minsk. The Killing Site at the Blagoveshchena Forest, which was itself about 3 miles from Maly-Trostinets, took those killed in Gassing vans and those Murdered at the edges of the pits dug there. There was a direct and continuing line of transports from Theresienstadt to Maly-Trostinets and while we Remember the 140,000 Jews sent to Theresienstadt, 33,000 of whom Died there, more than 86,000 of these Jews found their way to Auschwitz, Riga and then Minsk. Of those who entrained for Minsk, many died in the Ghetto there, or were Murdered by Einsatz aktionen in and around Maly-Trostinets or in the Blagoveshchena Forest. This was accomplished in both shooting operations and Gassing Vans, not as a systematic operation as we might witness in a Death Camp. Even though the Einsatz aktionen was a systematic sweep of local areas, this cannot constitute the significant differences affords to the x6 Death Camps.
"..SS Brigadefuhrer Zenner and ..SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr ..Strauch ..we ..liquidated ..55,000 Jews ..White Ruthenia. ..Minsk ..Jewry ..completely exterminated." Generalkommisar Wilhelm Kube.
As transports were directed toward Minsk and Maly-Trostinets, these resettlement efforts were interrupted at varying stages. Gassing Vans of der Einsatzgruppe took away 1,000's from these transports as did EinsatzKommando and SonderKommando units. These aktion groups, who shot many more 1,000's as part of their overall remit for Hitler's Final Solution, were a subsidiary force to The Death Camps detail and order. Maly-Trostinets, as a designated destination for Minsk's Jews, and Jews from the Reich, was both interrupted and inconsistent in that specific detail which designated all Death Camps. The fact that none of the x6 Death Camps came under Einsatzgruppe jurisdiction, whereas Maly-Trostinets did, is another pointer to the obvious difference. Maly-Trostinets similarity's with any of those Camp's designated as Death Camp's were either vague or too dissimilar as to present a non-coherent position of design.
If we look at Lodz Jews who were taken to Chelmno and systematically destroyed in Gassing vans, no whole scale shooting operations were employed. Many Jews of Minsk did make their way to Maly-Trostinets and were killed either en-route, by use of Gassing Vans or more likely shooting operations at Blagoveshchena Forest conducted by Einsatz kommandos. I have no wish to redraw the parameters of what has clearly designated all routes toward eradicating and annihilating the Jews of Europe. However, Maly-Trostinets had more in common with the operations at BabiYar, a Killing Site, than with Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or Treblinka, all x6 of Hitler's Death Camps he had established within Poland.
"..in Treblinka. ..How many answers will I find there. ..I will not run away from ..memories ..from ..stories ..from reading them ..writing about them. I will not flee to god who in this inferno revealed once and for all his nonexistence in such a decisive and unequivocal way." Halina Birenbaum.
So with a little overview of Maly-Trostinets, I hope I have expressed a valid purpose in that, while All Jews were the Victims, all Jewish Victims were not all Victims in Death Camps or at the hands of der Einsatzgruppe. As of Tuesday May 12th. 1942 and on consecutive Friday's and Tuesday's till August, a transport from the Reich made its way toward Minsk. There were some 14 transports of 19,000 Jews from Theresienstadt alone. Many of these were subsequently shot or Gassed into pits in the Blagoveshchena Forest and interred by a special kommando formed there. Some of these burial kommandos where formed to replenish that exhausted kommando or even selected for labour at Maly-Trostinets. On August 4th. 1942 1,000 Jews from Theresienstadt were transported to the Minsk Ghetto and on August 10th. 1942 960 of those Jews were detrained at the Blagoveshchena Forest, Gassed in Gas Vans while been driven to a clearing and interred in the already prepared pits.
On August 25th. 1942 1,000 more of Theresienstadt's Jews were directed toward the Minsk Ghetto and on August 31st. 1942 978 of those Jews met with the same fate as those Jews who had been Gassed at the Blagoveshchena Forest days before. On September 23rd. 1942 more than 2,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and murdered at Maly-Trostinets and again on September 26th. 1942 more than 2,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and murdered at Maly-Trostinets. All told, from September 19th. to September 29th. 1942 more than 11,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and were murdered en-route to Maly-Trostinets. On October 21st. 1943 2,000 Jews of Minsk and some from Maly-Trostinets were Murdered in reprisal for the Sobibor Rising, which had had a large contingent of Jews from Minsk.
On June 30th. 1944 Hitler's acolytes had been removed from Maly-Trostinets and an SS contingent set about destroying the remaining detainees. Russian POW's, Minsk Civilians, Jews and those Jews of the Reich still alive, were grouped together into the wooden structures and burned to death or shot as they attempted to flee the flames. As they torched the whole fabric of the Camp, in line with Blobel's SK1005, no trace was to remain of this particular Camp. More than 86,000 Jews of Minsk had already been Murdered, but at Maly-Trostinets with 35,000 Jews who had been murdered under Einsatzgruppe 'B's authority, Minsk Jewry’s last days were not confined within Maly-Trostinets. But here the similarity begins and ends in the Destruction of the Jewish People. The Death Camps could not be considered other than Death Camps whereas Maly-Trostinets constituted both a POW Camp and a Labour Camp.
Maly-Trostinets was a place of Murder for Jew and non-Jew alike but was not specifically designed to cater for the Jews only, as the initial scale of Operation Barbarossa’s lightening speed of victory would prove for all captured Russian POW’s. Within the x6 Death Camps, others too of course were Murdered, as defined by Hitler's want or local peculiarity's, but their design and construct was for a Jewish resolve to the Final Solution. Also, Einsatzgruppe aktionen against Minsk's Jews was separated out from the Death Camps specific detail, so as to lessen the demands placed upon Einsatz killing operations. This did not become a part of Maly-Trostinets account for more than 35,000 Jews and as many as 65,000 Jews. Not for one moment do I suggest that Jews, and or others, were not Killed, Murdered Gassed, Shot or Exterminated to Death at May-Trostinets. Either on route to Maly-Trostinets or somewhere between Maly-Trostinets and Minsk. the evidence is unequivocal that the Jews were Murdered
"..Only now do I understand how much a person is attached to those places where there is a trace of ..past ..some remnant ..ashes of ..relatives ..echoes of their footsteps ..their customs ..their now silent voices." Halina Birenbaum.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, March 29, 2017 21:35:28
There are some very strong reasons, morally, ethically and even philosophically why The Holocaust term belongs exclusively to the Jewish People. Specifically, there are 6,000,000 reasons. But this is not an accounting as Adolf Eichmann might have suggested but as Simon Wiesenthal would have us ensure that these 6,000,000 Jews were as us, Human Beings who were systematically sought out to be destroyed by Adolf Hitler. I am well aware that many Jews, particularly some Survivors, who do not wish an almost religious significance attributed or given to their definite catastrophe, but in assigning such a term, the Jewish People, Humanity, the World and History have a reference point in time. I understand that a seeming Biblical phenomena is not what Hitler sought for those Jews he urged those who followed him to bring to bear on innocent human beings, simply because they were Jews!
But, there are so many Jews who do not have that reference point which might even suggest where their loved ones are interred. Some might think it is Belzec! Some might consider it to be Babi Yar! But what is clear is that while the World looked the other way, The Holocaust term must focus all attention on what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, why it happened and even more accusingly, why it was allowed to happen. There has been this constant drip feeding of irreverence for this solid case to ensure 6,000,000 Jews are The Holocaust. So if the dilution of the term itself is allowed to continue, will the ‘Shoah’ become as equally diluted by a Worlds intention to deny further the Jews departed space which overcame the Jewish living space!
So if we commence with the inconceivable premise that nothing happened without Hitler's expressed or insinuated approval and we end with The Holocaust, it is totally conceivable the intervening period was constructed so as to consign even more Jews to its confining space. It is also reasonable to assess that all these matters centred around the progression of the Jewish People toward their eventual annihilation. There is no ambiguity in that assessment as History can clearly testify to its far reaching consequences. What some see as omitted, either in crossed t's or dotted i's is visually present in intention, demand and the expressed certainty of a rhetoric which never diminished. In this regard, a concealed page that was never to be written had been intimated.
"..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable." Raul Hilberg.
We have gone further back in History to lend the term, which Raphael Lemkin titled as Genocide, to what was happening to the Jews of Europe under Hitler. Lemkin, a Polish Jew, who had arrived in the United States in April 1941, was already well versed in the types and scale of mass Murder which Hitler was waging against the Jewish People, and other peoples. Lemkin, clearly engrossed in what was happening to his own People, which Hitler had always so clearly verbalised and would not remain purely as a rhetorical process, became wholly the Destruction of the Jewish People. There were more than 3,000,000 reasons why Poland had been scoured so as to set as an example of what was to occur.
Half of all Jews who were Murdered in The Holocaust would be Polish Jews and this was not lost on Hitler. At the conception of, or even the inauguration of his planned Final Solution became focused and fixed, Lebensraum ensured many would make way for the few. We can go all the way back to Hitler's rise to power to see Jewish Destruction emerge as a inestimable target. We can see with the Book Burning of May 10th. 1933, when ten's of thousands of Books are burned on the Unter den Linden, Berlin and across much of Germany, a confronting with Jewish Culture and Civilising ways was being stressed. This, the conflagration of the written word allowed for The Holocaust term to enter into the vernacular of Nazi aims. The book burning was aimed against Jewish Writers amongst many, and we are now mindful of what Heinrich Heine had already stated:
"..Those who begin by burning Books end by burning People." Heinrich Heine.
On March 13th. 1938 with Austria absorbed into the Reich, by means of the 'Anschluss', the Jewish People face a more real threat. Along with the systematic larceny of Jewish assets, all is set in motion within Austria for Jewish removal elsewhere. The presence of Adolf Eichmann, who was here and on hand to ensure that the Jewish People would be singled out from the rest of their Community, has become a defining marker in the progress of Hitler’s Final resolve for the Jews of Europe was largely coincidental. What followed under Eichmann’s direct administering, would reverberate through the last 80 years to damn all who perpetrated, participated in or stood idly by and watched the atrocity unfold.
" ..at ..reunion ..Austria with ..German Reich ..Heydrich gave ..order ..set ..Jewish emigration in motion from Vienna." Adolf Eichmann.
History now speaks of the destruction of more than 40,000 of Austria’s Jewish People, and amidst the terms of reference, which qualify the Jewish People as particular to The Holocaust itself, Abraham Brill saw its effects from afar. Brill’s observation was clearly in relation to those Jews of Europe now caught up in Hitler’s demands for Vienna, and those of all Austria. But he saw this terrible news in relation to Sigmund Freud and his Family in particular:
"..we have been startled by ..terrible news that ..Nazi Holocaust has suddenly encircled Vienna and in ..hands of civilisation’s greatest scourge." Abraham Arden Brill.
Then we can evidence Kristallnacht as what was coming as November 9th. 1938 was orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland. Here, where some 267 synagogues are ransacked and destroyed, with 7,500 Jewish Shops looted and over 50,000 Jews who are removed to Concentration Camps at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, there is an apparent escalation toward Jewish maltreatment. Also, and with over 240 Jews who are killed, this is more commensurate with what is set to become The Holocaust for all 6,000,000 of The Jews of Europe.
"..we know what happened yesterday. We do not know what tomorrow holds. However ..we have experienced what happened today. Outside ..synagogue burns. That is also a house of God." Father Bernhard Lichtenberg.
As the ink was clearly settling upon grandiose schemes for settlements East and with Hitler's endorsement of the so called Madagaskar Plan given a feasibility study, soon annihilation would emerge as the opportune goal. Once T4's Euthanasia programme was circulated on August 18th. 1939 with the Reich Interior Ministry 'Euthanasia' paper, a rubicon had been crossed. The T4 expertise would later re-emerge in the Death Camps, once Hitler had become the witness to what could be achieved. We then see, on the day after Hitler sought to wage War in Poland, 30 Jews of Piotrkow were Murdered, September 2nd. 1939. What would eventually emerge is The Holocaust of the Jewish People as Hitler now convinced would be achievable.
What we know as far back as August 1941, when Winston Churchill was merely alluding to, and Churchill was not only hinting at the emerging destruction within what became known as The Holocaust. He knew of its exact progression. Churchill knew the emergence of the mass murder and its very exacting detail from the offset. Both British and US 'intelligence' sources had clearly gained the information from the official communications relayed from der Einsatzgruppe to Hitler’s door. Clearly, what that acknowledged what was a marked destiny for the Jews of Europe and it was fully exterminatory.
Sunday August 24th. 1941. "..aggressor retaliates by ..most frightful cruelties. As his Armies advance ..whole districts are being exterminated. Scores of 1,000's ..literally scores of 1,000's ..executions in cold blood are being perpetrated by ..German Police Troops upon ..Russian patriots who defend their native soil. Since ..Mongol invasions of Europe in ..16th. Century ..there has never been methodical ..merciless butchery on such a scale ..or approaching such a scale. And this is but ..beginning. Famine and pestilence have yet to follow in ..bloody ruts of Hitler's tanks. We are in ..presence of a crime without a name. " Winston Churchill.
A little over 6 weeks prior to this statement, British cryptographers had deciphered the 'enigma code', which der Einsatzgruppe thought would deliver their Operational Situation Reports directly to Hitler, and in secret. However, what Winston Churchill called the German Police Troops were in fact the 3,000 members of those mobile killing units, der Einsatzgruppe. Here, barely 3 weeks after the commencement of Barbarossa, we knew Hitler's unfolding account of 'The Final Solution of The Jewish Question', and it was a clearly Jewish resolve Hitler had engendered and engineered. The very detail and exacting accounting of the Slaughter would be laid out before Churchill for him to peruse and withhold from the public domain.
In cold relief, these wires were to be seen as to the systematic nature of the Slaughter of ALL Jews. I will borrow here from Elie Wiesel when I state that while Hitler's aktionen was personally directed, and while not all victims were Jews, the Slaughter was waged against ALL the Jewish People. Here, the unmasking of Hitler as a cold and calculating Mass Murderer was already withheld from the public domain, and though somewhat intelligently contained or detained, whichever allows for a morally accepting view, History knows the deeds of those who allowed for perpetration to prosper. But then, after the knowledge fully emerged of what had happened to the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, it seemed appropriate that Raphael Lemkin had come up with the right name, that of Genocide.
For Lemkin to express his clear view and horror at what had happened and what was still happening to his own People, the incredulity of the World is a marked accusation. From that point in was borne the reference point in History we have ever since called The Holocaust Slaughter of The Jews of Europe.
Saturday December 5th. 1942. "..Holocaust ..Nothing else in Hitler's record is comparable to his treatment of ..Jews. ..word has gone forth that ..Jewish peoples are to be exterminated. ..conscience of humanity stands aghast." British News Chronicle.
Terms like The Holocaust can have no meaning if we are prepared to lose sight of the detailed tragedy contained within its grasp. If we then allow for this assessment, that has been made in order that 6,000,000 Jews of Europe who perished are given newer meaning to its reach, the Jewish People confined within its terminology must never become a secondary consideration. Lately too, the dilution of the term must be seen as a dishonourable way to remove the Jewish presence from the catastrophe. For these 6,000,000 Jewish People, we owe them the right to belong to a term we have given over to them. But if the term is anything less than the expression of the unparalleled and unprecedented assault upon the Jewish People, its misuse becomes a further slur even on all of Humanity.
Sunday December 27th. 1942 "..here ..where comfort lures people into ..camp of ..mighty ..it is of no interest to history. ..Holocaust will steal its way into world history." Zelig Kalmanovich.
Zelig Kalmanovich writes from the depths of the Vilna Ghetto, which is still struggling to remain viable. In the midst of this particular maelstrom, the Germans are determined to ensure that the Jews from here are totally obliterated and their presence is no longer to be felt in the World. But history has been told of these events and The Holocaust has presented to the World the worst of what Man can do to his fellow Jew. To this day the Jews prevail and we make strenuous efforts to Remember them and stand stoically to accuse those who perpetrated these crimes against them.
Sunday December 27th. 1942 "..History will cherish your memory ..people of ..ghetto. Your last expression will be studied ..your struggle for human dignity will inspire." Zelig Kalmanovich.
Of course we know that there are those like Zelig Kalmanovich who adopted such a term to ensure we were Always to Remember and Never to Forget, and not just these Jews of Vilna, but all 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. So while Raphael Lemkin lent the word 'Genocide' to the Destruction of any Peoples, and while he was enabling us to appreciate what was happening to 3,000,000 Polish Jews and the subsequent Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, can the Jewish Murdered be denied their space in a term after being denied their space in Life? In Lemkin's Book on Axis Rule in Europe, Raphael Lemkin did far more in stating the intention of what Churchill obviously knew, but only alluded to, when he prefaced the term on November 15th. 1943.
However, Raphael Lemkin had now introduced his new word after what Churchill had merely suggested that:
"..We are in ..presence of a crime without a name."
and while Lemkin himself was adamant that Hitler was systematically Slaughtering his people en-masse, Raphael gave that certainty to a name, 'Genocide' which gave rise to The Holocaust term for the Destruction of His Jewish People. Unmistakably, we cannot then reduce the term to invalidate its clear emergence as Lemkin sought to signify what Hitler was doing, achieving and establishing against the Jewish People. To simply dilute the term, to add reference to former 'Genocide’s, present 'Genocide’s or future 'Genocide’s is to seek to lessen the impact the atrocity against 6,000,000 Jewish People should bear down upon Civilisation, Humanity and even History!
Perhaps that is the intention of History then, to deny the Jewish 6,000,000 their rightful place, as the pointer to what extreme intolerance’s means for People when confronted by abject duplicity or indifference to their struggle. So while we are all too well aware that 6,000,000 Jewish People are no more, and maybe this is such a conservative estimate, Humanity is still reeling from its ramifications and realisation. Should we then lessen its impact by not allowing for its exclusively Jewish identity! I think not! I have 6,000,000 reasons to state this case and no other good reason to avoid stating it. Are we in need of the expressions of Wannsee to secure that Fact that The Holocaust belongs to the Jewish People. The Jews were not randomly sampled for death. The Jewish People were systematically chosen before, prior and immediately upon sight for their total elimination.
That x6 Death Camps were established by Hitler within Poland speaks for the very specific detail to be brought to bear on those Jews there and those Jews yet to be transported there. Treblinka, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or even Auschwitz and Birkenau all resonate with a Jewish presence which is no more. We already have the hidden evidence of der Einsatzgruppe activities to explain The Holocaust as a Jewish Detail. The Death Camps too were detailed for the Slaughter of The Jewish People on a previously incomprehensibly mechanised and industrial scale. That does not dismiss the fact that many other peoples of various nations or creeds were done to death, even in these Death Camps.
But the non-Jews were always subsequent to the specific detail which had already identified 11,293,300 Jews for Destruction. The genesis of The Holocaust is neither in the function which Hitler's desire to annihilate the Jewish People fully delivered and nor is it in that intention which delivered 6,000,000 Jews to the Slaughter. But with a combined effort of all that Hitler imagined could be achieved and which would be finalised within The Holocaust term, the World knows the truth of what Hitler stage managed and achieved.
"..If of 10,300,000 we had killed 10,300,000 I would be satisfied and say ..Good. We have exterminated an enemy." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, February 07, 2017 16:54:52
On this day in the History of The Holocaust, February 4th. 1907 Otto Ohlendorf, who will grow up to be Professor und SS Gruppenfuhrer Commander of EGB, is born. On February 24th. 1920 the Nazi Party is born from the 'Nationalsozialistischen Deutsche Arbeiter Party' and on February 26th. 1924 Hitler's trial begins for his failed Munich Bierkeller Putsch! On February 25th. 1932 Hitler is granted German Citizenship and as the Jews of Germany and Austria will be faced with threats, both metaphorically, rhetorically and deadly real, the World takes a breath. On February 2nd. 1933, all Political demonstrations in Germany are banned and the following day, February 3rd. 1933 Hitler's clear view, his Lebensraum expansion plan is revealed. Der Sturmer is now an official organ of the Nazi party. February 12th sees Berlin’s 'Bloody Sunday' riots which lead to the death of a Communist Party Member and injuries to 100's of others. The Jews are systematically targeted.
On February 20th. Hitler wins over a group of leading German industrialists at a meeting designed for that purpose. On February 22nd. 40,000 SA and SS are sworn in as auxiliary Police and on February 27th. the German Reichstag building is set on fire and the blame falls upon the Communists. The following day, February 28th. under edict of the Weimar Constitution, President Hindenburg gives plenary powers to Hitler and the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of the Nation and State the 'Reichstagsbrandverordnung,' the Reichstag Fire Decree makes the Weimar Constitution all but annulled and leaves all 100 Communist deputies arrested. During February 1934 the 3 year old Anneliese (Anne) Frank joins Her family, from her native Germany to join them in Amsterdam.
The first group of Jewish refugees from Germany arrive at Kibbutz Ein Harod in Israel and on February 17th. Great Britain, France and Italy move to secure Austrian independence. On February 10th. 1935 there is a prohibition of gatherings which are urging Jews to remain in Germany. On February 4th. 1936 Wilhelm Gustloff, the Swiss Nazi Party Leader, is assassinated by David Frankfurter, a Jewish Student and this proves an expedient for Hitler. At this time Hitler decides not to react and not to show the indignation as will be witnessed with the aftermath of the Grynzspan affair in 1938. Meanwhile, February 10th. 1936 sees the Gestapo placed above the law. On February 29th. Cardinal August Hlond, head of the Catholic Church in Poland issues his 'pastoral letter', discriminating against the Jewish People. His statement, leading to anti-Jewish pogroms occurring in Poland on the back of what Cardinal Hlond calls the ‘usury, fraud and white slavery' of the Jewish People.
On February 16th. 1937 German and Polish relations strengthened by Goering visit and on February 4th. 1938 Hitler becomes Chief of Germany's armed forces, appoints Joachim von Ribbentrop as his Foreign Minister as the Nazis in Austria are set to take over all Jewish business. On February 3rd. 1939 the Budapest Synagogue is fire bombed and on February 7th. Alfred Rosenberg, of the Foreign Political Office, proposes a Jewish reserve for World Jewry.
Tuesday February 7th. 1939 "..What territories are ..democracies willing to provide for ..settling some 15,000,000 Jews." Alfred Rosenberg.
Two days later on February 9th. there are more anti Jewish legislation passed in Italy and on February 10th. Pope Pius XI dies. On February 21st. Jews are required to hand over gold and silver. On February 7th. 1940 the Jews of Warsaw are prevented from attending public libraries while the following day, February 8th. the Lodz Ghetto is established and more than 202,000 Jews are to be Enclosed. Lodz is One of the Nine Major Ghettos Hitler has established and more than 8,200 of Lodz’s Jews will die from Starvation in this 1st. Year. On February 12th. the first deportations of Jews from Germany, from Pomerania to Polish Lublin as Goering moves to stem the flow of Jewish expulsions to Eastern Poland, except those from Lodz. On February 18th. two Jewish Warsaw teenage girls are raped in the Jewish cemetery by two Wehrmacht so-called 'officers'. The following day, February 19th. Waffen SS training moves out of Dachau.
On February 4th. 1941 Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna, repeats his concerns to Pope Pius XII concerning 60,000 of Vienna's Jews who are still under threat and are facing ‘resettlement’ deportation. The following day on February 5th. Romania issues its own Law for Protection of the State. On February 12th. Reich Protectorate decree demands that all capital be declared by its Jews. The following day February 13th. First Amsterdam Jewish Council, the 'Joodse Raad,' meets and on February 15th. the Kielce Ghetto is taking in nearly 1,000 Viennese Jews per week, some Jews from Pinczow forced in Labour unit. On February 17th. Romania joins Hitler's War effort and on February 18th. the Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Council seeks a loan from German Banks. February 22nd. sees the beginning of action against the Jews of Plock.
On February 23rd. 400 of Amsterdam’s Jews are sent to the Concentration Camps at Buchenwald and Mauthausen and two days later on February 25th. there is a Dutch General Strike over these deportations of their Jewish Citizens. On February 28th. the entire Jewish population of Plock are removed to the Dzialdowo Camp and are murdered there. On February 1st. 1942 the SS Economic Administrative Main Office, 'Wirtschafts Verwaltungshauptamt' WVHA is established under SS Gruppenfuhrer Oswald Pohl, for the controlling of the Concentration Camps. On February 8th. the first major deportations to the Death Camps commence as the Belzec Death Camp’s Construction is fully completed. On February 12th. Oswald Pohl issues instructions to Concentration Camps on maximum usage of inmates for 'work' and are restricted to 10% of the Camp population. On February 13th. Hamburg Jewish leaders murdered in Minsk Ghetto.
Saturday February 14th. 1942 "..Jews have deserved ..catastrophe that has now overtaken them. Their destruction will go hand in hand with ..destruction of our enemies. We must hasten this process with cold ruthlessness." Josef Goebbels.
On February 15th. The first massed Jewish gassing at Auschwitz have begun with the realm of Auschwitz/Birkenau set to incorporate 5 purpose-built Krematorium all with their own gas chambers.
"..I have created a world power out of ..German Reich. I am boundlessly proud that I was blessed by Providence ..to lead this battle." Adolf Hitler.
On February 16th. the German Foreign Office notifies the Slovakian Government of the move toward The Final Solution of The Jewish Question in Europe. On February 24th. there are over 30,000 of Lodz’s Jews deported to Chelmno. On February 28th. Archbishop of Lvov, the recognised head of Polish Catholics, in Cardinal August Hlond's absence, Adam Stefan Sapieha, wrote to Pius XII on the persecution of Polish Catholics. He made no mention of Polish Jewry while Italian Priests, who had accompanied Italian troops into Russia, were passing back the information on the Murders of the Jews. Sapieha would have been one of the recipients of such information as would the Vatican. There was no moratorium on the movement of Italians through Poland from Russia back to Italy. On February 1st. 1943 more than 2,000 of Buczacz’s Jews are murdered at Fedor Hill as the Town of Oswiecim is being emptied of those Jews soon to enslaved and then murdered at Auschwitz.
The following day, February 2nd. with the defeat of Field Marshal Friedrich von Paulus and his German 6th. Army, sees his surrender at Stalingrad and the loss of 300,000 German and Axis forces who are dead or captured. With this defeat of Hitler's Armies here at Stalingrad, the need to destroy the very evidence of The Holocaust was conceived of and 'Sonderkommando 1005', which is to be directed by Blobel's punctilious effort, came into being. On February 3rd 1943 Dino Alfieri, the former Ambassador to the Vatican alerts Count Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister as to the fate of the Jewish People.
Wednesday February 3rd. 1943 "..fate of ..Polish ..Russian ..Dutch ..French Jews ..SS talk about mass executions. ..executions by machine guns ..nude women ..children lined up at ..mouth of ..ditch. ..an SS official ..confided ..he had hurled babies ..against a wall ..shattering them ..an example to his men." Dino Alfieri.
On February 5th. with Jewish Resistance in Bialystok crushed, 2,000 Jews are killed resisting. On February 7th. the first Armed Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto begins. On February 12th. the Week-long resettlement at Bialystok ends and 10,000 of Bialystok’s Jews are murdered at Treblinka. Elsewhere, Himmler and his entourage of 20 High Ranking Personnel in a fleet of 7 Cars, arrives at Sobibor to oversee the destructive capacity of the facility. Over 200 Female Jews from Lipowa, including 70 of Wlodawa's prettiest Jewish Females are murdered for Himmler's benefit! Later that day, Himmler and his party visited Treblinka.
"..Seven cars ..Himmler. ..entourage ..twenty people. ..went to ..extermination area ..stayed half an hour." Tanhum Greenberg.
On February 16th. Himmler orders the Warsaw Ghetto is to be 'reduced' to rubble.
Tuesday February 16th. 1943 "..In this way ..Warsaw ..will be reduced." SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler.
On February 23rd. the Stanislawow Ghetto is Liquidated with 1,000 of Stanislawow's Jews shot and 2,000 sent to the Janowska Camp. On February 25th. the first transports from Salonika to Auschwitz begins as Hitler’s Final Solution extends its reach. On February 26th. the first major Gypsy transport also arrives at Auschwitz. This is followed the following day, February 27th. with the deportation of those previously exempted Jewish armament workers from Berlin to Auschwitz. On February 28th. 2,000 of Stryj’s Jews are murdered at Sobibor while Aktion ‘1005’ begins at Treblinka to disguise Hitler’s crimes against The Jewish People of our Humanity. On February 1st. 1944 in Ledziny, the Town sees IG Farben establish the Auschwitz III Monowitz sub-Camp Gunthergrube, for Coal extraction. This sub-camp and around 300 prisoners are sent for forced labour there.
On February 3rd. there are over 980 Parisian Jews from the Drancy Camp resettled to Auschwitz. This is followed a week later, on February 10th. with a further 1,200 Parisian Jews from the Drancy Camp resettled to Auschwitz as are over 800 Dutch Jews from Westerbork to be resettled at Auschwitz. On February 14th. Himmler reduces the size of the Lodz Ghetto and on February 22nd. over 460 of Fossoli’s Jews are deported toward Auschwitz as are over 80 of Narva’s Jews. On February 25th. over 30 more of Vienna’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz and the following day, February 26th. more than 50 of Sosnowiec’s Jews to Auschwitz. During February 1945 both Anne and Margot Frank died from the effects of Typhus. Though we cannot be certain of the exact dates of their demise, we are certain that Hitler's Final Solution had imposed itself upon them both. On February 1st. the Gross-Rosen Death March of 40,000 inmates begins its harrowing progress.
On February 2nd. the Red Cross discusses with the SS for the relief of all the Camps and on February 4th. The Yalta Conference convenes and this meeting at Yalta between Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agree that a prosecution of all Axis leaders should follow the expected conclusion of World War II. On February 14th. as Russian forces liberate Buda, part of the City of Budapest, the City is surrendered with more than 90,000 Hungarian Jews reprieved by Russian forces. On February 17th. of the all too few Jews who have managed to Survive, 7 returning Sokoly Jewish Survivors are murdered by locals amongst these are 4 year old, Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak. All of these Jewish Survivors, who have suffered so much, endured even more are included in these shameful murders.
1) Tovah, (Tokele), (Tolkele), (Tulkale), (Tulka) was 4 years of age. I am now reliably informed by a Survivor, Yaffa Litwak, who knew Tokele, that she is Tovah Olshak, the Sister of Shaine. Both of Tokele's Parents were previously shot in the nearby Lupochowo Forest and Tokele had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman. Sadly, and though with difficulty, Tokele was given back to her Cousin by marriage Shaine.
2) Shaine (Shaina) (Sheine) Olshak was a Cousin by marriage of Tokele, she was 22 years of age. She was the Wife of Zeev Velvel Olshak of Zeremow.
3) David Zholti (Zholty) was born in 1939 and was 35 years of age,
4) Shaikele (Sheike) (Yehoshua) (Shaikeleh) Litwak was 13 years of age and was the Brother of Yankele, Shammai and Yaffa and was the Son of Chaim,
5) Chaim 'Tuvia' Litwak was the blacksmith from Siemietitz and was the Father of Yankele, Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa,
6) Shammai Litwak was 19 years of age the Elder Brother of Yankele, Shaikele,
7) Batya Weinstein was 20 years old who had Survived Auschwitz and had been born in Swiecinin, and though David Kostshevski (Koschevsky) (Koschavsky) who had Survived both Auschwitz and Majdanek was shot here in Sokoly, he died in a hospital in Bialystok.
On February 18th. 1946 the Russian prosecutors offer into evidence German film footage, and this is a 45 minute film of the very evidence of Hitler’s Final Solution. The atrocities captured will need to teach us what we need to learn. On February 9th. 1948 the Final Judgement in der Einsatzgruppe Case is delivered and 3 days later on February 12th. the Defence’s closing statement in der Einsatzgruppe Case is completed. The following day February 13th. the Prosecution closing statement in der Einsatzgruppe Case is delivered. On February 17th. the RuSHA Case at Nuremberg concludes and 2 days later on February 19th. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 7, ends. Eight defendants are found guilty of their crimes and are sentenced to varying periods of imprisonment. Two defendants are acquitted. Two other defendants committed suicide before the verdict was reached.
1) Field Marshal Siegmund Wilhelm von List, lifetime imprisonment and was released in December 1952.
2) Field Marshal Baron Maximilian von Weichs, Removed from the trial due to illness.
3) Colonel General Dr. Lothar Rendulic, 20 years' imprisonment reduced to 10 years. Released 1951.
4) General Walter Kuntze, Life in prison. Released 1953.
5) Major General Hermann Foertsch, Acquitted.
6) Lieutenant General Franz Bohme, committed suicide, May 30th. 1947 before his arraignment.
7) Lieutenant General Hellmuth Felmy, 15 years' imprisonment; reduced to 10 years in 1951.
8) General Hubert Lanz, 12 years' imprisonment; released 1951.
9) Major General Ernst Dehner, 7 years' imprisonment; released 1951.
10) Lieutenant General Ernst von Leyser, 10 years' imprisonment; released 1951.
11) Major General Wilhelm Speidel, 20 years' imprisonment; released 1951.
12) Kurt Ritter von Geitner, Acquitted.
The release, on February 15th. 1979, of Aerial photographs of the operation at Birkenau capture the procession toward Destruction of those Jews disembarking from a ‘resettlement’ Transport. Here, as a Death Camp swallows up a further convoy, the release of these photographs provides shameful evidence of what we allowed to happen. These photographs were taken back in 1944 and they are present at the height of the operation against Hungarian Jewry. Add to this, that US Bombers were fully capable of over flying the Auschwitz/Birkenau Death Camp, the continuing argument as to why the Allies did not intervene, did not Bomb the Death Camps and did not Save more Jews, will wind on relentlessly.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Thu, January 19, 2017 09:06:36
On January 12th. 1893 Hermann Goering is born and Hitler’s proxy peddler in The Final Solution will attempt to conceal Hitler’s role. On January 11th. 1923 French and Belgian troops occupy Ruhr and this is a precursor to what Hitler will frame his belligerence. On January 6th. 1929 Himmler is appointed 'Reichsfuhrer SS' and a key role in the burgeoning effort to destroy the Jewish People has been set in motion. During the January period of 1933 a pastoral letter from Austrian Bishop Gfollner of Linz states that it is the duty of all Catholics to adopt a ‘moral form of anti-Semitism.’ What this means in the moral ethics of Christianity is bearing no relation to what Christ insists upon. On January 4th. that year in a Secret meeting between Hitler and Franz von Papen to establish a governmental role for Hitler, Hitler moves a step closer to ultimate power and as German Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher resigns on January 28th., that step is closer still. On January 30th. Adolf Hitler is appointed, 'Reichskanzler' with Franz von Papen as his vice-Chancellor. The Nazi's are in power.
On January 1st. 1934 the SS is fully in control of the Concentration Camp system and Hitler orders a military building program of 4,000 new aircraft to be completed within 20 Months. Remember here too, that while all credit is afforded Hitler for the expansionism of the Reich, the accreditation for the mounting assault upon the Jewish People, Gypsies, the Slavic nations and any one else Hitler’s hatred consumes, is to be ignored by those in favour of Hitler as some form of ‘messiah’? All Jewish holidays are now removed from German calendar and during the early part of the year Nazi Youth members are targeting Catholic youth groups throughout Germany, and intimidating and beating them. German laws are now being passed allowing for the sterilisation of the 'unfit,' laws which were passed in July of the previous year. On January 24th. The Jewish People are banned from the German Labour Front and two days later on January 26th. Germany and Poland sign a 10 year non-Aggression Pact. On January 30th. Hitler now declares he will not be deterred from rearming.
On January 26th. 1937 Jews are prohibited from working in German offices and the following year, on January 21st. 1938 Jews have their citizenship revoked by the Goga-Cuza Fascists in Romania.
Friday January 21st. 1938 "..Jews must leave Romania ..it is for ..world to find a residence for ..world's Jews 'Madagascar seems a suitable spot'." Alexander Cuza.
On January 1st. 1939 all Jewish Capital is expropriated and the Israel or Sarah 'name' decree comes into force. This identifies all passports as Jewish with the identifying Jewish names penned on them.
Sunday January 15th. 1939 "..Church ..always regarded living side by side with Jews ..as long as they remain Jews ..dangerous to ..faith ..tranquility of Christian people. ..for this reason ..intended to brake ..limit ..action ..influence of ..Jews ..isolating Jews." Bishop Giovanni Cazzani.
Two days later on January 17th. Jewish dentists, pharmacists and vets lose their license to work. On January 24th. Goering gives Heydrich power to establish a 'Reichszentale fur Judische Auswanderung', a Reich Bureau Central Office for Jewish Emigration from Germany and this is based upon the Eichmann Vienna model. There are 80,000 Jews left in Germany as Heydrich then appoints Heinrich Mueller, the Gestapo Chief, to lead the Jewish emigration push. The following day, January 25th. the German Foreign Office circulates the deportation essential of Polish Jews from Germany.
Monday January 30th. 1939 "..shameful spectacle to see how ..whole democratic world is oozing sympathy for ..poor ..tormented Jewish people ..but remains hard hearted and obdurate when it comes to helping them." Adolf Hitler.
Here, as Hitler feels for the mood of the Western nations, he senses the enmity that should be expected for the way he has treated the Jewish People is missing. This clearly gives Hitler carte blanche with what he will now pursue as a final resolve for all the Jews of Europe. The following year, on January 2nd. 1940 there will be No Jewish obituaries allowed in the de facto Generalgouvernment within Poland. Meanwhile, on January 6th. the Jews in Warsaw are denied heating fuels. On January 12th. 300 Hordyszcze asylum inmates murdered while on January 14th., of the 880 Jewish Prisoners of war who are force marched across Poland, more that 600 of them are shot.
On January 15th. 1940 Gorlice Judenrat created and 3 days later on January 18th. 255 Warsaw Jews were shot in Palmiry Forest. A week later on January 22nd. the Vatican attacks the German conduct in Poland. On January 24th. Hans Frank adds a newer decree in order that all Jewish property in Generalgouvernment be registered. The following day, January 25th. Though in containment operation since 1939, Oswiecim, Auschwitz, is chosen as the site of a new Concentration Camp. On January 26th. the Warsaw Judenrate are fined after an ethnic German is beaten. Four days later on January 30th. Heydrich holds conference on resettlement of Jews and Volkdeutche and Heydrich establishes Office IVD4 for the purpose of 'resettling' all Jews from the Reich.
On January 1st. 1941 439 Jews gassed at Kalisz with the use of Mobile Gassing Vans used by der Einsatzgruppe in the field of operations. On January 10th. the Jews in Holland are forced to register and the following day, January 11th. Hans Frank gains a stay of Himmler's deportation plans. On January 20th. Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna, informed Pope Pius XII of the looming threat to 60,000 of Vienna Jews now facing deportation. On January 21st. in Bucharest 130 of its Jews are Murdered while 25 Synagogues are desecrated or set on fire, 616 Jewish shops are Destroyed, 547 Jewish Homes are looted as the Romanian Army quells the unrest. The following day, January 22nd. Bulgaria dislodges its Jews from all professional positions, as Public Sector workers and as Doctor's and Lawyer's and a punitive tax is also imposed on Jewish Homes and Businesses. On January 26th. 120 of Bucharest’s Jews are murdered as 1,000's of Bucharest's Jews are brutalised in anti-Jewish riots. By January 28th. There is a new Romanian Government formed by General Antonescu and the racial persecutions against its Jewish Citizens continues. There a newer anti-Jewish laws promulgated as January 30th. sees Hitler repeat his threat to destroy all of European Jewry. Rhetoric has surely given way to a power surge of hatred that has clearly delineated all aspects of The Final Solution being resolved into the mass Murder of the Jewish People which is already being realised.
Thursday January 30th. 1941. "..Today I will once more be a prophet. If ..international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging nations once more into a world war then ..result will not be .. bolshevisation of ..earth and ..victory of Jewry ..but ..annihilation of ..Jewish race in Europe." Adolf Hitler.
On January 31st. 3,000 of Pruszkow's Jews are deported to the Warsaw Ghetto along with some 70,000 other Jews from outlying areas set to soon follow. Meanwhile there are German attempts to establish a Polish styled imposed Judenrat in Frankfurt and even in France. On January 1st. 1942 the United Nations declaration is ratified by 26 Allied Nations and a UN War Crimes Commission is established. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Christian Wirth was appointed the first Commandant of the Belzec Death Camp. On January 3rd. 27 of Gorlice’s Jews were shot in the streets of their Town.
Saturday January 3rd. 1942 "..rumour is abroad ..execution was filmed." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Fritz Dietrich.
This is a serious breach of discipline, when we consider the supposedly ultra secretive nature of the mass murder undertakings against the Jewish People. Severest retribution was proposed for any individual who photographed the murder operations, let alone filmed them. We are, however, indebted to the many who, through curiosity or callous intent, have brought the brutal truth of The Holocaust to life, and while it is conveyed in exacting detail, it is limited to a few minutes of Film, The Liepaja Massacred at Skeden and a series of photographs. On January 4th. Chaim Rumkowski makes the boast that Jews can be saved, 'Through Work.' The following day January 5th. the Kharkov Ghetto is finally liquidated. On January 6th. the Russian Foreign Minister, Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov hands over information on the Babi-Yar massacre. As well as this, there are other mass murder actions disclosed and their locations of graves are exposed before a British and US Government intelligence service which already knows much of the detail contained.
On January 7th. Chelmno Death Camp gassing of Jews from surrounding area had already commenced as the expelling of Jews from Lodz to Chelmno begins. 5,000 Gypsies from Lodz are also gassed at Chelmno. On January 8th. 1942 Stutthof becomes a Concentration Camp and the following day, January 9th. 1,000 of Theresienstadt’s Jews are deported to Riga.
"..extermination of whole categories of human beings ..was ..foremost instrument of ..Nazi doctrine." Ben Ferenz.
On January 12th., as a precursor to the Nuremberg Trials, Europe and China resolve to try All Axis Leaders as War Criminals and for all war crimes:
"..whether they have ordered ..perpetrated ..or in any way participated in them."
On January 13th. 10,000 of Lodz’s Ghetto Jews are marked for Forced Labour and the following day, January 14th. Dutch Jewry is being prepared for 'resettlement' which is swiftly followed the following day, January 15th. With an Allied pledge to punish War Criminals.
Thursday 15th. January 1942 "..a Jew. ..tied ..to ..sleigh ..forced to run. ..couldn't run anymore ..they dragged him along ..then shot him." David Rubinowicz.
On January 16th. 10,000 of Lodz’s unproductive Jews are murdered at Chelmno and the Soviet report on the Mass Murder of 52,000 Jews of Kiev is published in The Jewish Chronicle. Two days later, on January 18th. a First Theatre performance is held in the Vilna Ghetto. On January 20th. The Wannsee Conference is convened and Hitler now ensures all arms of the Reich, all Government Agency's and the wider German public are signed up to The Final Solution and Heydrich will outline Plans to Annihilate 11,293,300 Jews! On January 21st. the United Partisan Organisation is established in Vilna and on January 23rd. 1,500 of Novi Sad’s Jews are murdered and thrown into the Danube River. Also, Hitler met with over 50 High Ranking Nazi officials to no doubt approve and commission the 3 Death Camps at Belzec, which commenced its work, March 17th, the Death Camp at Sobibor, where mass murder commenced in May and at the Death Camp Treblinka, where the destruction of the Jews began on July 22nd. This certainly suggests that all of this was a final resolve that had now become Hitler’s Final Solution of the Jewish Question, die Endlosung der Judenfrage.
"..One must act radically. ..Jews must clear out. ..if they refuse to go voluntarily ..no other solution but extermination." Adolf Hitler.
On January 24th. 400 of Kolomyia’s Jews are murdered and the following day, January 25th., Hitler once more states his intention to exterminate the Jews. There should be no confusion over Hitler’s terms of reference. Memo’s from der Einsatzgruppe had been landing on his desk since the launch of Barbarossa, June 22nd. 1941, detailing the wholesale slaughter undertaken by Hitler’s units of Murderer’s. Jus to convince the rabid audience, on January 30th. Hitler reaffirms his aim to completely annihilate the Jews, which by the following day, January 31st. SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Stahlecker's 'Einsatzgruppe A' report has confirmed for Hitler his immediate wish with the liquidation of 229,052 Baltic Jews.
Saturday January 31st. 1942 "..According to ..orders of establishing basic principles to be followed ..systematic purge operations in ..Ostland, including ..elimination ..as completely as possible of Jewry." SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Walter Stahlecker.
On January 4th. 1943 the Czestochowa Ghetto Uprising and the following day, January 5th. the reprisals against the Jews of Czestochowa sees 250 Elderly Jews and Jewish Children shot. On January 6th. 2,000 of Ujazd’s Jews are murdered at Treblinka followed by, on January 7th. 15,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered in a 2 day action. Also, 4,000 of Augustow’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz. On January 9th. of 8,000 Warsaw’s Jews are ordered toward a final 'resettlement.' Meanwhile, the 'German People's Winter Aid Campaign' wrote to the German administration of the Lodz Ghetto complaining that a part of the clothing sent from Chelmno was marked with 'The Jewish Badge'. On January 12th. 20,000 of Zambrow’s Jews are deported Auschwitz.
1,000 Berlin Jews deported Auschwitz.
Wednesday January 13th. 1943. "..Day and night ..dragged off. ..deprived ..of ..possessions. Families ..torn apart ..all ..separated. Children coming home ..find ..their parents have disappeared. Women return ..to find ..their families gone." Anne Frank.
On January 14th. 8,000 Lomza Jews deported Auschwitz and on January 18th. 6,000 more of the Warsaw Ghetto Jews are murdered at Treblinka. Meanwhile, Jewish Resistance plans to disrupt 'resettlement' operations as 1,000 Jews are murdered after Resisting. This is the 1st. Jewish Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto a resistance which lasts for 4 days. On January 20th. Jews from Theresienstadt are again expelled toward Auschwitz. On January 21st. the 'January Aktion' of Resistance of the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto ends. On January 25th. 2,120 of Jasionowka’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz. The following day, on January 26th. 1,000 of Stanislawow’s Jews are murdered. Elsewhere a week long Transport of 5,000 Jews from Theresienstadt are ‘resettled’ to Auschwitz. On January 27th. 1,300 of Grodek Jagiellonski’s Jews are murdered and the following day, January 28th., 12,000 of Pruzana’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz. On January 29th. 4,000 Dutch Jews from Westerbork are sent to Auschwitz and 1,000 Berlin Jews too are deported to Auschwitz as an RSHA Directive establishes the Gypsy Camp in Birkenau.
Friday January 29th. 1943 "..completed furnaces have been started up in ..presence of Engineer Prufer ..Topf. ..planks cannot yet be moved from ..ceiling of ..mortuary cellar on account of frost ..but this is not important ..as ..gassing cellar can be used for that purpose. ..ventilation plant has been held up by restrictions on rail transport ..but ..installation should be ready by February 20th." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Karl Bischoff.
On January 6th. 1944 Jewish Partisan activity escalates and on January 12th. 1,000 Jews from the Stutthof Camp are sent to Auschwitz as are 95 of Lodz’s Jews and 23 of Trieste’s Jews. On January 16th. Tuczyn (Tuchin) is Liberated with 20 of the original 3,000 Jews left to Survive. On January 17th. over 400 of Malines’s Jews are ‘resettled’ to Auschwitz and the following day, January 18th. a further 300 of Buczacz’s Jews are murdered. On January 20th. over 1,000 Parisian Jews from Drancy are sent to Auschwitz. Tragically, as January 25th. is reached, we are forced to realise that about 100,000 Jews remain alive in the General Gouvernment. This represents some 3,400,000 of Poland’s Jews of the General Gouvernment having been Murdered within a 3 year period. On January 27th. over 680 Dutch Jews from Westerbork are sent to Auschwitz and on January 30th. 1944 over 560 of Milan’s Jews are ‘resettled’ to Auschwitz.
On January 6th. 1945 Edith Frank died in Birkenau and Roza Robota, Ella Gartner, Regina Safirsztain and Ester Wajcblum all Hanged in Auschwitz. On January 11th. the Russian forces are at Warsaw and on January 16th. Russian forces liberate 800 of Czestochowa’s Jewish Survivors. The following day, January 17th. Russian forces liberate Warsaw where more than 374,000 Jews of Warsaw were murdered. Too few of Warsaw’s Jews have Survived. On January 18th. Auschwitz Camp is being abandoned by the Nazi’s as The Death March begins with some 66,000 of these Auschwitz Survivors being moved toward Wodzislaw. Meanwhile Russian forces take Cracow with more than 7,000 Jews of Cracow who were eventually murdered adding to the 17,000 of Cracow’s Jews who are still missing. On January 19th. Russian forces liberate Lodz where more than 200,000 Lodz Jews were murdered with less than 900 of the Jewish community left to Survive. On January 20th. 4,200 Jews are shot in Birkenau as the SS Dynamite the remaining Krematoria in Birkenau. On January 25th. a Death March for Stutthof Camp Survivors begins. The following day, January 26th. the Budapest Ghetto is Liquidated.
On January 27th. Russian forces liberate the Auschwitz Camp and the Birkenau Death Camp. The remaining Jewish prisoners are liberated, along with many non-Jews all severely debilitated and many will not Survive these first moments of freedom. There are estimates as high as 2,500,000 Jews having been murdered at Auschwitz and Birkenau, though the accepted assessment accounts for more than 1,100,000 Murdered Jews alone, with Poles, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Citizens of so many nations interred within the Camp confines.
On January 4th. 1946 Colonel Telford Taylor makes the prosecution case for the Nuremberg Trials against the German High Command. His impressive performance will help secure his appointment as lead prosecutor in the subsequent Nuremberg trials. On January 8th. the prosecution at Nuremberg begins its case against the individual defendants. On January 28th. during the French phase of the prosecution, French journalist Marie Claude Vaillant-Courturier provides heart-wrenching eyewitness testimony of the atrocities at Auschwitz.
"..SS men and women who stood guard over us would beat us with cudgels and set their dogs on us. Many of our friends had their legs torn by ..dogs. I even saw a woman torn to pieces and die under my very eyes when Tauber ..a member of ..SS ..encouraged his dog to attack her and grinned at ..sight." Marie Claude Vaillant-Courturier.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, December 21, 2016 20:26:15
December in The Holocaust.
There are 6,000,000 Murdered Jews who have had their raised voices quashed and their call for Justice quelled. They have been Slaughtered and obliterated with little thought to their human integrity. For us in History it becomes a human duty to raise our own voices 6,000,000 times on their behalf so that History hears the plaintive cry of our own shock, horror and despair. I think it is imperative to think too, one of the most important Feasts in the Christian Calender that is Christmas Day, is also a day of the most concern for the Jews during this period. The anti-Jewish rhetoric is ramped up to such a degree, Jews would be fearful of being seen on all and any of the high Christian Holidays or Festivals.
On December 7th. 1924 the Nazi's lose 50% of their votes in Reichstag Elections and almost 2 years later on December 1st. 1926, Josef Goebbels becomes 'Gauleiter' of Berlin. On December 31st. 1930 the 'Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt' or RuSHA is established as the Nazi Racial Research Office. On December 1st. 1933 a legal decree issued by Hitler declares that Germany and the Nazi Party are one. Hermann Goering orders closure of all SA 'wild camps' and the Jewish Social Democratic politician Ernst Heilmann is arrested. Meanwhile the antisemitic Glaubensbewegung deutscher Christen (Movement of German Christian Believers) becomes the semiofficial religious organization of Germany and an antisemitic, anti-Communist organization, the Gesamtverband deutscher anti-kommunistischer Vereinigungen (General Association of German Anti-Communist Societies), is founded.
On December 31st. 1935, all remaining Jews employed within Germany's Civil Service are dismissed and the following year, on December 1st. 1936 The Hitler Youth is declared a State Agency. On December 27th. That same year, a non-intervention agreement between Britain and France abandons Spain to the throws of Franco. In a 2 year period up until the end of 1936, over 47,000 Polish Jews have fled their Country on account of some unsavoury anti-Jewish measures and responses with over 35,000 of them reaching Palestine. On December 14th. 1937 the Gypsy is declared an 'inveterate criminals' by Hitlerite decree. Ferenc Szalasi establishes the Fascist antisemitic Arrow Cross in Hungary. The first issue of The Jewish Question 'Die Judenfrage' is published in Germany and is edited by Georg Haller. Meanwhile, Poland investigates the possibility of deporting resident Jews to Madagascar as 'The Madagascar Plan' is first muted.
Later on, on December 28th. The Romanian Government of Goga-Cuza is the first government that introduced antisemitism as state policy. Of the over 8,800 Polish Jews who managed to flee Poland this year alone, over 2,800 of them manage to reach Palestine. The following year, on December 3rd. 1938 all Jews within Germany lose their Driving Licenses as Jewish industrial enterprises and businesses expropriated under compulsory purchase orders seeing Jews being wholly diminished in the German economy. On December 6th. A nonaggression pact between Germany and France is signed. On December 12th. the Neuengamme Concentration Camp opens and there is a
$400,000,000 fine levied against German Jews for the Kristallnacht destruction that had been railed against them.
On December 14th. Hermann Goering is given charge of die Endlosung der Judenfrage, 'The Jewish Question.' On December 24th. Many leading American clergy come together to issue a resolution protesting at the events of 'Kristallnacht'. By the end of the year more than 200,000 of the 500,000 Jews who had been in the German 1933 Census had emigrated with over 9,000 Jews who fled to Poland while over 2,000 of them actually reached Palestine. On December 1st. 1939 1,800 Chelm Jews are expelled toward Luck as 1,400 of these Chelm Jews are murdered by Wehrmacht troops. 200 Hrubieszow Jews are force marched to Sokal and many of them die enroute. On December 2nd. There is the first use of gassing vans for the elimination of mental patients. On December 5th. All Jewish property in Poland is seized.
On December 6th. Britain admonishes the Bulgarian Government over its transit policy for Jews fleeing to Palestine and on December 11th. all Jews in Poland must now seek permission to change their address. On December 12th. all Jewish males aged between 14 and 60 are subject to forced labour and have to do 2 years of service in Eastern Germany. Elsewhere Jews are expelled from Kalisz. On December 15th. it is decreed that Jewish Forced Labour be made 'free' to German interests. On December 18th. all Jewish valuables to be declared in Poland and 2 days later on December 20th. the Radomsko Ghetto in Poland is established with 18,500 Jews being Enclosed. On December 30th. 1,210 refugee Jews aboard the Uranus are prevented from going on to Palestine. Over the past 6 years more than 1,400 individual anti-Jewish measures are enacted in Germany alone. On December 10th. 1940 Himmler convenes a meeting of Higher Nazi officials and Gauleiters in Berlin to discuss the population transfer plan. This was still as yet a territorial consideration for The Jewish People!
"..By resettling ..Jews out of ..European economic area to a yet to be determined territory. In ..framework of this ..5,800,000 Jews will be affected." Adolf Eichmann.
On December 12th. The Salvador sinks killing 200 Jewish refugees and of these 70 of them are children. On December 17th. the Piotrkow Ghetto is struck by a typhus epidemic and on December 29th. the Glowno Ghetto in Poland is established with
3,000 Jews Enclosed. By the end of year 8,200 Jews of Lodz had died of starvation as SS Sturmbannfuhrer Herbert Lange has moved his entire Sonderkommando to Chelmno and with the completion of this Death Camp, Chelmno would be at the centre of the storm for Lodz Jews. This year sees some 27,000 Polish Jews still manage to emigrate to Palestine though illegally!
"..Today I can confirm that our objective ..to solve ..Jewish problem for Lithuania ..has been achieved by EK 3. In Lithuania there are no more Jews ..apart from Jewish workers and their families. ..distance between ..assembly point to ..graves ..on average 4 to 5 klms." SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
On December 1st. 1941 1,200 Stuttgart Jews are removed to Riga and they too will find their way to Rumbuli for annihilation. As the Jaeger Report states that 85% of all Lithuanian Jews have already been murdered, the Jews of Lithuania are under an increased threat. This report amounts to an assessment that some 137,366 individual Lithuanian Jews who are now dead, deceased and are Murdered.
Thursday December 4th. 1941 "..10's of 1,000's of Jews from abroad were brought here. I saw them walking with their suitcases ..many of them well dressed. Young men and women in good spirits ..relaxed. They observe everything around them. They look at our city with curiosity. They were told that they were brought to work and were ordered to bring their best clothing with them. Afterwards they were murdered at ..Ninth Fort. It was said that these young people had no suspicions of anything bad happening to them and they even danced in ..evenings. On ..following day ..they were taken in groups of 50 and shot. Lithuania earned ..label 'cemetery of ..European Jews'." Helena Kutergiene-Buividaite.
On December 4th. 2,500 of Gorodenka’s Jews are murdered and the following day, on
December 5th. the first truck transports of Jews are delivered to the Chelmno Death Camp abd 2 days later on December 7th. the Chelmno Death Camp's Extermination operations begin. 700 of Kolo’s Jews are the first victims at Chelmno as they are gassed and confined to eternity here at Chelmno. Meanwhile the Second 'Aktionen' of the remaining Riga Ghetto Jews takes place and they are all murdered into the prepared pits within the Rumbuli Forest. On December 8th. of 4,000 Novogrudok’s Jews murdered as 2,300 Jews are murdered at Chelmno with the introduction of 'gassing vans' to murder the Jews expelled here. The remaining Jews of Belgrade are ordered to report for 'resettlement' as the final stages of Riga Jewish murders in Rumbuli is reached. On December 9th. 25,000 Latvian Jews were murdered in the Rumbuli Forest in a 3 day operation. More than 38,000 Jews will be murdered here. The Wannsee Conference is postponed.
On December 10th. 1,757 Jews of Turek are Murdered at Chelmno and the following day, on December 11th. Germany and Italy declare war on America with America reciprocating by declaring war on both Germany and Italy. Meanwhile the Lutsk Ghetto is established and 18,000 Jews are to be enclosed. On December 12th. Hitler discusses the complete annihilation of European Jewry with some fifty of the leadership of his Reich. In his private rooms, Hitler spoke in lieu of The Wannsee Conference of what he expected would inmplicate all levels of Reich Admisistration in the completion of The Final Solution we recognise is The Holocaust:
Friday December 12th. 1941 "..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. ..world war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives." Adolf Hitler.
That same day the Baranovichi Ghetto in Poland is established and 10,000 Jews will be enclosed. On December 13th. 14,000 of Simferopol’s Jews are murdered in a 3 day period while the remaining 6 Jews of Warendorf are deported toward Riga and are murdered. Meanwhile, Hitler’s axis partners, Hungary and Bulgaria both declare War on America. On December 14th. the Kharkov Ghetto in the Ukraine is established and 21,000 Jews will be enclosed. The following day on December 15th. It is enshrined that the Jews are to receive no inducement for any extra hours work that is to be demanded of them.
I am trying to resolve an issue in relation to Shkeden. Some say it was an SD Oberscharfuhrer Sobeck who took these pictures and that it was a naval officer Hans Kawelmacher who conducted the operations. The dispute lies in the period of the aktionen though, whether it was in July or the December aktionen. Andrievs Ezergailis is better equipped to have known and detailed both these x2 separate actions! His study on The Holocaust in Latvia is exemplary.
On December 16th. some 3,000 of Liepaja's (Libau) Jews were murdered at the start of 2 day operation on the beaches of Skeden. This 'Dezember-Aktionen' (December Action) is watched by scores of Wehrmacht personnel, Civilians and a motley crew of mawkish observers. These are the remnants of Liepaja’s previous community of over 7,000 Jewish Citizens, Men, Women and Their Children. Of the major actions here in July and December barely 30 Jewish Liepajan’s Survived. There is surviving evidence of an entire action that was conducted here by a German Wehrmacht soldier on July 18th. 1941, that was filmed and photographed surreptitiously.
Elsewhere, some 3,500,000 Jews are now governed by Hans Frank, according to his own diary entry and Frank fully informs his associates of Hitler's intentions for the Jewish People. The Federation of the Union of the Jewish Communities in Romania is dissolved and the Jewish Central Committee for Romania is established. On December 17th. Father Pietro Venturi notified the Papal Secretary of State, Cardinal Luigi Maglione of the huge concerns over the fate of Austrian Jewry.
Wednesday December 17th. 1941 "..on ..point of being sent from Vienna to die in a concentration camp in Poland." Father Pietro Venturi.
On December 21st. And over the coming 4 weeks, the Massacre of the Jews from Bogdanovka Camp begins. The following day December 22nd. over 32,000 of Vilna’s Jews have been murdered and 1,000 of Zablotov’s Jews are murdered. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Christian Wirth arrived in Belzec to inspect the construction of the Death Camp. On December 27th. Knowledge of 'gassing van' operations at Chelmno reaches Izbica Lubelska and 2 days later on December 29th. an initial T4 team arrives for duty at Belzec. On December 30th. over 50,000 Jews at Bogdanovka are murdered over a 10 day period and 10,000 Jews of Simferopol are murdered.
Meanwhile, Eichmann with a team of SS officials Hermann Hofle incuded, inspected the area of Belzec with Christian Wirth. This is significant in that Eichmann is in the midst of the Death Camp system and this is just prior to The Wannsee Conference. On December 31st. Jewish Armed Resistance is being prepared in Vilna and a report is sent to SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr. Fritz Dietrich, Police commander for the Libau area, that some 2,731 Jews of Libau have been murdered on the beaches of Skeden.
"..Ponar is not a ..Camp. Jews ..shot there. Hitler plans to destroy all ..Jews of Europe ..Jews of Lithuania ..first in line. ..We must not go like sheep to ..slaughter!" Abba Kovner.
By end of this 1941 year, 16,000 German Jews have been deported to Riga. Over the Winter period, 1,000's of Jews interned in Transnistria are Killed. Starvation, the bitter cold, sickness all add to the Transnistrian devastation for the Jews there. The following year on December 1st. 1942 400 of Karczew’s Jews are murdered as are 1,000 of Plonsk’s Jews who are murdered in Birkenau on December 2nd. On December 3rd. Members of the Birkenau Sonderkommano shot as a reprisal for a planned revolt against their tormentors. On December 4th. the Jewish Aid Council, 'Zegota' is established. On December 8th. 1,250 of Rohatyn’s Jews are murdered. 3 Jews, Herzl Kawa, Hersch Liverant and Moschk Nelkenbaum escape from a Treblinka Transport taking them from Siedlce. They escaped toward Brenner and were caught and interned in Ferramonti Camp, Italy.
Tuesday December 8th. 1942 "..Already almost 2,000,000 Jews ..Men ..Women ..Children ..have been cruelly done to death ..5,000,000 more Jews live under ..threat of a similar doom." Maurice Wertheim, Rabbi Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Henry Monsky, Adolph Held, Israel Goldstein and Rabbi Israel Rosenberg.
On the World stage Rabbi Wise compose a memorandum on the destruction of European Jewry and with a clear indicator that more Jews are under threat. Rabbi wise now meets with President Roosevelt to discuss the plight of European Jewry. On December 10th. 1st. a transport of German Jews arrives at Auschwitz as the Polish Government in Exile asks the Allied nations to retaliate against Hitler and his axis collaborators for the Nazi murders taking place.
Thursday December 10th 1942 "..For those in Germany who let themselves be misused as tools of ..systematic extermination of snother race with full awareness of of what they are doing ..there will be no room in ..new postwar world. For such people there can be nothing but extermination. ..members of ..SS and all others ,,participating in ..planning ..implementation of ..Nazi policy of exterminating ..Jews should take note of this." The BBC.
On December 11th. with the last transport of Jews arriving at Belzec, Globocnik is ready to call time on the killing operations here as the Belzec Death Camp is now officially Closed with estimates as high as 1,250,000 Jews having been murdered here at Belzec, as part of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camp system. On December 12th. 2,000 of Czerwinsk’s Jews are murdered as Jewish Resistance at Lutsk is crushed where more than 15,000 Lutsk Jews will be eventually murdered. On December 17th. the Baranovichi Ghetto is Liquidated and 3,000 of its Jews are murdered. Meanwhile the
Allied nations condemn the extermination of the Jews with a pledge by America, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, French National Committee, Greece, Holland, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Russia and Yugoslavia that not only do they officially condemn the Nazi's bu they will resort to punish this:
"..bestial policy of cold blooded extermination."
On December 19th. 3,000 of Dworzec’s Jews are murdered after intitial efforts at Resisting are crushed. Over 560 Jews are murdered in the Rakow Forest. On December 23rd. there is an effort of Jewish Resistance in Cracow.
Sunday December 27th. 1942 "..here ..where comfort lures people into ..camp of ..mighty ..it is of no interest to history. ..Holocaust will steal its way into world history." Zelig Kalmanovich.
Zelig Kalmanovich writes from the depths of the Vilna Ghetto, which is still struggling to remain viable. In the midst of this particular maelstrom, the Germans are determined to ensure that the Jews from here are totally obliterated and their presence is no longer to be felt in the World. But history has been told of these events and The Holocaust has presented to the World the worst of what Man can do to his fellow Man. To this day the Jews prevail and we make strenuous efforts to Remember them and stand stoicly to accuse those who perpetrated these crimes! On December 28th. Dr. Carl Clauberg begins his sterilization 'experiments' at Auschwitz and on December 30th. Pope Pius XII remarks upon atrocity's against Jews as 'propaganda exaggerations.' On December 31st. more than 2,000,000 Jews have already been murdered in the Death Camps alone as the Einsatzgruppe and Police Battalions have more thatn added to this figure? The Dachau Concentration Camp have a Gas Chamber and Crematorium installed while a concentration camp is established at Riga and a Labor Camp is attached to the Vilna Ghetto. On December 6th. 1943 over 200 Jews from Milan and Verona were transported to Auschwitz.
Tuesday December 7th. 1943 "..people tell me ..your children are still young ..they’ll cope ..they’ll stand up to it. ..I told them ..They wont stand up to a bullet in ..neck. ..In Kiev they massacred 20,000 Jews. Feodosia ..Crimea ..12,000 in a single night." Helene Berr.
On December 10th. Jews of Lippstadt are ordered out of their homes. On December 11th. the Red Cross visits Romanian Jews who were deported to Transniestria.
Monday December 13th. 1943 "..Objectively ..it seems to me we are ..last shovelful ..we won't slip through ..net. ..not many Jews left in Paris ..we don't have much prospect of keeping out of ..way ..we won't be tipped off. Subjectively ..time had finally come for each of us to look for our places of safety. ..I stay on in full awareness of what may happen ..it is a conscious choice. ..why did I make that choice. ..if I ..abandoned my official life ..it would feel like ..defecting. ..I'm well aware that nobody in ..family if left behind ..would have ..resolve in ..face of danger. ..seperation will be atrociously painful for all of us ..above and beyond ..fact of being deported. ..If anyone reads these words after it has happened ..will be struck ..and ..ask ..How could you have done nothing. ..my worries are not about me. ..Should we abandon everything ..when it's quite possible ..nothing will happen at all." Helene Berr.
On December 13th. Jews of Lippstadt are 'resettled' to Riga as Rumbuli awaits them. On December 14th. 200 of Drohobycz’s Jews are murdered and the following day, December 15th. over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt are transported to Auschwitz. Meanwhile the first trial of German war criminals takes place in the City of Kharkov. On December 18th. over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt are transported to Auschwitz and the following day, December 19th. the first trial of German war criminals in Kharkov ends.
Wednesday 22nd. December 1943 "..Maman told me ..Andre Baur ..his Wife ..deported ..with their four small Children. It haunts me. ..so certain they would not be taken ..at Christmas ..making trees for what is a Children's holiday ..made me grieve so much."" Helene Berr.
On December 23rd. Sess the end to the Red Cross mission to Transniestria.
Wednesday 29th. December 1943. "..I have not enough faith in God. ..only thing to do is to pray that God will ..save some of them." Anne Frank.
Friday December 31st. 1943 "When I write ..word Jew ..I am not saying exactly what I mean ..for me that distinction does not exist ..I do not feel different from other people ..I will never think of myself as a member of a separate human group. ..I suffer from ..sight of evil falling upon humanity." Helene Berr.
On December 6th. 1944 the Kasztner Jews, part of the deal Rudolf ‘Reszo’ Kasztner made with Eichmann, reach Switzerland. This train, with 1,685 Jews who were considered a privileged group of Jews, boarded a train that would take them out of harms way. These 1,685 Jews avoided the tenets of The Holocaust and reached the safety of Switzerland and Survived. Though these Jews were expected to pay a ransom of $1,000 each, totalling more than $1,600,000, for this reason these saved Jews were considered far too privileged by some. Dr. Kasztner, who paid for the drawing up of that list with his lifehadmanaged to deprive Hitler of 1,685 fewer Jews to add to his tally for The Holocaust. On December 13th. 1945 SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Joseph Kramer, Kommandant and Beast of Belsen is Hanged.
"..no feelings ..carrying out these things ..received an order...That..is..way I was trained." SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Josef Kramer.
On December 18th. 1945 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials prosecution team begins introducing evidence to prove the criminality of seven German organizations, the German High Command, the Gestapo, the leadership of the Nazi Party, the Reich Cabinet, the SA, the SD and the SS.
Monday December 9th. 1946 "..wrong to imagine ..top men of ..regime would have boasted of their crimes . ..nothing would ever be said about any sinister activities we might be up to." Reichsminister Albert Speer.
On December 9th. 1946 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 1, The Medical Doctors Case begins. Twenty Three Nazi physicians are charged with conducting inhuman experiments on German civilians and nationals of other countries. The experiments ranged from studying the effects of high altitude and malaria to sterilisation.
1) Luftwaffe Captain Hermann Becker-Freyseng, Sentenced to 20 years commuted to 10 years imprisonment.
2) Consulting Physician Wilhelm Beiglboeck to the Luftwaffe, 15 years commuted to 10 years imprisonment.
3) Reichsgesundheitsfuhrer Kurt Blome, Deputy Reich Health Leader, Acquitted.
4) SS Oberfuhrer Viktor Brack Waffen SS and Chief Administrative Officer in the Chancellery of the Fuhrer. Death Sentence.
5) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl Brandt Waffen SS Personal physician to Adolf Hitler, Death Sentence.
6) SS Standartenfuhrer Rudolf Brandt Personal Administrative Officer to Himmler. Death Sentence.
7) SS Sturmbannfuhrer Fritz Fischer Waffen SS. Assistant Physician to the defendant Karl Gebhardt. Life in prison, commuted to 15 years.
8) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl Gebhardt Waffen SS. Personal physician to Himmler. Death Sentence.
9) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl August Genzken Waffen SS. Chief of the Medical Department of the Waffen SS. Life in prison, commuted to 20 years.
10) Generaloberst Siegfried Handloser Medical Inspector of the Army and Chief of the Medical Services of the Armed Forces. Life in prisont, commuted to 20 years.
11) SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Waldemar Hoven Waffen SS. Chief Doctor Buchenwald Concentration Camp. Death Sentence.
12) SS Oberfuhrer Joachim Mrugowsky Waffen SS. Chief Hygienist of the Reich Physician SS and Police. Death Sentence.
13) Physician Herta Oberheuser at Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp. Assistant Physician to Karl Gebhardt. 20 years in prison, commuted to 10 years.
14) Physician Adolf Pokorny Specialist in Skin and Venereal Diseases. Acquitted.
15) SS Oberfuhrer Helmut Poppendick. Chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police. 10 years in prison. Served 4 years.
16) Doctor Hans Wolfgang Romberg. Staff of the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation. Acquitted.
17) Luftwaffe General Gerhard Rose. Medical Service of the Air Force. Life in prisont, commuted to 20 years.
18) Chief Surgeon Paul Rostock the Surgical Clinic in Berlin. Acquitted.
19) Luftwaffe First Lieutenant Siegfried Ruff. Director Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation. Acquitted.
20) Doctor Konrad Schaefer. Staff of Institute Aviation Medicine Berlin. Acquitted.
21) Luftwaffe Generaloberst Oskar Schroeder. Chief of Staff of the Inspectorate of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe. Life in prison, commuted to 15 years.
22) SS Standartenfuhrer Wolfram Sievers. Reich Manager of the Ahnenerbe Society and Director of its Institute for Military Scientific Research. Death Sentence.
23) Luftwaffe Oberfeld Georg August Weltz. Medical Service Luftwaffe. Acquitted.
On December 4th. 1947 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 3, The Justice Trial concludes. Ten defendants, officials in the Reich Ministry of Justice and Judges of the People's and Special Courts are convicted. Four are acquitted, one declared unfit for trial, one died before the verdict was given.
1) Josef Altstoetter sentenced to 5 years,
2) Wilhelm von Ammon sentenced to 10 years,
3) Paul Barnickel acquitted,
4) Hermann Cuhorst acquitted,
5) Karl Engert due to ill health acquitted,
6) Gunther Joel sentenced to 10 years,
7) Herbert Klemm sentenced to life commuted to 20 years, 8) Ernst Lautz sentenced to 10 years,
9) Wolfgang Mettgenberg sentenced to 10 years,
10) Gunther Nebelung acquitted,
11) Rudolf Oeschey sentenced to life commuted to 20 years,
12) Hans Petersen acquitted,
13) Oswald Rothaug sentenced to life commuted to 20 years,
14) Curt Rothenberger sentenced to 7 years,
15) Franz Schlegelberger sentenced to life, served 2 years, and
16) Carl Westphal committed suicide prior to trial.
December 8th. 1947 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 10, The Krupp Case, begins. Alfred Krupp and Eleven other defendants, all members of the Krupp Industrial Group, are charged with Human enslavement and other war crimes. They are also charged in connection with the plundering of public and private property.
1) Friedrich von Blow sentenced to 12 years,
2) Karl Adolf Ferdinand Eberhardt sentenced to 9 years,
3) Eduard Houdremont sentenced to 10 years,
4) Max Otto Ihn sentenced to 9 years,
5) Friedrich Wilhelm Janssen sentenced to 10 years,
6) Heinrich Leo Korschan sentenced to 6 years,
7) Alfred Krupp sentenced to 12 years, served 3 years,
8) Hans Albert Gustav Kupke sentenced to 34 months,
9) Werner Wilhelm Heinrich Lehmann sentenced to 6 years,
10) Ewald Oskar Ludwig Loser sentenced to 7 years,
11) Erich Muller sentenced to 12 years, and
12) Karl Heinrich Pfirsch found not guilty and acquitted.
On December 22nd. 1947 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 5 ends. Three defendants, including Flick, are convicted and sentenced to varying terms of imprisonment. Three are acquitted.
1) Odilo Burkart acquitted,
2) Friedrich Flick sentenced to 7 years,
3) Konrad Kaletsch acquitted,
4) Otto Steinbrinck sentenced to 5 years,
5) Hermann Terberger acquitted, and
6) Bernhard Weiss sentenced to 30 months.
On December 2nd. 1959 SS Untersturmfuhrer Kurt Hubert Franz, former Treblinka Camp Kommandant is arrested.
On December 15th. 1961 a verdict of Guilty is passed on Adolf Eichmann and he is sentenced to hang!
On December 20th. 1963 The Auschwitz Trial opens in Frankfurt.