This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This blog describes my thoughts and experiences in visiting Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek and Sobibor and Anne Frank's House from 2014 to 2018

I blogged my preparations for my visit, I posted daily during my visit to Poland...there are also my ongoing thoughts posted here; in the aftermath of my visit...
(Please note due to the sensitive nature of this blog, and the prevalence of trolls, comments have been blocked)

The Holocaust is not Novel.

ReflectionsPosted by P.A. Draigh Thu, December 13, 2018 20:39:15

"..More than once ..I've snapped at Mother. ..Why don't you just wash your hands of me. ..I'm a hopeless case." Anne Frank. Saturday January 30th. 1943.

We have a committed remit with History to recall with integrity what has occurred, what has transpired and what has taken place. As to what a tattooed fragment of a pyjama presents, we cannot estimate this if we might well lose sight of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews. Such reading material, more novel than history, does not have a place in the context of The Holocaust which seeks to reveal the overall tragedy. For that reason, we simply must not plagiarise from Hitler's clear intention to annihilate the entirety of the Jewish World. For words to merely satiate a narrative so clearly undefined along the margins of the catastrophe is disingenuous to those Jews of this immense loss.

"..Why am I here. ..Because I am a Jew. ..Why am I telling you this. Because there are those who do not wish for my existence to be Remembered. Because I am a Jew. Because We are Jews. Because I am 4 years old. There is a Memorial plaque which recognises my existence but I would still have liked to have become a Person. A grown up. Please Always Remember Me. Never Forget I am Albert Finkelstein." Albert Finkelstein.

While the continuous predicament for European Jewry grew, Jews became more acutely aware of the hopelessness of their own worsening situation. Whether this awareness grew immediately from the resounding rhetoric of Hitler's 1920's speeches or from the burgeoning detail of the atrocity railed against the Jews of Germany, then Austria and the Czech lands throughout the 1930's, The Holocaust itslef fully emerged prior to History's giving of its accepted term. As Hitler's clear and Final Solution of the Jewish Question was delivered to the broader Reich, the broadest element of the Reich itself took to it and delivered a cataclysmic resolve which has 6,000,000 Jews interred, confined to spaces no longer known to History, let alone to the Jews who wish to remember the passing of their People.

"..I don't know secret for long life. I believe that everything is determined from above and we shall never know ..reasons why. There have been smarter ..stronger ..better looking men then me who are no longer alive. All that is left for us to do is to keep on working as hard as we can and rebuild what is lost." Yisrael Kristal.

The destructive reality of what Hitler had envisaged came far too late for all too many of these Jews of Europe, given a hopeless choice which clearly did not exist to live past Hitler's intention to deprive them of life itself. Perceptibly, this suggestion of hopelessness is brought into life again and even in novel form it appears so as to transfix these Jews in time. In one such novel, there is that same symmetry between Anne Frank and where a writer details a life within the space of the atrocity and where bruno berates us with the sending away of gretel. Here, because she too was to be considered:

"..a Hopeless case." striped pyjamas. 2006.

we have an historical relevance from Anne Frank's very own Diary to borrow from. For anyone concerned with the full tenets of The Holocaust, or any of its sprawling aspects, its full certainty is neither open to debate nor delivered toward any contention. Nor should The Holocaust be positioned in any interpretation other than the occurrence of its factual nature. Perhaps some novel lessons are carefully contrived though, so by the time themes are adopted or words become borne by a newer narrative, we are moved toward an understanding along that very same road toward where we need to know and comprehend its fullest range of hate and atrocity. Here, where the Jewish People are met with rage and annihilation, there is little room for other than the positive aspects of research to give them a more meaningful place of respect.

"..I find myself standing at ..gates of Auschwitz. For it was there that my great-grandparents ..Moshe and Tzirel Herman ..and Yekusiel and Rivka Plattner ..were murdered ..leaving behind no graves at which to pray and meditate ..merely a few nameless fragments of bone and ash that have long since been swallowed by of that cursed ..hallowed place." Suri Cohen.

The Holocaust is in fact a hallowed space, a place so attached to the Memory of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, which manages still to live on, we cannot bar its way with deflection. We know that the lesson from the striped pyjamas was so ill learned by too many, as it is interpreted so wrongly that it becomes contentious to Jewish Memory. In the gassing of the kommandants Son, it was not damning enough of the extermination process as a whole, and became an opening to the interpretation which saw the gassing of that one individual Child as a singular wrong and not as a collective affront to our humanity. As the terror grips those inside, we should be fixed on the idea that our entire civilisation is exploding before our eyes and atrocity is the precursor to what will inevitably drive this World forward

"..reacting to something that has exploded on ..national conscience ..The Holocaust." Raul Hilberg.

But this illegitimacy over the over use of The Holocaust as a term of reference for anyone seeking to re-read the writings of those who Survived, those who certainly did not Survive or even those who have left us with a void in relation to their eternal presence in the catastrophe, this must not be confused by musings over narratives. This essential need to bring forth the memory of those whose own memory in extent within the destruction cannot be contrived to present an image which is illusionary. What is even more provocative, so as to strengthen the continuing causal debate over all and any accusation is this misuse of these Jews as an exercise in plaintive terms, unrelated to the truly shocking detail which consumed them. Certainly we accept the accusation of the personnel involved must fully extend to all those who remain complicit in the atrocity, but in terms which mark the destruction conducted by those responsible.

"..There is much to be done ..there is much that can be done. One person ..a Raoul Wallenberg Albert Schweitzer person of integrity ..can make a difference ..a difference of life and death. As long as one dissident is in prison ..our freedom will not be true. As long as one child is hungry ..our lives will be filled with anguish and shame. What all these victims need above all is to know that they are not alone ..that we are not forgetting them ..that when their voices are stifled we shall lend them ours ..that while their freedom depends on ours ..quality of our freedom depends on theirs." Elie Wiesel.

The accusation of History must especially apply to all of those duplicitous in any way and for those others both seeking to diminish or desensitise The Holocaust relevance. As a reminder too of what we have lost, we must protect the names of some 4,700,000 of these Murdered Jews and hopefully we will lead on toward knowing who all 6,000,000 Murdered Jews are. Elie Wiesel informed me personally, that I must not enter into this arena with other than the factual integrity inherent in the Truth of the Slaughter. So with that in mind, all x4 of my Books I hope and feel, were born with truth, honesty and an integrity belonging to 6,000,000 Murdered Jews. However, and for there is still a narrative discourse which might still overlay itself the crime of BabiYar, and this has halted a work of mine as it causes me concerns.

"..We had different measures of time ..we different ones. ..because of our difference were condemned once again." Ida Fink.

As I struggle with the evocative horror of The Holocaust in general and here at BabiYar in particular, away from those being different for my own difference, I am mindful of what separated those declared different and for murderous intentions. Attached to an historic resonance, the detail of the the Slaughter process can always be added to. Here too, and while I balk at the mere mention of wilkomirski, a fragment of whose integrity is totally debased, and I have no wish to relay the deviant nature of the words it contains, I am using words which will afford memory a more concerted promise than false words, biased words or lies. The truth is the only evocation that will ensure the finality for the existence of these 6,000,000 Jews is deep in meaning and relevant to us taking this World forward.

"..A good hearted female doctor was trying to hide my Child ..Mengele found her without effort. Eva's feet were full of sore wounds. ..He transported his human material to ..Krematorium on yellow colored trucks." Agnes Zsolt.

What any such works adds to the broadening struggle to remember must surely condemn the lies of those who demean the very nature of an intolerable evil done against innocent People for being Jewish People. So for me, to ensure the regularity and consistency of the truth is maintained, all factual relevance must be truthfully correct. Agreed, I borrow words which present meaning to the missing from those who save the memory of those they have truly lost. I am much identified with a curious derision for being outside the wounded of Judaism, whose suffering is spelled out harmfully, but with no desire to issue any further harm. But for those who know Eva Heyman's last moments were directed by one such as Mengele, I feel the pain, I too feel the anger and I too am shamed that this could be done.

"..I was ..not telling ..story of ..Holocaust ..but a Holocaust story ..Lale and Gita Sokolov's story." tatooist. 2018.

Of course there are victories to be had, and the story of Lale Sokolov and Gisela Furman is indeed one of those. It is as a love story borne out of the misery of Auschwitz that hope can still be instilled and even gained. Here, even in Auschwitz and Birkenau, in fact in all x6 Death Camps in Poland, simple choices could still be made. Even though any choice at all was to be made as directed within those given parameters left over from the destructive intention, the intention to destroy was never negated. That intention too was written in the form of a tattoo which limited the extended life of those Jews of Auschwitz. Here, for Jews whose furlow there was always ahead of the antechamber to Birkenau's destructive capacity, a choice to be made could never prevail over what had always been clearly intended for the Jews who entered here.

"..If you woke up and were alive was a good day." Lale Sokolov.

Hope was always a choice and love could be forged from that hopeful desire to Survive on what could still be perceived as a good day. However, what we might borrow then from The Holocaust is only ever pertinent to the factual truth and its integrity. This usage of the Catastrophe to embellish the narrative or alter the perception of its direction must not deviate the course of a principled study of research. We must always remain vigilant and consistent with what is always going to be missing from the pages of history and these are the 6,000,000 Jewish lives, Jewish Men, Jewish Women and Their Jewish Children. How one is supposed to relate the facts of this sudden impactful change upon their very existence is best left to those who can equate it with the terms of reference appropriate to what actually happened to them.

"..on July 12 th. 1942 at 3:00 am ..our lives changed forever. ..forced leave our apartment. ..only a few belongings ..we walked miles until we reached a truck depot. family and 1,000's of Jews were crammed on to trucks ..driven to ..Paris sports stadium ..spent several days without food and water. ..smell was horrific. No one knew what was going on." Cecile Kaufer.

Of course the intention of the fragmentary pyjama or tatooist novella must be mindful of that regard for a history which fully relies upon what truth seeks to Remember. For 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish Men, Women and Their Children consumed within an all too often expressed intention, dilution of that more than obvious intention is an intolerable affront to these 6,000,000 Jewish memories. Reference points in any narrative that suggests other than the final demand of Hitler was to destroy all Jews within Europe must not gain any source toward resonance. The ugly truth of a demand which sought out for Slaughter these Jewish People is unequivocal in its certainty and there is no need to distinguish words from that fact. The last word becmes the commencement of all regards The Holocaust, a body taken fro us who stands so tall in pointing us frward and in the right direction.

"..A bundle of contradictions was ..end of my previous letter and is ..beginning of this one." Anne Frank. Tuesday August 1st. 1944.

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Anne Frank

Revisiting the PastPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, November 26, 2018 13:25:04

"..I hope I will be able to confide everything to you I have never been able to confide in anyone ..and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support." Anne Frank.

I have been searching for the appropriate words to lend them toward some form of comprehension, not only for what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe but for what we allowed to become Their Holocaust. I want to write a piece too on my relationship with the words of Anne 'Annalies Marie' Frank. For me, and because Anne is so well known, I will write more about the loss of Anne Frank to her Family and to us all than perhaps a more obvious narrative on her life in our times. To that end I will add to my recent travels to the x6 Death Camps in Poland, established by Hitler for the Destruction of all of European Jewry. From amongst Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka and Auschwitz Birkenau, this final industrial scale murder facility, will house Anne Frank and Family and the other occupants of The Secret Annexe.

For a time, all remained to survive here, but a permanent place of Remembrance is reserved for both Edith Frank and Hermann van Pels. For me, between November 2nd. and November 4th. 2018 I will visit Anne Frank's last bolt hole of Survival, The Anne Frank Museum. As Anne, and her Family and Friends struggled with what was impacting upon the community of Jews of all Europe, their complete destruction, the four walls which detained them are a permanent Memorial to why hatred is wrong and why Humanity is more important than not. Today, not only does The Anne Frank House stand as a memorial to a Young Girl, who gifted us so much in learning from her of the values of the tolerances required of a generation that so cruelly abandoned them, it is for us to ensure the proper lessons are taken forward. As the hatred unfolds toward the Jews of Europe, the Jewish population of Amsterdam was approximately 80,000 as some pro Nazi Dutch welcomed Hitler's Invasion of the Netherland's, on May 10th. 1940.

"..When disaster happens slowly installments ..people have a tendency to accept each installment. ..This is what happened here. So I think we cannot afford to stay silent and just hope for" Rabbi Binyomin Jacobs.

The previous declaration of neutrality, as Hitler struck at Poland September 1st. 1939 could not now save the Netherlands. Hitler's orders to invade the Country, and the subsequent and devastating assault upon Rotterdam on May 13th. 1940 brought the City to its knees and was followed by the Netherlands complete capitulation the following day, May 14th.1940. With the Dutch forces in disarray, they surrendered as the government and the Dutch Royal Family fled to London, and so abandoning all responsibility for its People. The whole of Holland, the Netherlands, was still home to more than 160,000 Jews, many of these refugees from Hitler's Jewish persecution in Germany, Austria and Poland and of these 106,000 Jews would never see the end of Hitler's War.

My visit to Amsterdam, and my purpoe in visiting The Anne Frank House, was fortuitous in many ways. Across the road from the Westerkerk, this church is located to the side of the Anne Frank House, I stayed in a Hotel within earshot of the same sounds which kept Anne somewhat occupied for some of those 2 years in hiding. Here, where Anne listened to these same chimes, and looked out onto the clock face on the Westertoren I could see for myself, I could walk past it and know, Anne too had been here. From the attic of the Secret Annexe, she noted in her Diary on July 11th. 1942 and wrote:

Saturday July 11th. 1942

"..Dearest Kitty ..Father ..Mother ..Margot still can't get used to ..chiming of ..Westertoren clock ..which tells us ..time every quarter of an hour. Not me ..I liked it from ..start sounds so reassuring ..especially at night. You no doubt want to hear what I think of being in hiding. Well ..all I can say is that I don't really know yet. I don't think I'll ever feel at home in this house ..but that doesn't mean I hate it. It's more like being on vacation in some strange pension. Kind of an odd way to look at life in hiding ..but that's how things are. ..Annex is an ideal place to hide in. It may be damp and lopsided ..but there's probably not a more comfortable hiding place in all of Amsterdam. No all of Holland. ..building on our right is a branch of ..Keg Company ..a firm from Zaandam ..and on ..left ..a furniture workshop. Though ..people who work there are not on ..premises after hours ..any sound we make might travel through ..walls. Someone's calling me. Yours." Anne.

Here too, alongside the spices Otto had imported were the Furniture and Keg makers plying their trades. Also, and from amongst these craftsmen are some of the 30 or so Diamond Exchange Centers that had existed for the World of Diamonds. Within Amsterdam, which was the oldest Exchange Centre for the trade in Diamonds right up until Hitler's intervention into the Netherlands, much of this particular trade has now been lost. Clearly, and due to the pertinent fact that most of the Diamond industry was conducted by Jewish workers, cutters and traders, the Jewish decimation in The Holocaust signalled, not only their loss of life, but was as significantly marked as it ensured their trading presence fell into such a sharp decline. Such loss though, still managed to secure for Hitler's coffers, a vast enrichment with the confiscation of all Diamonds.

Not just these, but their material worth in land, assets, monies and all gains from all and any Jewish enterprise encountered was to be confiscated. It is ironic though, that when you stand in a space the size of an average room and try and imagine how these 8 Jewish People could live, cramped up for nearly two years, there is no sense of how it was possible to be gained. However, from July 6th. 1942 until August 4th. 1944, Anne Frank, her Sister Margot Frank, Parents Edith Frank and Otto Frank and Auguste van Pels, Hermann van Pels, Peter van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer, all cohabited a space less fit for a Family of 4. Such is that space it is hard to imagine such a Family's trouble with the limited accomodation, let alone the tighter control exacted with an intrusion of 4 other hidden Jews. But Human kindness found its way into the darkest of difficult times and Otto's express wish to help, assist and cooperate with these 4 others, is a marvel of compassion.

Monday November 2nd. 1942

"..Dear Kitty ..Bep stayed with us Friday evening. It was fun ..but she didn't sleep very well because she'd drunk some wine. For ..there's nothing special to report. I had an awful headache yesterday and went to bed early. Margot's being exasperating again. This morning I began sorting out an index card file from ..because it'd fallen over and gotten all mixed up. Before long I was going nuts. I asked Margot and Peter to help ..but they were too lazy I put it away. I'm not crazy enough to do it all by myself." Anne Frank.

There are modest comic touches in what Anne can deliver and with Anne's deprecation of her own impatience, we can begin to see such a warm and gentle soul emerging. What with her mixing with the excesses of survival's greatest trick, managing to stay alert and not go nuts, Anne is somewhat gifted with an ability to make things seem somehow ordinary. It must never be forgotten though, tht in these x2 years of incarceration, nothing can be remotely declared as being in the slightest bit ordinary. Even the light through the windows hid a route in whch gave a spy or a collaborastor could catch a glimpse of another world hidden away from Hitler's express wish to harm all those inside. You stand in those closed in spaces and you cannot begin to visualise what was being enacted as tempers freyed and arguments aired themselves.

Thursday March 25th. 1943

"..Dearest Kitty ..Mother ..Father ..Margot and I were sitting quite pleasantly together last night when Peter suddenly came in and whispered in Father's ear. I caught ..words ..a barrel falling over in ..warehouse ..and ..someone fiddling with ..door. ..Margot heard it too ..but was trying to calm me down ..since I'd turned white as chalk and was extremely nervous. ..three of us waited while Father and Peter went downstairs. ..Once again we waited and waited ..but heard nothing. Finally we came to ..conclusion ..burglars had taken to their heels when they heard footsteps in an otherwise quiet building. ..problem now was ..chairs in ..private office ..were neatly grouped around ..tuned to England. If ..burglars had forced ..door and ..air raid wardens were to notice it and call ..police ..there could be very serious repercussions. ..Incidents like these are always accompanied by other disasters ..and this was no exception. ..Westertoren bells stopped chiming ..and I'd always found them so comforting. ..night had just begun ..we still weren't sure what to expect. ..somewhat reassured by ..fact ..between 8:15 when ..burglar had first entered ..building ..put our lives in jeopardy ..and 10:30 ..we hadn't heard a sound. ..more we thought about it ..less likely it seemed that a burglar would have forced a door so early in ..evening ..when there were still people out on ..streets. Besides occurred to us that ..warehouse manager at ..Keg Company ..might still have been at work. What with ..excitement and ..thin walls's easy to mistake ..sounds. ..your imagination often plays tricks on you in moments of danger. So we went to bed ..though not to sleep. Father ..Mother ..Mr. Dussel were awake most of ..night ..and I'm not exaggerating when I say that I hardly got a wink of sleep. Yours." Anne.

It goes without saying that the tension during the entire period would be even more heightened from time to time. Anne is often forthright in what she sees as near misses, as those misconceptions over what was happeneing outside came to haunt their innermost and hidden thoughts. Imagination is a great source of trickery to the minds eye which sees all manner of ailments in nothing more than a creaking floor or the wind through a crease in a roof tile. I am mindful of the renovation work that has been done to confer Museum status upon this Secret Annexe. But for me as I attempt to place Anne and the other's, either pacing the rooms or sitting still a panic looms again, I can still relate the sounds to previous endeavours for them to ignore their benign presence within their still cramped space.

Tuesday August 10th. 1943

"..Dearest Kitty ..We've all been a little confused this past week because our dearly beloved Westertoren bells have been carted off to be melted down for ..war we have no ..idea of ..exact time ..either night or day. I still have hopes that they'll come up with a substitute ..made of tin or copper or some such thing remind ..neighborhood of ..clock. ..Yours ..Anne." Anne Frank.

The chiming then of the carillon, the tuned bells in the Westertoren, the actual tower itself of this Westerkerk, was such a comfort for Anne. For me, and as I listened intently too, as I sought to imagine its delivery of a peace and soothing rendition to not just Anne, but perhaps to other's who might have been appraised on the passage of time and the nearness of liberation, I was in the pages of Anne's Diary recalling her exact words. However, for Anne, this source of comfort mocked an almost futile attempt by so many Jews to evade their own capture. For the sanctuary status of these church's, whether protestant or catholic as a whole, they mnaged not to share any greater indignation than what was demanded of a compassionate nor christian ethos. It is difficult for those whose own upbringing tught them the meaning of such compassion to know, it did not avail itself for those Jews, 106,000 of whom would be lost to the Netherlands in the grist mills of destruction that were Sobibor, Auschwitz and Birkenau.

Wednesday November 3rd. 1943

"..Dearest Kitty ..To take our minds off matters as well as to develop them ..Father ordered a catalog from a correspondence school. ..We've decided that from now on ..stove is going to be lit at 7:30 on Sunday mornings instead of 5:30. I think it's risky. What will ..neighbors think of our smoking chimney. ..same with ..curtains. Ever since we first went into hiding ..they've been tacked firmly to ..That's how every act of carelessness begins and ends. No one will notice one will hear one will pay ..least bit of attention. Yours." Anne.

We tend to forget at times the very simple detail of cautious awareness that can seem largely exagerated at times. But, be it a lit stove, or a curtain that flickers open to deliver a brief glimpse of the hidden world behind it, would make the tension that could so grind the soul. As we stand here, almost privileged to immerse ourselves in their struggle for life, which was roundly to be denied 8 Jews here and from the entirety of World Jewry, none too many from the statistical analysis which Hitler had his charges undertake, would survive. We too have become aware that Otto was amongst these few, as he was the only one to Survive the secret of the annexe. Anne and the others shared the fate of some 6,000,000 other Jews, plundered from their homes and divested of life in a murder apparatus that sprung into aktionen on a continental scale.

Monday February 28th. 1944

"..My dearest Kitty ..It's like a nightmare, one that goes on long after I'm awake. .. In ..distance a clock was tolling. ..I'm sentimental ..I know. I'm despondent and foolish ..I know that too. Oh me. Yours." Anne M. Frank.

We can so easily immerse ourselves, and so deeply engage in the tragedy for these Jews of The Holocaust, that we can still too easily forget their human tragedy. We can Never be immune to the effect of the overwhelming tragedy which swept 6,000,000 People toward oblivion, simply because they were Jews. For all my research, I am always prepared for what is next, and visits to the 6 Death Camps tested me as they required a knowledge of what lies beneath their surface, was literally countless 1,000,000's of Murdered Jewish People. So here I am in Amsterdam, and I was sat in my Hotel room and I could hear the peel of church bells. It was a simple sound but that it was from other than from the Westertoten itslef, it struck me. I wondered if I too was listening to that same clock toll its times and the sound from a clock which must have reminded Anne that life continues outside her hiding place, marks a reflective impression.

Friday March 10th. 1944

"..My dearest Kitty .. proverb ..Misfortunes never come singly ..definitely applies to today. ..Let me tell you ..awful things that have happened and ..are still hanging over our heads. ..Miep is sick. ..She caught cold in ..Westerkerk. ..police have arrested a man ..whose name I won't put in writing. It's terrible not only for him ..but for us as well ..since he's been supplying us with potatoes ..butter ..jam. Mr. M. ..has 5 children under ..13 ..another on ..way. Last night we had another ..scare ..middle of dinner ..someone knocked on ..wall next door. For of ..evening we were nervous and gloomy. Yours." Anne M. Frank.

I could stand upon the balcony which faced the Westerkerk and I could clearly see that alongside this church there now stood the Anne Frank Museum. It appears as though a shield has been thrown around the old building, and surely these are purely there to stem the effects of weather degradation. But that defensive shroud, as we reflect back to Friday August 4th. 1944, where there is another day of fear is to torn from securing the safety of those soon to be exposed. Still, there is an expectation and there is a continued hope for those of the Annexe as another day beckons the future. However, at 10:30 am, the SD led by SS Hauptscharfuhrer Karl Josef Silberbauer, of the SS secret police, the Sicherheitsdienst, arrive at the factory. They are fully armed so as to ensure the peaceable arrest of those Jews they have been informed are hidden and they have come to collect.

As these Nazi's seek the attention of those they now are aware have been secretly hiding Anne and the other Jews of the Annexe, an emotional fear braces these helpers. Making their way forward, up the stairs and finding that the Annexe is secreted behind the bookcase. Behind that bookcase, which now lays open, there is a step which leads to a white door and beyond this, Otto Frank, Edith Frank, Margot Frank, Anne Frank, Hermann van Pels, Auguste van Pels, Peter van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer are taken by surprise. As their secret has been uncovered all manner of fear and terror must have confronted them. Here in microcosym, the fate of so many is played out and even after 2 years of hiding, there was always the hope of safety and the fear of being exposed. That exposition came abruptly and the wheels of a final resolve would be brought to bear and 7 more Jews would add to the Catastrophe weighted so heavily against them.

"..It did not end with ..betrayal ..I believe that my father blackmailed Otto Frank." Anton Ahlers.

The tragedy for Dutch Jewry is exemplified here in terrifying exactness and in cold relief we are witness to the mounting tragedy which had engulfed European Jewry over the past 4 years in the Netherlands. Though the entire tragedy for Dutch Jewry is under exposed, it is equally less disclosed than it should be. While history has not forgotten what many Dutch people did for their Jewish Community, we must remember the sheer enormity of the assault upon Jewish existence here in the Netherlands. While strikes were held and protests made, and when it became a struggle over life or death, many like the 4 main helpers of the Secret Annexe, acted with courage, compassion and a moral probity that was ethically firm.

Here, and if we take as an example the case of Anne Frank, we know full well the tragedy for those 8 of the secret Annexe. Though Otto Frank Survived to remind us of the struggle that they has all fought to Survive, Otto's soul was destroyed by an incalculable loss. What brought the end to the captive security from within the Secret Annexe cannot now be answered by the man who so betrayed them, Tonny Ahlers. However, as with all collaboration, and also with the opposite response from those, in saving Jews from Hitler, it would not only be the Jews alone who would be penalised for both any collaborative effort on behalf of those who might betray the Jewish People and more certainly for those who showed their humanity was shown.

"..All 4 immediately agreed ..though they were fully aware of ..dangerous task they would be taking upon themselves them in doing so. By Nazi law everyone helping Jews was severely punished and risked being put into prison ..being deported or ..shot." Otto Frank.

For Miep Gies, Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler and Bep Voskuijl the ramifications for their shared humanity were enormous. As for Jan Gies, Miep's Husband and for Jan Voskuijl, Bep's Father, their assistance came with the same level of deadly threat. The fall out for any of these could have so easily been extended to every branch of all of these Familily's. In truth, no one knew exactly where the sword would fall for the correctness of an attempt to save human beings from persecution, prosecution and destruction. How could these saviours of human dignity know their own fate. How could the fate of so many helpers of Jews, and throughout these Netherlands be considered other than fluid. With Hitler hell bent upon the destruction of all of Jewry, and by 1944 that resolve was clearly known to all who chose to see, hear and witness its reality.

"..Never have they uttered a single word about ..burden we must be ..never have they complained that we were too much trouble. They come upstairs every day and talk to ..Men about business and politics ..Women about food and wartime difficulties and to ..Children about books and newspapers." Anne Frank.

Wherever the drive for The Final Solution raged, and for all those who acted with similar compassion for Friends, Neighbours or complete strangers, their fate would be inextricably weighted against them, and alongside the Annihilation awaiting All Jews. By now, SS Hauptcharfuhrer Silbebauer has called for a truck to deliver the 8, former Jewish residents of the Secret Annexe to Gestapo headquarters at Euterpestraat. Within minutes all 8 of these hidden Jews were out on the Street in the full glare of day and seeing their first sign of outside daylight in over 2 years. Gestapo headquarters at Euterpestraat was a brief sojourn for the 8 before their removal to the prison on Weteringschans the following Morning, Saturday August 5th. 1944. Then, on Tuesday August 8th. 1944 they were all again moved toward Amsterdam's Central Station

"..Frank girls looked terrible ..their hands and bodies covered with spots and sores from ..scabies. ..They were in a very bad way ..pitiful ..that’s how I thought of them." Ronnie Goldstein van Cleef.

From the train Station, and along with 72 other's, they were embarked on the next stage of the journey, this time to the Westerbork Concentration Camp. Westerbork detention camp, and hut 67 now awaited them and this too was merely a prelude from harm. Along that road toward their total degradation this transport hub for so many Jews being sent toward the East was a focal point from where where both Sobibor and Auschwitz awaited the Jews of the Netherlands. The transport which took Anne and her fellow Annexe survivors was amongst the last Dutch transports to leave toward Auschwitz. Indeed, their own transport on September 3rd. 1944 was the final transport of some 83 such resettlement transports which took 106,000 Dutch Jews toward extinction. This final transport however, was still specifically a death train, even as Russian pressure along the entire front was now fast approaching Auschwitz itself.

"..They had little squabbles ..caused by their illness, because it was clear they had typhus. " Rachel van Amerongen Frankfoorder.

Along the route of these journeys, in the Camps that came to recognise Anne and Margot's presence, there would be Janny Brandes Brilleslijper, Lenie de Jong van Naarden, Bloeme Evers Emden, Ronnie Goldstein van Cleef, Hannah Goslar, Nanette Konig and Rachel van Amerongen Frankfoorder who would recall them. Here, and these were amongst many Jews from all over Europe who touched upon Anne and Margot's fight for Survival, little knowing the impact Anne would have upon the World. Those who recalled Anne, Margot and even Edith would be forced to come to terms with what was known at the time and what will be then become known as The Holocaust. Separately, these individuals had met both Anne and Margot, either in both the transit Camp at Westerbork or then into Birkenau.

"..When ..Anne was in hiding ..her Mother was someone against whom she rebelled. ..all of that actually completely fell away. By giving each other mutual support ..they were able to keep each other alive ..although no one can fight typhus." Bloeme Evers-Emden.

Their arrival at Auschwitz was on the Night of September 5th. and 6th. 1944 and upon their arrival at Camp of Auschwitz, they were sent forward toward Birkenau. Having been sealed into a cattle car for some 48 hours, they were amongst 1,019 Jews on this SD Transport. Amongst them, 498 Jewish Men, 442 Jewish Women and 79 Jewish Children, a selection was made. Of these 258 Jewish Men were selected for a momentary reprieve as were 212 Jewish Women, selective to service the demands of the SS overseers. However, for all of these other 549 Jews from this transport, these Jewish People are immediately gassed. There was the hand of fate playing here and all the Annexed 8 managed to survive this immediate selection. It is now known to History what happened and when, though not strictly in any sense of an exacting date for the final many for many of them.

There is no particualr resting place for them all as can be stressed for the 6,000,000 Jews, who are The Holocaust. Finally though, Birkenau expelled Anne and Margot and enroute toward Belsen, they heaed toward the space where both Anne and Margot did not Survive. Many other's travelled along the same route and some of these remained to recollect their memory of them both. In a mixture of the Camps that both Anne and Margot were in, they touched other's. For the 8 of the Secret Annexe, their story is a well worn narrative. For Otto Frank, who was born on May 12th. 1889, much of his story will be told through the narrative account of his future Wife Edith Holland Frank and their two Daughter's Margot and of course Anne. Some time between July and August 1933 Otto Frank goes to Holland to establish a new business.

On September 15th. 1933 Otto sets up his Opekta import business in Amsterdam and what history makes us aware of is, that Otto is secretly extricating himself and his Family from Hitler's Nazi control. The vitriol of hatred has spread from the rhetoric of hate to the commital of hatred. The vile and vicious nature of that hatred is being applied thoroughly and throughout his beloved Germany. While Edith, Margot and Anne stay behind in Aachen, Otto is concerned enough about the swell of anti-Jewish feeling, that he ventures forth alone. Soon after, and during November 1933 Edith joins her Husband while Margot follows in December. Anne remains behind until February 16th. 1934 and once again they are a united Family together. This is in a way a Birthday surprise for Anne's big Sister Margot.

The success of Otto's gambit is witnessed by which the Frank Family manage integrate into Dutch Society. But that ease of situation is not a permanent one when Hitler's forces cross into the Netherlands, May 14th. 1940. History is now entwined in the passages of a Book that has yet to be written. As we move firmly toward betrayal and the savagery that is to be witnessed by all Jews who enter places like Auschwitz and Birkenau, that detail is to be experienced by in excess of 4,000,000 Jews of Europe. Skipping forward, Otto Frank was admitted to the Auschwitz Death Camp, Birkenau and received his tatooed number B-9174. What that experience amounted to is the subject of Otto's own life tale. His progress toward safety is not easily made and the fretful duration brings him to the realisation of what he has lost and a realignment with whjat remains for him.

The day of liberation, what is recalled as Holocaust Remembrance day, January 27th. 1945 sees Otto free to make his journey home. He would make it firstly toward to Odessa en-route toward finding out all that he had ever loved had been taken away from him. What Otto was finally forced to acknowledge came in a letter he wrote on July 7th. 1945 and a snippet of that sentiment struck me as I read it on the Wall in the Anne Frank Huis. Having studied The Holocaust for so long now, I realised I was never going to remain immune from what intrinsically touches one's inner being, the loss to Humanity of these 6,000,000 Human Beings. To see in such cold relief the astonishing level of hatred that consumed these People, and simply because of their Jewish antecedence. This all stands in marked contrast to the reality that faced all the Jews of Europe threatened by Hitler and it is a margin which runs between fear and hope.

"..I have to accept ..fact of Edith's death ..but I keep hoping I can find my Children. That is what I am living for at ..moment. I gravitate between hope and fear." Otto Frank.

Edith (Hollander) Frank was born on January 16th. 1900 and in between her early life and coming to prominence in the story of a Young Girl's hope's and aspirations, this Mother is born. Edith had a typical upbringing and schooling, though a Christian Girl's School does appear somewhat at odds and apart from what enmeshed the Jewish People in a wholly unchristian context. On May 12th. however life has its up and in 1925 Edith Hollander marries Otto Frank and now comes to our attention as the narrative of this story finally emerges. I think it is with a huge level of sadness that what Otto finally discovers in the pages of Anne's Diary will be the common theme of a Young Girl emerging from the shadow of a Mother who gave rise to her prominence.

"..I was concerned ..there was not a particularly good understanding between my Wife and Anne ..and I believe my Wife suffered more from this than Anne. In reality ..she was an excellent mother ..who went to any lengths for her children. She often complained that Anne was against everything she did but it was consolation for her to know that Anne trusted me." Otto Frank.

Edith is often so much a a hidden character in what we learn from Anne but she is a constant in all the lives of the Frank's and those who came to seek a shelter from the impending storm. Edith managed to Survive until weeks, or even days before the final liberation of Auschwitz on January 27th. 1945, even though liberation was not the full saving grace for so many totally debilitated Survivors. For Edith, the certainty was to be a cold reality which faced all too many and yet, it was always an opportunity to know you had Survived Hitler's intentions for those gifted to do so. It is somewhat ironic that in conversation with Miep Gies Edith confided in her that she shielded her entire Family and the other hidden of the Annexe of her fears for their future.

"..What she needed to talk about ..which she couldn’t talk about in front of ..others ..was that she was suffering under a great weight of despair. Although ..others were counting ..days until ..Allies came ..Mrs. Frank confessed that she was deeply ashamed of ..fact that she felt ..end would never come." Miep Gies.

It has to be imagined, that in that hidden 2 year period, hope was beginning to slip away from all of those couped up in such a small space, and Edith was no exception. It is evidently clear though, Edith never gave way to any such negative feelings of open despair. Though Edith must have been sharply in contradiction with herself as the hopeful expression given over to succeeding, survivng and staying alive did not betray her inner fear. Toward the latter part of her life, as Stalin's forces relentlessly advanced and reached into the heart of Poland, Edith was drawing close to her last moments. It was abundantly clear to a World at War, and by the end of September 1944 it was more apparent than ever that Hitler's grasping hold on a greater Reich was being gradually diminished, beaten and then crushed.

However, this did not preclude further transports reaching Auschwitz for Birkenau and they dutifully arrived from Budapest, Lodz, Pruszkow, these remnants of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Slovenia, Vienna and of course the Westerbork Transport which had brought the detainees from the Secret Annexe. Then, during October 1944 from amongst many of the camp’s 39,000 women prisoners, both Margot and Anne were entrained for Belsen. From here on in, and while it is without certainty exactly when, Edith Frank finally succumbed sometime on January 6th. 1945 to the grief over the obvious loss of her Children Margot and Anne and to a place that was to remain unknown to her. I have no doubt too that Edith was further impacted by the very debilitating and catastrophic effects of exhaustion and starvation that was the mainstay for those Jews held over temporsrily from the immediate intention to Murder them all.

"..Edith died bed to me." Rosa de Winter-Levy.

Edith had been compelled to allow both Margot and Anne to leave Birkenau and her broken heart fixed Edith to that space within Birkenau. As another Dutch Jew, who knew the Frank Women, Young and Older at Auschwitz, a little more light is shone on a very dark chapter in Jewish existence and the Frnk's persistence. When the Sisters were confined to the scabies barrack, Lenie de Jong van Naarden helped Edith Frank dig a hole under the structure of the barrack so as to smuggle bread to her daughters. The ingenuity of captives, even within the Death Camp system, was remarkably adaptive to the prevailing stench of destruction which surrounded them. Life, marginally above the level of what existed for those who were consumed with the gas chambers, served to remind all Jews, their fate was sealed.

"..In ..barracks where ..Frank girls were ..Women went crazy ..completely crazy. ..There were people who threw themselves against ..electric fence. ..To work it out completely alone ..that didn’t work ..even very strong women broke down." Lenie de Jong van Naarden.

Margot Frank, was born on February 16th. 1926 and is schooled early on in her life, in Germany and then in Amsterdam. After Otto feels certain that all their lives are at risk, Schooling in Germany becomes a deeply negative concept. Laws were passed which would place all Jews outside the remit for education, outside the remit for life within Germany and finally, outside the essential to life itself for them. For any Child growing amidst the terrifying spectacle of outright hatred for them, because they were Jews, I cannot even begin to inform you here of what that must have been like. How Children must have felt or bre the scars of such intolerances toward them or indeed how Parents could recover their Children from the very trauma they faced on a daily basis and simply for being Jews, so escapes me it shocks my core.

"..Margot is very kind and would like me to confide in her ..but I can't tell her everything. She takes me too seriously ..far too seriously ..and spends a lot of time thinking about her loony Sister ..looking at me closely whenever I open my mouth and wondering she acting ..or does she really mean it." Anne Frank.

The pace of Margot's life is ground to a stalled halt as on July 5th. 1942, Margot herself receives her summons. This letter from the Gestapo, for Margot to report to a work camp somewhere in Germany stuns a frightened Family. This clearly alerts Otto once again to the grave danger for them and they set upon a course that is about to move them out of harms way. It is important to reflect her that all through their lives, Margot was with her Sister and in these formative years, it all proves pivotal in their growth as Sister's, as Friends at the best and worst of times and always totally reliant upon each other. Through the dark days of the Annexe in hiding and then discovery, through arrest, incarceration, imprisonment and then on to the Westerbork Concentration Camp, Margot and Anne were connected, rooted to each other. Together they then resisted the struggle to simply die in the Birkenau Death Camp.

"..Typhus was ..hallmark of ..Belsen ..Anne and Margot had those hollowed out faces over bone. They were terribly cold. They had ..least desirable places in ..barracks ..below ..near ..door ..which was constantly opened and closed. You could really see both of them dying." Rachel van Amerongen Frankfoorder.

Even before Margor or Anne could be liberated by the approaching Russian forces, both she and Anne were removed toward Belsen. Here, in this holding Camp, where the utter chaos of death had replaced the organised structure of destruction was also to become an antechamber to that hell which had always been Auschwitz and more certainly Birkenau. In Belsen, Margot was the first to die, and she succumbed to the brutality of an intolerance heavily weighted against her. At sometime during February 1945, and this is contested and uncertain, Margot dies of the effects of typhus. Also, and hile her Sister Anne died days later, their close proximity to each other within the confines of Belsen holds them bonded together more closely and by more than their Jewish nature which had condemned them both to this end.

"..Margot had fallen out of bed onto ..stone floor ..she couldn’t get up anymore. Anne died a day later. 3 days before her death from typhus was when Anne had thrown away all of her clothes during dreadful hallucinations. That happened just before ..liberation." Janny Brandes Brilleslijper.

Annalies Marie Frank, better known to the World of Humanity as Anne Frank, was born on June 12th. 1929. The very detail of Anne's life is well written and documented into the very fabric of what The Holocaust means for 6,000,000 Murdered Jews. That is true also for the Jewish People in general and for Humanity in particular. For Anne Frank, who was with her Sister Margot to the very end and for whom both had resisted the struggle to die in the Birkenau Death Camp, life would be now measured by the struggle to live. After just a few weeks, within that deeply disturbing struggle to survive what Birkenau threw at them, both Anne and Margot contracted scabies.

This ailment, which was so rampant amongst these debilitated human beings so low in their immunity to disease, took hold of those who had little resources to fight them off. These skin mites tore at the human defence mechanism like no other and further brought the disintegration of so many survivng, ever closer toward extinction. It is a calamity for anyone to have to speak in such terms about Human beings, for them being so on the brink of annihilation and to being so ravaged by their situation that they disintgrated externally as they disappeared internally. But this was the reality for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, whose course had wound them toward such an ignominy and insistence upon their destruction. Of course so many other's suffered a similar fate, but it has never been decidedly confirmed so systematically, as Hitler had placed for the Jews as on the Final Solution of the Jewish People.

"..I saw Anne walking on ..other side of some barbed wire. I couldn't go near it .though ..I would have been tortured or killed. ..later to talk. ..She was depleted ..wrapped in blankets because her clothes were full of lice. ..It was from Anne that I learnt what was happening in Auschwitz." Nanette Konig.

Within the scabies barrack, both Margot and Anne were alone, no longer sheltered from the storm by the closeness of Family. Though Edith somehow managed and made efforts to ensure they were as cared for as was humanly possible, it is an unbearable reality for all Jews confined within the sphere of the intention to destroy them, that Family ties were merely a momentry interlude in what was always Hitler's intention for them all. Somehow both Margot and Anne survived, but only until they were forced elsewhere, and Belsen will find them both consigned to the fate Hitler had assigned them. Here in Belsen, Margot was the first to die of the effects of typhus while Anne died later both uncertain as to the fate of the other it has to be assumed and both almost certainly unsure as to the fate of both of their Parents, Edith and Otto.

"..We did our best to help them. ..Not only Anne and Margot ..but also ..other girls we knew went regularly to provide them with a little balance and sometimes a little culture." Janny Brandes Brilleslijper.

Some testimony's give the specific date for Anne's death as March 31st. 1945, but certainty cannot be given over to this as clarity is hardly the prevailing recollections for those who struck a deal with death so as to gain life. Clearly though, both Anne and Margot were to be remembered by some of those who touched them and were even touched by their prevailing strength in having survived for so long. Many survivors too speak of both Sister's as they too followed them through the struggle for life in the Camps of Westerbork and Auschwitz and even into the jaws of the destructive capacity that was the Death Camp Birkenau and then onto the camp of death that was Belsen. It is essential to ensure memory does not diffuse the differences with the similarity's that met those Jews who did not emerge from the system of Camps, Hitler established.

"..Anne was very calm and quiet and somewhat withdrawn ..and often stood next to me at appell and Margot was close by. ..fact that they had ended up there had affected Anne profoundly ..that was obvious." Ronnie Goldstein-van Cleef.

There were a total of x6 Death Camps, established by Hitler within Poland and these were solely designed for the purpose of the annihilation of those Jews assigned to them. That other than Jew's died in those Death Camps is certain. That Jews did and were Murdered in every Camp that Hitler established, also within Poland but elsewhere throughout Europe, camps designed to wholly contain them, does not make of them Death Camps. Even though Jewish death was a product of the camps existence, the systematic, mechanised and industrial scale of the murder process was attributable only to those x6 Death Camps in Poland, namely, Auschwitz and Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka. Here, in excess of 4,000,000 Jews of Europe were consumed and if the full facts were reexamined and detailed, far in excess of this number of Jewish Murdered would be applied to History.

"..Anne thought that her parents were dead. I have always thought that if Anne had known that her father was still alive ..she would have found .. strength to go on living." Hannah Goslar.

It is impossible to speculate over the inner feelings of another Person without a direct insight into their being. But I can assume so much given Anne's telling ways and words which marked her as an extraordinary individual. To borrow from another Survivor, Halina Birenbaum who wrote, Hope is The Last to Die, and as that hope springs eternal, we know the grasp of hope can be the mainstay of that very hold onto life. For Anne, knowledge of the fate of her Father Otto in particular, and the sure need of a Mom who had always nurtured her forthrightness, would have given her a little more comfort and perhaps even a stronger will to fight back from the brink of death. But we know from history that none of this gave Anne, nor Margot, nor indeed the 6,000,000 Jews who perished, a hope that would not die.

It would appear that, as Anne would spend her time speaking, tutoring and even engaging in the distraction of the Children, life managed to hold a notion of hope could be obtained. For entertaining the Children as Anne and Margot went along, life here is so far from human expectation, it is troubling to even consider this as life. It appears too that both Margot and Anne made deeply human connections with those they came into contact with. Even here in Belsen, where life both transitory and an illusion, if we are then to be convinced either or both Margot or Anne believed that their Parents were dead, was hope also dead. Life along that margin is still recalled by those touched by them and it effects for us a sense that while there was a will to maintain some grasp on life, the reality was always markedly different and prone to the whims of brutal and unrestrained progression toward certin death.

"..At a certain moment in her final days ..Anne stood in front of me. ..She didn’t have any more tears ..and she told me that she had such a horror of ..lice and fleas in her clothes ..that she had thrown all of her clothes away. It was ..middle of winter and she was wrapped in one blanket. I gathered up everything I could find to give her so that she was dressed again." Janny Brandes Brilleslijper.

Hermann van Pels was born on March 31st. 1898 and would not Survive the rigorous process at Auschwitz. In these coming days, while the other 7 managed to fix a space for themselves in this life outside life, age and strength played a heavy hand. Herman van Pels suffered a hand injury which prevented him from working toward the Nazi goal. With relentless finality, and on October 3rd. 1944, Hermann van Pels was selected for destruction and was gassed and cremated in the complex of Birkenau on November 26th. 1944.

Auguste van Pels, who was born on September 9th. 1900 and having survived for these both the Annexe, Westerboprk and even Auschwitz and Birkenau, was sent to the Belsen Concentration Camp in northern Germany and lasted 2 months in that particular hell. She was amongst a group of 8 other Jewish Women who embarked upon the journey toward Belsen. On February 6th. 1945, Auguste van Pels was further deported to the Raguhn subcamp of Buchenwald, and she died somewhere in Germany or Czechoslovakia, between April 9th and May 8th 1945. It is clear though, that while being once more deported, and to the Ghetto Camp at Theresienstadt, the guards detailed to escort this transport threw Auguste van Pels in front of that transport train and she was killed instantly.

Peter van Pels was born on November 8th. 1926 and journeyed though our times and from the Secret Annex toward Westerbork and onto Auschwitz and Birkenau. From Birkenau Peter van Pels was sent on a Death March and away from Auschwitz. Peter arrived days later at the Mauthausen Concentration Camp on January 25th. 1945. Peter van Pels died at the Mauthausen Camp on May 10th.1945.

Fritz Pfeffer was born on April 30th. 1989 and he too came to our recollectioin as he was brought to the safety of the Secret Annexe. For x2 years that safety seemed assured but eventually discovered he too wound his way toward Westerbork. From here to Auschwitz and Birkenau where he has to leave Birkenau sometime in October 1944. The Nazis send him to the Neuengamme Concentration Camp near Hamburg in Northern Germany. Here, all manner of prisoner are forced into labour, the heavy work debilitating, starving and crushing their spirit. As was the status in all Camps of Hitler's demands, rations were so scarce, very little food was made available for the detainees to eat. Fritz Pfeffer finally succumbs to the pressures and ill, time marks him and he died on December 20th. 1944.

This brings me up to today and my recent visit to the Anne Frank House. Study has always taught me that the unexpected can creep up and surprise, regardless of the years of research which supposedly should prepare you for all eventualities. I was never ever prepared for the depth of emotion which swept over me as I surveyed the devastating places that had been formerly, The Death Camps. I knew full well here though that the misfortunes never came singly, and The Secret Annexe, where all 8 hidden are a testimony to that truth. In a 2 year time span Anne Frank, her Family and 4 others in hiding would be eventually removed to face Hitler's resolve to Murder them all. What I did not suspect, which would mitigate my own attempts to be prepared for what might confront me was a simple quote from Otto Frank.

Otto, the only Survivor of the 8 mmembers from the Secret Annexe, knowing already that his Wife had been Murdered, but was still hoping that both his Children, Margor and Anne would return. How could he know then what I know now that they wouldn't and We all know that both Anne and Margot died in Belsen. It was deeply sad, knowing full well what Otto had completely hoped for and we, with history behind us, are all too aware of their fate. The tragedy is well known the World over but on June 21st. 1945, for a momentary light to have flashged through the darkest despair for a Husband and a Father, it has long since been dimmed by the reality of the factual truth, that all 3, Edith, Margot and Anne had died an intolerable death.

"..I just can't think how I would go on without ..Children having lost Edith already. ..It's too upsetting for me to write about them. Naturally I still hope." Otto Frank.

Here, what Otto Frank hopes for, we know History has delivered us to the cruelest of news, and it is an enshrined fact that Edith, Margot and Anne have died and I am staring at words on a wall which offer a hope we know are dashed. They had all been consigned to a fate outside what Humanity considers compassionate. Anne and Margot's Mother, Edith Frank had perished in Auschwitz, this other Annexe to Jewish existence and though severely malnourished and debilitated, Anne and Margot were forced toward Belsen, another camp which was undignified in its worst excesses toward those Jews and other's forced to remain there. It is for posterity that we bear these facts and know why reason must ensure that these lessons are learned and are taught well and that they are respected and are fully comprehended.

"..I bought ..little book last week see if I was mentioned there ..I saw that I was not." Karl Josef Silberbauer.

Here, what Silberbauer stated in 1963 is typical of the selfish importance he placed above the lack of compassion or humanity he clearly had shown. For the 8 innocent Jewish People he set along the road toward annihilation, history will judge him accusingly. His personal concern goes way beyond that too for the Writer of this 'LITTLE BOOK' whose energy surpasses his wasted insignificance. Here, and while not even realising that he could have completely denied the entire World the gift of the Book. The Diary, which has given hope to so many, leaves his charmless life behind as it ebbs into obscurity, here mentioned merely as an after thought for more concerning principles dominating human concern, compassion and toleration for all others.

"..I turned 100 years ..April ..a beautiful birthday party surrounded by my grandchildren ..great grandchildren and other family members. I even danced a little. Willard Scott mentioned my name on television. But such a time is also for reflection. I decided to overcome my long reluctance to revisit terrible times. Older people must tell their stories. With of Jonathan Alter’s a bit of mine. ..Hitler came to power ..and like many other Jews ..we fled to Holland. As ..Nazis closed in ..we sent one Daughter abroad with relatives and the other into hiding with my Sister and her children in ..Hague. My Husband and I could not hide so easily ..and in 1941 we were sent Westerbork ..stayed about a year ..and later to ..Belsen ..from where 1,000's of innocent people were sent to Extermination Camps. There were no ovens at ..Belsen ..instead ..Nazis killed us with starvation and disease. My husband and brother both died there. I stayed for about 3 years before it was liberated ..Spring ..1945. When I went in ..I weighed more than 125 pounds. When I left ..I weighed 78 pounds." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

All witness testimony is essential in adding to any narrative wishing to come to terms with the facts in History. But in terms of the conduct of those who delivered 6,000,000 Jews toward Destruction, and in examining the life of any particular person within that catalogue of hatred, that essential is even more pertinent. Independent testimony is not only corroborative, it also lends an insight into the prevailing awareness of the condtitions surrounding those we seek to recall, in extremis. For Miep Gies and Jan Gies, Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, Bep Voskuijl and for Jan Voskuijl, their assistance in secuing a period of safety for The Secret Annexe hidden, is enlightening as far as a Dutch will to resisist and assist is concerned. Anne Frank has infilled the blank spaces of the lives she shared with those closely involved here and these in turn extend her words to further mean what can be gained from them.

"..After I arrived at ..Belsen ..I was told I was ..barracks leader. ..I .. had no choice. ..Nazi Kommandant ..was from my home town in Germany ..studied with my uncle in Strasbourg. This coincidence probably helped save my life. ..About once every 3 weeks ..he would ask to see me. I was always afraid. It was very dangerous. Jews were often shot over nothing. After ..war ..I heard he had committed suicide." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

The 49 year old SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Adolf Haas was born in Hachenburg and though it is uncertain as to how he died, it is either believed he was missing in action, committed suicide or was killed elsewhere, his irreleavnce also does little to balance The Holocaust, a book of shame written in 6,000,000 titles. As a company commander of a panzier grenadier battalion, he was pitted against the rising tide of Allied advances on Hitler's Reich. As Irma has stated however, while suicide is just as likely to have been his route away from being indicted as a war criminal, it lessen's the knowledge we can gain. Given his credentials as a Kommandant at Belsen and other Nazi installations, this route out was often times the reaction of so many to being caught and made to answer for their crimes. That so many of these supposed ideologues took such a premature end, speaks of the immaturity of the system spawning them.

"..more evacuation transports arrived in ..Belsen ..more catastrophic ..situation became. ..over crowded huts ..often without any heating lacked all equipment or furnishings and people had to lie on ..bare floors. authorities deliberately refrained from easing ..situation and made no attempt to draw on ..reserves of food ..medical supplies ..stored at ..nearby military training grounds. ..lack of water was so severe that prisoners in ..Belsen died of thirst. Others went mad with hunger and thirst. " Belsen Memorial Booklet.

With the incarcerated and the interned, with the thretened Jewish fate being an annihilatory one, the narrative is both an intimate insight and a captive one. The lesser known journey, for those of the secret annexe, and after their secret had been revealed, is no less concerning. Here too, many give voice to that search for what happened to Anne and the other's as they progressed toward and back from their own annihilation and then to their eventual destruction . Here, Janny Brandes Brilleslijper, Lenie de Jong van Naarden, Bloeme Evers Emden, Ronnie Goldstein van Cleef, Hannah Goslar, Nanette Konig and Rachel van Amerongen Frankfoorder lend us their recollections of both Anne and Margot Frank. Also, and with a short insight into what deeply affected, traumatised and eventually delivered Edith Frank into The Holocaust, we perhaps gain what Anne failed to deliver in her own testimony about her Mother.

"..There were about 500 Women and Girls in my barracks. Conditions were extremely crowded and unsanitary. No heat at all. Every morning ..up at 5 and wake 6 ..we went to appell. ..wait there for hours matter ..we worked as slave labor in ..factory ..making bullets for German soldiers. When we left Holland ..I had taken only 2 changes of clothes ..toothbrush books or other possessions. ..I had a few more clothes ..including a warm jacket ..which came from someone who died. Men ..Women lined up for hours to wash their clothes in ..few sinks. showers. bedding. ..spent working and waiting. At 10 p.m ..lights out. ..midnight ..inspection came 3 or 4 soldiers. I had to say everything good condition when ..conditions were beyond miserable. ..again at 5." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

We gain from those traumatically connected to the ebb and flow of life where life is permanently endangered, a cared for Mother caring for her Children, a Mother, maternal, loving and dutiful to the last. Furthermore, as the focus is and has been on Anne, we can not afford to forget the significance of those who all played a part in Anne's coming to our attention. Then, and for anyone who could so declare that as a prisoner in Belsen that 'I Saw Anne Frank Die', her evidence must be considered especially crucial. It is not simply the fact that this evidence exists but that it adds a newer dimension to Anne which has been guessed about, worked upon and posited for these past 70 years and more. We have perhaps gained our own insight into a young girl whose diary has delivered so much that has been taken from it. Here, we have an addition to those pages which emerge as added depth to a person we have sought to know.

"..One of ..Children in my barracks toward ..end of ..war was Anne Frank ..whose diary became famous after her death. I didn’t know her family beforehand ..and I don’t recall much about her ..but I do remember her as a quiet child. When I heard later that she was 15 when she was in ..camps ..I was surprised. She seemed younger to me. Pen and paper were hard to find ..but I have a memory of her writing a bit. Typhus was a terrible problem ..especially for ..Children. Of 500 in my barracks ..maybe 100 got it ..and most of them died. Many others starved to death. When Anne Frank got sick with typhus ..I remember telling her she could stay in ..barracks ..she didn’t have to go to appell." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.


"..There was so little to eat. In my early days there ..we were each given one roll of bread for 8 days ..we tore it up ..piece by piece. One cup of black coffee a day and one cup of soup. And water. That was all. Later there was even less. When I asked ..kommandant for a little bit of gruel for ..Children’s diet ..he would sometimes give me some extra cereal. Anne Frank was among those who asked for cereal ..but how could I find cereal for her. It was only for ..little Children ..and only a little bit. ..Children died anyway. A couple of trained nurses were among ..inmates ..and they reported to me. In ..evening ..we tried to help ..sickest. In ..morning was part of my job to tell ..soldiers how many had died ..night before. Then they would throw ..bodies on" Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

I will not even begin to catalogue the Books that are available referencing Anne Frank, which is a catologue on its own. Without The Diary of Anne Frank, there would have been no following that could inspire so much, both reverential and dissecting with regards the inhumanity that could not destroy the humanity which is in each of us. Anne's life, her times and the tumult of those times have accused humanity, judged history and haunted reams of paper with dissertation and the flow of words unable to capture the essential needlessness of her Destruction. So for me, I will Catalogue those Books I have, I have Read and I would reference in connection with the life of a remarkable Young Girl seeking to inform us, which I know accutely well and I would urge all those keen to learn more, know more and perhaps understand even less, to search the:

Anne Frank House. Museum with a Story.

"..Anne Frank House is a museum with a story. ..Attention is ..given to ..traces left behind by ..inhabitants of ..Secret Annex ..images Anne pasted on her bedroom wall and ..pencil marks indicating how much Anne and Margot grew during ..2 years in hiding." Ronald Leopold.

Anne Frank House. House.

"..There is much to learn from ..story of this young Woman amid ..terrible times." Jeffrey Shandler.

Denenberg, Barry. Shadow Life.

"..We live at a time when insensitivity to ..value of human life is on rise .. ..reading about Anne Frank is ..especially ..meaningful now. ..Perhaps we will finally understand ..object of hate ..violence ..evil may be a Child just like ourselves. ..even a young girl living in Amsterdam who has ..celebrated her 13th. Birthday ..has ..received .only gift she cared about ..a diary. ..her whole life before her." Barry Denenberg.

Frank, Anne. Dreaming, Thinking, Writing.

"..I am almost 90 now strength is gradually declining. ..task ..Anne set before me keeps giving me new strength struggle for reconciliation and for human rights over." Otto Frank.

Frank, Anne. The Diary of a Young Girl.

Saturday July 15th. 1944

"..It's really a wonder that I haven't dropped all my ideals ..they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them ..because in spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion ..misery ..death. I see gradually being turned into a wilderness ..I hear ..ever approaching thunder ..which will destroy us too ..I can feel ..sufferings of 1,000,000's and yet ..if I look up into ..heavens ..I think that it will all come right ..that this cruelty too will end ..and that peace and tranquillity will return again. In ..meantime ..I must uphold my ideals ..for perhaps ..time will come when I shall be able to carry them out ". Anne M Frank.

Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank:

The Critical Edition.

Saturday July 15th. 1944

"..It's really a wonder that I haven't dropped all my ideals ..they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them ..because in spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion ..misery ..death. I see gradually being turned into a wilderness ..I hear ..ever approaching thunder ..which will destroy us too ..I can feel ..sufferings of 1,000,000's and yet ..if I look up into ..heavens ..I think that it will all come right ..that this cruelty too will end ..and that peace and tranquillity will return again. In ..meantime ..I must uphold my ideals ..for perhaps ..time will come when I shall be able to carry them out. " Yours Anne.

Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank:

The Definitive Edition.

Saturday July 15th. 1944

"..It's a wonder I haven't abandoned all my ideals ..they seem so absurd and impractical. Yet I cling to them ..because I still believe spite of everything that people are truly good at heart. It's utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos ..suffering ..death. I see being slowly transformed into a wilderness ..I hear ..approaching thunder that day ..will destroy us too ..I feel ..suffering of 1,000,000's. ..yet ..when I look up at ..I somehow feel that everything will change for ..better ..that this cruelty too will end ..that peace and tranquillity will return once more. In ..meantime ..I must hold on to my ideals. ..Perhaps will come when I'll be able to realize them. " Yours Anne M Frank.

Frank, Anne. Tales from the Secret Annexe.

"..message of hope in that one person can make a difference. ..Otto Frank's determination lead us to learn how not to hate." Gillian Walnes.

Gies, Miep. Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of the Woman Who Helped to Hide the Frank Family.

"..More than 20,000 Dutch people helped to hide Jews need of hiding. ..I willingly did what I could. ..My husband did. ..It was not enough. ..Anne Frank holds in history ..what her story has come to mean for ..many millions ..touched by it." Miep Gies.

Lee, Carol Ann. Otto Frank.

"..arrest ..led by ss Oberscharfuhrer Karl Josef Silberbauer ..took place in ..annexe of ..spice company included ..director of ..Otto Frank ..and his Family. ..calamity had spread across of Otto Frank like a sheet of flame ..and ..embers ..burned many years later," Carol Ann Lee.

Lindwer, Willy. The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank.

"..Women speak ..Women Anne ..were in Westerbork ..Auschwitz ..Belsen. ..knew Anne. ..describe what happened on ..transports ..camps where Anne stayed. ..what Anne and these women ..who approached ..limits of human endurance ..went through." Willy Lindwer.

Schloss, Eva. After Auschwitz.

"..I feel I have a responsibility to help others understand that we are capable of overcoming ..most difficult circumstances." Eva Schloss.

Schloss, Eva, with Evelyn J. Kent. Eva's Story: A Survivor's Tale by the Step-Sister of Anne Frank.

"..So by ..tragedy in both our lives ..together we found new happiness." Fritzi Frank.

I am mindful there should be an Epitaph that would extend beyond those memorials to Anne, that already exist, that would be able to trace her arrest, review her detention and then follow her on the transport to and from Westerbork. Following her toward Auschwitz and Birkenau and then from there and onto Belsen is a duty for many but an effort for few. These traces would further ensure we commemorate Anne's presence, a life that was taken from us. There is always the fact that Anne, a viable person, is recalled as having been here and in each of these places. The delivery of Anne toward destruction could be retraced from her Birthplace to Holland and from safety to destruction. Perhaps a documentary on what Anne might have seen enroute to Westerbork, Auschwitz and Birkenau and then Belsen would avail us of more of the fact of this intriguing Young Girl's legacy to us.

"..I have a dim memory of Anne Frank speaking of her father. She was a nice ..fine person. ..When she slipped into a coma ..I took her in my arms. She didn’t know that she was dying. She didn’t know that she was so sick. You never know. At ..Belsen did not have feelings anymore. You became paralyzed. In all ..years since ..I almost never talked about ..Belsen. I couldn’t. It was too much. When ..war was over ..we went in a cattle truck to a place where we stole everything out of a house. I stole a pig ..and we had a butcher who slaughtered it. Eating this ..when we had eaten so little before ..was bad for us. It made many even sicker. But you can’t imagine how hungry we were. At ..end ..we had absolutely nothing to eat. I asked an American soldier holding a piece of bread if I could have a bite. He gave me ..whole bread. That was really something for me." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

Sadly, this survival was not to be the fate for Anne, nor 6,000,000 Jews of Europe upon whom I remark. And as I reflect and rcall as I sat on that train, a Railway journey that was stopping off along the very route Anne would have taken from Central Station Amsterdam toward Westerbork, how could she then know what awaited her. Asking questions from those in the neighbourhood of Anne’s former residence, we gain a clearer picture of Anne's kind hearted though mischievous soul. Within Westerbork, Auschwitz and Birkenau and then Belsen, moments creep out which still present newer emphasis of her to us. Anne, nor the many 1,000,000's from within the 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish catastrophe itself, can see those who have profitted most from the removal of the Jews from these areas of former Jewish presence. No moral concern delivers to History a wrong righted, especially given this expropriation of what has been Jewish before being taken, including these Jewish lives.

There are traces of the former lives of th Jew of Europe, which seem owned by tother's not rihtly belonging to them. We see owned former Jewish property’s, possibly from those Jews now disappeared, overtaken by other's who have no right to the claims. As I stand before the memorial statue of Anne Frank, which is situated a few yards from The Anne Frank House and outside the Westerkerk, I am struck by its seeming paucity of stature as I recognise with equivalence the place of Amsterdam in Jewish a former presence now largely disipated. Here too the Art World is open to similar accusation. Art, though it is becoming the aristocrat of greed and the symbol of a divisiveness unseen since the Renaissance created such brilliance, has been so misapproipriated as to be complicit in all that Anne represents and all that 6,000,000 Jews have lost.

The profit of ownership far outways the diligence afforded People deprived of a living standard so beneath a living standard, People die of hunger, neglect and the lack of human concern or compassion reminisecent of a past we are meant to learn positively from. Invariably I dislike comparison because in doing so it throws up a dissent which might even demean the discourse I wish to traverse. Here though, with The Holocaust a gaping wound before all of History, unprecedented in nature and unparalled in its extreme and systematic atrocity, Anne Frank too remains incomparable. In a literal sense, and in Humanitarian terms, Anne's reach is unsurmountable. For instance, take an artist like Rembrandt, who considers himself the equal of, or the aspiring student whose view toward superior artists, in many ways, does his demand some harm.

The likes of Caravaggio, Michelangelo, Raphael or Titian, to share their world prominence, one must share an ability that is remotely comparable in the least. For the artist Rembrandt,1606 till 1669, he fits that remit in so many ways, and his work is rightly revered for its dexterity, mood and brilliance. For some 13 years prior to his death, and for perhaps 17 years, he worked and painted in Amsterdam. But I am not here to commend such artistry, as it is rightly held, but to compare the inequality given over to the exploitation of gifts, talents and legacies. For an almost comparable length of time Anne Frank too spent time in Amsterdam, from February 16th. 1934 until her betrayal on August 4th. 1944. Also, there were a further 7 Human Beings cowering in a shelter insulated somewhat from what was now ravaging Jewish existence throughout the rest of Europe.

Already sheltering from an approaching storm as Hitler's rhetoric was converted into abuse, assault and Murder, Otto Frank formed an astute recognition of the dangers for his Family, as Jews, even here in 1933. Here in Amsterdam, their collective Survival would rest largely upon that intuition for the proceeding 12 year period. Added to this, for 2 years of that time, between 1942 -1944 Anne and the Family and the van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer remained hidden and concealed from a murderous attempt, soon to be recognised as, The Holocaust. So we reach a climate of the gravest concern for all of humanity and for which the artistry of Anne's words strives to a given mention of the horror to come and for us to attain a comprehension which is inconceiveable and incomprehensible to human nature. So do we weigh the relevance of words with a statue which pales in comparison to that of Remembrandt's or suggest a bias that once persisted still exists for which Anne deserves better than she is given.

"..When I got back to Holland one knew anything. I finally found a priest who had ..address where my Sister and Daughter were. I didn’t know if they were living or not. They were. They had been hidden by a man who worked for my brother. That was luck. I found them and began crying. I was so thin that at first they didn’t recognize me. There are many stories like mine ..locked inside people for decades. Even my family heard only a little of this one until recently. Whatever stories you have in your family ..tell them. It helps." Irma Sonnenberg Menkel.

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Revisiting the PastPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, November 09, 2018 19:31:06

"..You must first remember ..context of my experience. In 1938 ..I was 13 years old and had experienced Nazi Germany for ..last 5 years. I was 8 years old in 1933 when ..Nazi party took over ..German government. Even with this beginning event whole lifestyle as a Jewish child changed drastically." Werner Coppel.

I have no wish to omit one single Jew from within the term, The Holocaust. For that reason alone, I am overly cautious about where I would suggest we find the commencement date of the beginnings of the very atrocity attributed to its reach, depth and even terms of reference. For me, all or anything that would have confined any Jew, of any description, Male, Female or der Kinder, must be considered ever present in what Hitler fully intended for them all.

"..I was living in Hamburg at ..time. ..a student at an advanced preparatory school next to our synagogue. I remember we could look out of and see ..synagogue. ..morning after Kristallnacht ..we could see just strands of glass where of ..synagogue had been destroyed. ..entire inside of ..synagogue had been burnt out. Our teacher got there in ..morning and then let us out early due to what had happened." Hugo Eichelberg.

Therefore, we cannot ever discard from the narrative of Hitler's constructed Final Solution of The Jewish Question, the very presence of any Murdered Jew. From the period of Hitler's presence in any political guise, and during Hitler's rise to, his coming to and the then approved power base of his brokerage of that power, the Jewish People were centre stage in what was a clearly Hitler's murderous intention for all and any Jew. While supposition would promote the commencement of the overall catastrophe sometime after The Wannsee Conference, on January 20th. 1942.

"..All ..children gathered in ..synagogue every day. ..cub scouts and girl scouts were put together ..based on what training they had. There were Zionist overtones to our community ..ultimate goal was to return to Israel. When we were in ..synagogue ..we were not bothered with what was going on in ..outside world. It was in that very room in ..synagogue that I was able to celebrate my Bar Mitzvah in February of 1938. It was a very simple celebration with soft drinks and cake ..but it was held in a safe environment." Werner Coppel.

This starting point is being considered while der Einsatzgruppe was already Murdering what would approach the Slaughter of 1,250,000 Jews. Even adhering to the jump off point for these roving bands of killers with Hitler's attack on Russia, Operation Barbarossa on June 22nd. 1941, der Einsatzgrupope had previously scouted the arena of the mass murder of the Jews, though in a less intensive way. Here too though, with the Death Camp at Chelmno, which was adding to the approaching tragedy, and was indeed in operation on December 7th. 1941, these both preceded Wannsee.

"..Early in ..morning we suddenly heard loud banging on ..door to ..building and then shouts and boots stomping up the stairs. We didn’t know what was happening was clear was something terrible. We closed ..shutters facing ..street and sat on my parents’ bed at ..end of ..corridor. We hugged each other and trembled with fear." Daniel Heiman.

A Death Camp competing with an arsenal of Murderer's shooting their way through entire Jewish Community's, murdering with increasing speed all Jews from along the length and breadth of a War Front, and in the case of Chelmno, all around the area of Poland with Lodz especially expelling its Jewish Ghetto Community increasingly regularly. So these commencement dates cannot be as definitive as some would state, and even with regards the case of The Wannsee Conference when this was largely convened so as Hitler could administratively procure an intention to inveigle all arms of the Reich in the Murder process.

"..There are some important things to keep in mind. Our Rabbi ..who played a great role in my growth and development ..refused to leave Germany ..but ..knew exactly what was going on. Much like a captain refusing to abandon ship ..he stayed. Also ..Hamburg was not at this time antisemitic. ..Nazis had to import people from southern Germany to do their dirty work in destroying Hamburg’s synagogues. ..people in Hamburg would not destroy anything ..not lay a finger on ..Jewish buildings. ..After Kristallnacht ..we moved to a Spanish ..Portuguese synagogue. It was not completely orthodox but we were able to make changes to make it work for us. We were ..only place in Germany that was still able to worship in a synagogue after Kristallnacht took place." Hugo Eichelberg.

At this time though the apparatus of Jewish Destruction was not yet as refined as Hitler would demand. But soon Auschwitz, which was being sought out to convert a nearby site into Auschwitz II, for The Death Camp Birkenau. Also, and coming on stream were the Aktion Reinhard Death Camps at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka while Majdanek too would resolve for Hitler his one anticipated goal, the termination of all Jewiosh existence. All of which was practicably and fully formed in terms of mass murder though its administration could not yet inculcate all of Germany in Hitler's resolve.

"..we heard ..noise of furniture being thrown from floor to ..street ..then a terrible shout and a thud. They threw Mr. Ulfelder out of ..window ..he was killed." Daniel Heiman.

Also, and there are two salient points of concern here relating fully to why many seem to insist upon a starting line for the commencement of The Holocaust. Please always bear in mind, what was termed, die Endlosung der Judenfrage was Hitler's resolve and it was aimed at destroying all the Jews of Europe. This detailed Jewish assessment of routes to be taken toward a final end, which culminates in 6,000,000 of their number being annihilated, was as a resolve to this particular Final Solution of The Jewish Question.

"..We left Hamburg on ..last day of Passover and took a train to Italy. In Italy there were 2 boats ..Manhattan and ..Roma. ..Roma was an Italian boat ..but its passengers never got to depart because Mussolini did not allow ..ship to sail. I do not know what happened to ..passengers of that boat. My Mother and I were on ..Manhattan ..which left as scheduled ..sailed to New York. My Father left England 3 days later and we eventually met up in New York ..where we stayed for 11 weeks. After those 11 weeks ..we moved to Cincinnati ..where we had relatives." Hugo Eichelberg.

From this it is very clear, and the very fact that a formative Einsatzgruppe had already been operating in, and Murdering Polish Jewry since Hitler Invaded Poland on September 1st. 1939, the contention arises which places the Einsatz murder process back nearly two years. Then there is the case of SS Sturbnnfuhrer Dr. Herbert Lange, the first kommandant at Chelmno. Lange had been Murdering the Jews of Lodz, and some within Chelmno as far back as April 20th. 1940 when he first took up his post. This decreases the relevance of Wannsee as both the Death Camp system and der Einsatzgruppe aktionen is way ahead in operationl terms.

"..While I was traveling to Dinslaken I heard in ..train that antisemitic riots had broken out everywhere and that many Jews had been arrested. Synagogues everywhere are burning." Yitzhak Stephen Herz.

The Holocaust, in its murderous assault upon the Jewish People should not then deny the presence of any Murdered Jews demanded by Hitler's hatred. So while we have a wish to recall and remember here, that at Kristallnacht this might be seen as a catalyst toward the escalating terms of the atrocity, this Pogrom too should not avail us of a start date for The Holocaust. The night of November 9th. and 10th. 1938, which should not deny any Jew who was Murdered anytime prior to this Pogrom from being a Jew of The Holocaust. For me, Kristallnacht also cannot be described as the commencement date for what is recognised as The Holocaust.

"..It happened on November 9th. I had heard 2 or 3 days earlier that vom Rath had been shot and killed by a Jewish boy in Paris. I had no idea what would happen later." Werner Coppel.

While many studies might seek to state that the commencement of The Holocaust began with Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, that too would be erroneous. While this assault was indeed the promotion of a move from the rhetoric of hatred to the mob mentality of violent action's, Jews had previously been Murdered under Hitler's tutelage. Of what finally emerged as Hitler's plan for the total destruction of the entirety of the Jewish People has not been confined to a single date, the Murder's of the Jews themselves was conducted widely and throughout the period of Hitler's presence as an antagonist of Jewish hatred.

"..Growing up ..we were told that we were ..ones who got out decades before ..Nazis destroyed our family’s hometowns. My Mother’s family came in ..first decades of ..20th. Century Father’s family a decade or so later. All of my grandparents were born in ..United States ..attending public schools in Boston and Chicago when Kristallnacht hit Germany’s Jews in November 1938." Ben Sales.

This Kristallnacht atrocity, which occured on the night of November 9th. and 10th. 1938 finally convinced the Jewish People that Hitler's tone was no longer entirely rhetorical. Many 1,000's of Jewish Men, Women and Their Children, and most of German Jewry as a body was more convinced than ever, that Hitler had crossed a rubicon of hatred. Now there was a steadier Nazi progression toward them and this was a more aggressive approach with a violence of intention being orchestrated. While the Jews had been severely hampered by legislation, The Nuremberg Laws passed on September 15th. 1935 were aimed at isolating, abusing and then severely and more brutally making them aware of their immediate predicament.

"..After Kristallnacht not only hell breaks loose in Germany ..but ..panic among Jewish citizens in surrounding countries." Erica van Beek.

While some 50,000 Jewish Men in Germany were deported to a number of Concentration Camps, Buchenwald, Dachau, Flossenburg and Sachsenhausen amongst them. In parallel to this many more of them were further deported back to their Country of origin, Poland especially. Heydrich here now provides Goering with the list of those interred under a protective custody order. Of the many 1,000's of German, Austrian and even Sudeten Synagogues, more than 1,400 of these were defiled, desecrated or otherwise damaged. A conservative estimate suggests that some 267 of these were totally Burned out and Destroyed.

"..I lived in Moers ..a small town with a very small Jewish community. There were about 220 Jews in my community ..and only about 22 Jewish children. Our whole life centered on a small room in our town’s synagogue ..which was our safe haven from ..outside world and from Nazi Germany. At this point in time ..Jews were not allowed on playgrounds or in parks. We were not allowed entrance to movies or restaurants. There were signs that stated ..Jews and dogs prohibited ..or ..Jews die in ..gutter." Werner Coppel.

On top of this, 7,500 Jewish Shops, Warehouses, Cemetery's and various other Jewish Businesses and whole Enterprises and Homes were either looted, destroyed or both. Tombs were broken into and smashed, as were gravetones which were uprooted and the graves violated. Bonfires were set and all combustibles, Torahs, other prayer books and scrolls, exquisite artwork and furniture were piled high and set ablaze. The desecration of anything considered sacred to Jewish antecedence was vandalised at the least, obliterated at the extreme. This Night was the single most decisive assault upon the integrity of the Jewish People since Hitler came to power.

"..What do you think about ..synagogues burning. All those synagogues ..all those ..Torahs ..all that glass breaking in ..stores. Next thing they'll be burning Jews." Yitzhak Stephen Herz.

We saw too that more than 240 German, Austrian and former Czech Sudetenland Jews, and those Jews from other nations caught up in the violence, all were murdered. The illusion had now been lifted and Jewry as a whole was more accepting of fleeing their Homelands, Homes and Livelihoods rather than risk what prospect might lay ahead. Within the coming months the race to exit steadily grew apace and as Hitler's hatred boiled over into brutal excess, we recognise that more than 200,000 of the 500,000 Jews who had been on the German 1933 Census had already emigrated.

"..Michelsberg Synagogue of Wiesbaden. ..this large and imposing edifice was totally destroyed during the November 10 th. 1938 murderous devastation known as Kristallnacht ..various congregations combined into one. ..we worshipped at a smaller synagogue at a different address. This Friedrichstrasse Synagogue escaped burning ..was looted ..desecrated." Charlotte Guthmann Opfermann.

However, there was a dual purpose of concern that was not limited to Jews exiting the Country but where were these Jews to go and who wanted them. For me it is a question History will never answer as to why these nations did not open their doors a little wider to save ever more of these now brutalised Jews. More than 9,000 of these Jews fled to Poland and into harms way, while more than 2,000 fleeing Jews made it to the relative safety of Palestine. Of course, this desire to remove themselves and so mitigate their fears barely applied to those Jews who could ill afford to leave. The emerging and vociferous call for a more resolute Solution to The Jewish Question was gaining a prominence within Hitler's inner circle.

"..We were aware of ..Nazis and events in Germany from ..newspapers. I remember ..incident at Zbaszyn when ..Polish citizens were expelled from Germany and were forced to return to Poland. This led up to Kristallnacht ..which happened in Germany. I remember that one refugee family did not have a place to live ..and my father gave them a room." Eva Galler.

Jewry's existence, under the steely gaze of a more repugnant Hitler, would be fatally altered here at Kristallnacht. For all time, The Holocaust would be seen from the very intrinsic move toward a more exacting resolve than mere words had previously suggested. Once Kristallnacht was augmented with such an extreme violence, Jewish lives were put under immense and perilous pressure. While German troops and civilians acted with impunity, SA and even SS knives were brought to the fore as Jewish life itself became an expendable commodity.

"..We saw them starting to march on ..streets and day ..all ..stores already had signs saying ..Juden sind hier unerwunscht ..Jews are not wanted here. ..Jewish stores ..they wrote Jude on them and all kinds of things happened. ..I see my Mother ..street. ..They took her to clean up. ..She didn’t want me to stay there. ..I cried tremendously and I didn’t go home ..I stayed there. ..people ..had no compassion whatsoever. ..full of hate. All of them. All of them. ..In ..winter they came and picked up my Father and Mother and we had to shovel ..snow. We had to shovel snow for hours. ..people were standing around laughing." Thea Rumstein.

Into this mix, which flowed with the wealth, assets, property's and titles of more and more Jews and straight into Hitler's bulging pockets. Many Jewish Community's, especially from Rural areas, were forced out toward major Centres and were compelled to congregate amongst their Jewish City neighbours. Now fully fending for themselves, the Jewish People saw Kristallnacht for what it was, an attack upon their very existence. As social welfare efforts were adopted, and increasingly more urgently by the Reich's Deputation of the German Jews, this Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden, reacted.

"..war broke out very soon after ..Germany invaded Poland ..and England and France got involved. My father went to Scotland Yard and informed ..English that he had family in Germany. Before we could leave to join him ..however Mother was called to meet ..Gestapo ..where they asked her about my Father. ..Gestapo had intercepted a letter ..and on ..7th day of ..Passover ..Gestapo gave me and my Mother 24 hours to leave Germany ..or we would be arrested." Hugo Eichelberg.

However, the reality was not being lost that insufficient funding would not avail all of assistance. With a collective of agencies, numbering some 19 diverse groups of concered Jews now came together to administer Jewish relief, assurance and a modicum of hope. With some $400,000,000 of fines levied by Hitler through Goering and against German Jewry for the Kristallnacht destruction, German Jewry was forced to pay for the harm and damage done to them. This procurement was authored on December 12th. 1938 and for an assault that had been railed against the Jewish People, for being Jews in their own German lands.

"..What took place yesterday ..we know ..what will be tomorrow ..we do not know ..but what happens today ..that we have witnessed ..outside this church ..synagogue is burning ..and that also is a house of God." Bernhard Lichtenberg.

The World had now become witness to an escalating tragedy for German, Austria and Sudeten Jewry. The World could not now remain ignorant nor indifferent as it was now cognizant of what Hitler's clear intentions for the Jewish People was. Let us not forget that with the judicious enactment that was setting forth the legally immoral Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and with the very evident destruction of Jewish Life during the Kristallnacht Pogrom, Hitler's verbal rhetoric is now becoming more violently stated and punitive.

"..During that time there were ..brown shirts ..SA and shirts ..SS. ..They had a quota for ..number of Men they had to arrest. They sat in front of ..home of our rabbi ..but for some reason he was not arrested. My father was also not arrested ..despite ..fact that we lived just across ..courtyard from an SS. Many others were imprisoned and interned in ..camps. My family decided it was best if my father left Germany. In June ..1939 ..all his papers were in order ..and he left for England in September of 1939." Hugo Eichelberg.

Then, for the damage of Kristallnacht to be paid for by the Jews themselves, Jewish presence in any lands bordering Hitler's grasping Weltanschauung, his prospective Wroldview, became untenable. With both a visibly and now physically stated intention, the humiliation of the Jewish People is being given over further to their physical eradication. Few in the West could now doubt the intention of Hitler was only to deal more brutally with a Jewish presence. Even though the terms of the murderous reference had not been clearly expressed or even identified, it was given sovereignty.

"..Most Holocaust reflections are personal and not communal. ..Most do not gather up ..shards of glass from Kristallnacht and surround their art with them." Yitzhak Stephen Herz.

The eventual solution was finally moving toward the end resolve for the resolution of 'The Jewish Question.' Here in History, and out of the flames of so much broken glass, hope and expectation, the Kindertransport was borne. From this physical shock wave of hatred, we will many 1,000's of Jewish Children eventually arrive in Britain and accept their safety is secured. Tragically, and without realising it, the true extent to which they would lose all touch with their Parents, Families and Friends was to be expressed in the destructive capacity of the Death Camps.

"..After Kristallnacht we succeeded in getting a sizable number of Jews to Palestine. That was thanks to ..Captain Frank Foley who did all he could to enable Jews to immigrate. ..he saved 1,000's of Jews from death.” Benno Cohn.

That clearer capacity was to consume many 1,000,000's of their most dearest. For a deep sigh of regret for having to do so, I place before you a series of names. Here, where Synagogues once resided peaceably and were attacked and either Destroyed wholly, were looted, damaged or desecrated in a myriad of ways, their names are known. If nothing else is to be drawn from this, civilising humanity was burned down during Kristallnacht. Not just in these Towns or City's where Synagogues were set to flame but in the hearts and minds of individuals who saw nothing wrong in the assault upon their Jewish Neighbours.

"..Now as I look back 70 years later ..lesson for all of us is that what happened in Germany was a consequence of racism ..hate ..and prejudice. Every new generation must be aware that ..cancer of hate and prejudice is also with us today. way anyone can walk away from messages that contain racism ..prejudice. ..You must always stand up against racism and prejudice ..even if you are not being directly persecuted." Werner Coppel.

The names of these Towns and City's are chosen at random for the Synagogues presence amidst the conflagration. They are now merely an indication of the more widespread atrocity that was filtering through German, Austrian and Sudeten civilised society. Given the insurmountable challenge to Jewish persistance, how can we ever reclaim what was taken from them. I am certain too that at the time, we have lost much of the detail of the very exacting nature of all the crimes committed in the name of Kristallnacht of those consumed in its reach.

"..When we entered we saw ..destruction. ..all ..closets and furniture had been turned over ..their contents spread all over ..floor. Everything was in ruins with broken glass and precious crystals. In ..midst of it all my aunt sat in shock." Daniel Heiman.

For lack of space, and for the time constraints of such a testimonial piece as this, I do not have a permit for a far more widespread indictment. I have always stated my commitment to those Jews of The Holocaust is not just in recalling their presence and their traversing through our time, but it is an accusation of our great wrong, in terms of a so called christian action. Of all that was done by all those who sought to achieve this atrocity, we cannot enable History to forget what was achieved and how it was achieved by both the doers and the bystanders. Know then that the assault upon the Jewish Synagogue was an attack upon Jews caught in the flames of a hatred that had been fanned by Hitler and those like him.

"..All ..synagogues in Germany were destroyed. In our town ..synagogue was not burned ..because if it was burned it would have burned down ..entire block ..and ..Nazis did not want this. However one stopped them from destroying ..entire inside of ..synagogue. This changed my entire life this had been our safe haven. ..Kristallnacht ..every Jewish male had to add ..Israel ..and every Jewish female had to add ..Sarah. ..I became Werner Israel Coppel. My entire social life stopped ..and life changed direction completely. I was ..sent to Auschwitz in 1945." Werner Coppel.

Aach, Aachen, Ahaus, Ahrensburg, Allenstein, Alpen, Altdorf, Altenstadt, Amberg, Anklam, Annaberg, Arnswalde, Arolsen, Auerbach.

Bacharach, Baden-Baden, Bamberg, Bassum, Bautzen, Bayruth, Berlin, Bernberg, Bibra, Bielefield, Billerbeck, Bocholt, Bochum, Bodenfeld, Bonn, Borken, Braunschweig, Bremen, Breslau, Brieg, Bruhl, Buchen, Bunde, Burgdorf, Bytom.

Celle, Cham, Chemnitz, Coburg, Cologne, Cosel, Cottbus, Cranz, Creglingen.

Dahn, Dannenberg, Darmstadt, Dillingen, Dobling, Dorsten, Dortmund, Dramburg, Dresden, Drossen, Duren, Dusseldorf.

Eberbach, Eberswalde, Efringen, Ellrich, Emmerich, Erfurt, Erlangen, Eschau, Eschwege, Essenheim, Essingen.

Fasanenstrasse, Festenberg, Flacht, Flatow, Floss, Forst, Frankenthal, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Freienwalde, Freystadt, Friedrichstadt, Furstenwalde.

Gallingen, Gelsenkirchen, Gemund, Gerden, Gernsbach, Gliwice, Glockengasse, Goch, Goldbach, Gollnow, Gorlitz, Goslar, Graben, Greifenberg, Guttentag.

Halberstadt, Halle, Hamm, Hanover, Harburg, Heidelberg, Heilbron, Hietzinger, Hockenheim, Hofheim, Horb.

Ihringen, Illereichen, Illingen, Ingolstadt, Irrel.

Jastrow, Jauer, Jebnitz, Jever.

Kaiserlautern, Karlsruhe, Kassel, Kiel, Kirchheim, Kirf, Konigsberg, Konstanz, Koslin, Krefeld, Krojanke, Kuppenheim, Kusel.

Labbes, Lahr, Lambsheim, Landau, Landeshut, Landsberg, Lauenburg, Leipzig, Leopoldstadter, Liegnitz, Linz, Lubbecke, Lubeck, Lunen, Lyck.

Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marienburg, Marburg, Mayern, Memmigen, Meppen, Mohrungen, Moringen, Mosbach, Munich,

Nalbach, Namslau, Naugard, Neidenburg, Netra, Neudeggergasse, Neuenkirchen, Neustadt, Nordhausen, Nuremberg.

Oedheim, Oels, Ohlau, Oldenburg, Opole, Oppeln, Oppenheim, Osann, Osnabruck, Osterode, Osthofen, Ottensoos.

Pappenheim, Pasewalk, Pazmaniten, Peine, Plauen, Plettenberg, Polnische, Potsdam.

Ratibor, Ratzebuhr, Reckendorf, Regensburg, Riesenburg, Rimbach, Robel, Rosenberg, Rosenthal, Rostock, Rothnburg, Rottweil, Rummelsburg, Rust.

Saalfeld, Saarbrucken, Sagan, Salzburg, Schlochau, Schwelm, Schwerin, Seeburg, Semper, Siegen, Soest, Sommerfeld, Sontra, Sorau, Spandau, Speyer, Stettin, Stolp, Storkow, Stuttgart, Suhl.

Talheim, Tann, Taplau, Templin, Themar, Tilsit, Trachenberg, Treis, Treuburg, Tubingen, Tutz, Twistringen.

Uehfeld, Ulm.

Vienna, Vierheim, Viersen, Vietz, Vilshofen, Vohl.

Waldorf, Walsrode, Wangen, Warburg, Wehlau, Wertheim, Wiesbaden, Wilhelmshaven, Windsheim, Wollin, Worms, Worstadt, Worth, Wuppertal, Wurzburg.

Zell, Zeven, Ziebingen, Zielenzig, Zullichau, Zulz, Zwickau.

"..I look back is important to realize that this can happen in any country. It is not an isolated event in Germany. We must make our own destiny." Hugo Eichelberg.

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HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, October 29, 2018 16:11:03

"..mood in Grayeve was very heavy. All ..Jews expected bad times but they did not know that they were standing over an abyss and that their days were numbered. Poles talked openly of murdering ..Jews ..yet Jews in Grayeve as all over Poland never anticipated and did not conceive of such a huge tragedy and such annihilation as befell them a few years later." Dr. George Gorin.

There is little new in these few lines to offer peace to the Memory of those Jews of Grajewo, and while its truth is known to many, it is not quite known to all. Far too often the detailed space occupied by those Murdered of Grajewo, and all too many other spaces removed of its Jews, is lost in the very narrative content which is The Holocaust. I hope I have brought newer recall to those who Survived to know we are here Always to Remember, Never to Forget them. We are made aware of what the Survivor has achieved, but largely require a reminder as to what we allowed to happen to their compatriots from Grajewo and more tellingly, what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of Their Family, Friends and Neighbours for being Jews. There is a work, a book by Dr. George Gorin, Grajewo Poland, Memorial (Yizkor) and it is precisely about these, the Jews of Grajewo. This now is my effort to add to both memory and remembrance and is merely a supplement to that specific detail.

"..Ghettos ..torture by neighbors ..deportation to camps. So much diversity of murder in a small town." Evelyn Fine.

Much of this underlying narrative, which underscores the very essence of Grajewo's Jews, is written by those intimately connected to the catastrophic events which consumed this Community of Jews. Other contributing testimony's, whose flow of words echo the Jewish refrain that signalled those events which litter Polish history, add to the broader dimension which becomes The Holocaust itself. With an intolerance, indifferent to the slaughter of a People, 3,000,000 of whom were their own Polish Jewry, the fate of Polish Jewry was in cold relief here in Grajewo. For me it is essential, and while I clearly acknowledge that I owe more to History than it owes to me, that applies to Jewish History in particular. The loss of our own Humanity, cannot remain eternally lost without us attempting to gain at least part of what is detained within The Holocaust. This effort is gaining ground in our understanding. But it remains an ingrained loss, contributed to in no small measure by the attitude of Poles, Europeans and the World at large to the struggle and decimation of Jewish life under Hitler.

"..It was late at night and a community of Jews slept uneasily ..surrounded by a hateful wrathful world ..enveloped in black shadows of reaction and enmity." Dr. George Gorin.

For me, there is the thread of a further narrative echoing through this work on the Jews of Grajewo and it comes for their past and from those who wished to share their knowledge of that past. Their entitled integrity is a combined effort, and it is of the inescapable truth which tore Jewish Grajewo to shreds. So while this is merely a hint of what Grajewo must mean for those Jews intimately connected to its unravelling atrocity in The Holocaust, and for History and our Humanity, let us remember also the diversity of its Human dimension. No one can ever approach the deep loss felt by those whose very devastation is complete. In all that proved too much to have to bear, for what could still be done in the name of the oldest hatred, which is antisemitism we urge their memory to deliver their pain ever more increasingly. For me, empathy will allow for all of us to come closer to appreciating this huge loss, even when we can never know the totality of all that has gone and taken from us.

"..village ..built on that spot was therefore known as Vyerbove. After resting briefly ..Adam and Eve continued walking. Enchanted by of their new surroundings ..Adam called to Eve ..Play ..Eve. ..This is how the future town built on this spot came to be known as Grayeve." Khaye Golding-Kayman.

What we have all too often, is a lack of the context in which the Jews themselves strove to Survive and in every event were forced to endure. If not, they would simply topple over at the point of a gun or in the Gas Chambers of Birkenau, Treblinka or Majdanek which would consume their very existence. We move carefully onto a History of a place, not wholly Jewish but steeped in the Jewish tradition of the education of its People. These were Jews of trade and diversity all the while coping with the ramshackle relations between their non-Jewish Neighbours. Here, the expression of peasants, who held petty grudges and aspirations beyond their means was driven by a church which stood for equally obnoxious sentiments as any hatred would confirm and professed them often. Grajewo, known also as Grajevo, Grayavah and Grayeve was a small provincial town in the Bialystok region of Poland where Jewish settlers began establishing themselves around the early 1700’s. By the end of that century the Jewish People had fully established a thriving and benevolent community there.

"..I simply seek a friend. I seek somebody I could tell about my worries and joys of everyday life. Somebody who would feel what I feel ..who would believe me ..who would never reveal my secrets." Renia Spiegel.

I had begun to write a piece of work in the faint hope I could formulate a recall of the Grajewo tragedy. Here though I need to stress fully that I cannot begin to ever know the loss to our humanity over the Murders of these Jews, and not just the Jews of Grajewo but for the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe who are The Holocaust. Also, and for the entirety of the Jewish People of The Holocaust, and we know their number, it is 6,000,000, but we cannot know them all on any other lvel that in a past sense of an immense loss. What we do know and must accept is that these Jews of Europe, these are in fact The Holocaust. Desparingly too, we have but the names for 4,500,000 of these Jews from within the catastrophe. While that is a monumental effort in itself, given Hitler’s clear attempt to obliterate all traces of any Jewish presence from within Europe on an individual basis, We cannot know these Jews personally.

"..I understood ..meaning of these gruesome deaths from ..stories ..Rabbi used to tell us in kheyder ..religious school ..but could not imagine that such a dreadful death would befall my own father in ..Hitler gehenem ..hell ..of torment ..suffering." Dr. George Gorin.

Without each and every individual atrocity, We cannot arrive at the depth of that Jewish Catastrophe that is to be the coming of The Holocaust. While we need to learn who Lejzer Hersz Abkevitz, Pinkus Abkiewicz, Shimon Kolko, Yosel Levitt, Abraham Mordecai Piorko, Yankel Rutski and Zalman Sutker were, we indeed learn who we are. Along with Ari Ibn Zaav or Sholem Zaidenberg we need to appreciate their place in the History of the approach to an astonishing destruction, brought relentlessly forward so as to sweep them from life. From amongst all of this we cannot seemingly extract further from those missing names of the 1,500,000 Jews of The Holocaust entire, still missing to us. So here, in these formative days of Grajewo's Jewish existence, which is getting further away from its rural persistence, the Jews operated a number of factories and many of them opened small shops.

"..attitude of ..Polish fascists and semi fascists even in such a dangerous situation as ..threatened German attack did not alter." Nakhman Rapp.

In places like Grajewo, the essential to add individually to what has been taken from us all must not be submerged by the essence of 6,000,000 personal, individual and human losses. According to the census of 1765, there were 83 Jews aged over one year old, and these from some 17 differing families. From amongst these, 6 Family's resided in their own houses and 11 other’s had actually leased their homes to ensure Jewish roots were being firmly established. Also, there were some 336 Jews who were living in 38 villages in close proximity to Grajewo and these Jews leased taverns or were occupied as small traders, especially artisans, craftsmen in both tailoring and tinsmithing. Until 1862 Grajewo was included in the towns of the Russian-German border zone, where Jewish residence was subjected to various restrictions, controls and bias. In the 1800’s many Jews in Grajewo exported agricultural produce and artisan goods across the border to Eastern Prussia. This was a cross border trade that had flourished with little of the anti-Jewish feeling to come forward later on.

"..I left for ..train accompanied by my Parents ..Brother and Sister. Tears were choking me and I felt like a person saving himself from a danger and leaving his dearest behind alone. ..Grayeve streets were dark and abandoned." Dr. George Gorin.

However, once the rhetoric of hatred had been inbibed and given free reign in Poland, an antisemitism which had sought to purge from its Polish christian midst its Jewish presence, it had been sought out again from that same hatred developed over the centuries. The church inculcated itself with vehemence in many anti-Jewish pogroms and when the words of Hitler would ring out, it struck a chord and resonated with the basest instincts of those Poles already converted to their own brand of Jewish hatred. In Poland, antisemitism had been given an almost universal expression and this hatred they now adapted and explored. By now, the Grajewo Jewish community numbered 197 or roughly 39% of the total population of the Shtetl of over 500 people in 1808. This had risen to some 727 Jews, or about 57% of the total population of around 1,300 people in 1827.

By the time we reached 1857 there were some 1,457 Jews representing some 76% of this still considered Shtetl population of more than 1,900 people. With the first Zionist Congress, held in Basel in 1892, the Jews of Grayeve were already caught up in Zionist thought. Home away from threats to their own integrity could not be contenanced on an on-going basis forever. Here, the whole Jewish Shtetl underwent a suprising shift in growth and by 1897 there were some 4,336 Jews living in Grajewo. With Rebbe Avraham Piorko, who was a prominent Hebrew teacher, he became a central figure in Grajewo and was much loved. An aspirational outlook blossomed once more and Reb Piorko inspired both the educated Jews and the scholarly Jews of the Town. By the time of the Zionist Congress that was held in Minsk in 1902, Grajewo was represented by Elimelekh Pomerants at its congregation. Here too, Miryam Markel-Mosessohn was part of an aspiring Yiddish Press in Grajewo at the turn of the century marking its progression.

"..we were more afraid of ..Poles than of ..Germans." Khaye Golding-Kayman.

With the Balfour Declaration of November 2nd. 1917 there was a great call for celebration for World Jewry and in Grajewo it was no exception. World Jewry could now look toward the prospect of their own Homeland in Palestine. In 1913, shortly before World War I, Moshe Avigdor Amiel became the Rabbi of Grajewo, a member of the Mizrachi movement with his pius influence so keenly felt. Rabbi Amiel did manage to escape the horror’s of The Holocaust and died in 1946 knowing then what we are still coming to terms with, the loss of his People. There developed in Grajewo also a strong sense of identity which had long been sought by them. From their aspirational and educating principles of furtherance, Jewish identity grew in evidence and relevance. Residents remembered here are Avrom and Itche Gershtonsky, Leyble Remigolsky, Simche Sarn, Izze Epstein, Mr. Gortshitsky, Gershuny Eisenstat, Chaim Friedman, Isaac Kolko, Mr. Lifshitz and the two Teacher's, Miss Kolko, who was Shimon Kolko's daughter and Miss Barkovska, and all were well respected.

"..gray and cold days with ..worries for ..coming winter. ..whole city gets ready. Homeowners buy loads of potatoes to be stored in cellars ..sheds replenished with firewood and peat. ..hamlet braces itself for survival of ..oncoming winter." Dr. George Gorin.

Grajewo became the source of culture for the local region and Zalmen Sutker, Grajewo's own theater director, set up a movie house in Shtutzin. Shtutzin, less than 10 miles away was presented with US style movies twice a week. The Great War of 1914-1918 did not escape the Jews of Grajewo, nor did it escape much of Poland. World War I was to be the War to end all Wars, given the depth of destruction meted out in the trenches. But side by side Polish Jew fought with non-Jewish Pole in furtherance of a greater deed than petty hatreds all too easily expressed in antisemitic tones. The end of WWI however, did not afford Jews any respite from the previous pettiness and pogroms were continually unleashed in Poland. 16 Jewish Youths from Grajewo, including the 3 Brother's Segalevitsh were set upon by non-Jewish Poles in Ogustove, now Augustow. They were being brought back to Grajewo and they stopped off in the Village of Belda for some respite.

There, the Polish escort Murdered all 16 of these Grajewo Jews and their bodies were dumped into a communal grave there.The Jews of Grajewo and Shtutzin had a shared liviehood going back over generations which was a vibrant and vital co-dependence. Grajewo had its own train station, where Buses met, and Trucks dispatched all manner of goods from the arriving trains. This made Grajewo the dominant hub in the area. Travel to Bialystok and Warsaw was effected here and all major Polish centres too could be reached. All those seeking to escape Poland too, to Palestine or America transferred from here and toward Germany and a hoped for prosperity. Unknown at the time, all such moves would also secure them safety against the murderous net Hitler was beginning to cast. Education still proved both liberating and steadying, so much so that a prayer and study house and Yiddish School was to become prominent in Grajewo.

"..a sunny spring day in 1921 when ..for ..first time ..left my beloved ..Grayeve ..a feeling of longing and loss nagged in my heart ..every house ..every street ..every fence ..connected with so many memories ..everyone ..a friend or ..acquaintance. ..a departure ..from Grayeve ..also childhood." Dr. George Gorin.

In what was becoming a fortress for prayer and religious study, and what was now a burgeoning Town, Jewish Grajewo was thriving. The San Remo Conference, during April 1920, saw the Allied Nations, who had fought together in World War One, reaffirm their commitment to the pledge given in The Balfour Declaration of a Jewish sovereignty. This, providing World Jewry future hope of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine was to be grasped enthusiastically. Given that the murders of these 16 Young Grajew Jews had caused an upsurge in both local and national expressions of antiemitism, pogroms and other murders, that declaration appeared opportune In 1921, while census figures throughout Poland recognised the integrity of 2,855,000 Jews who were present within Poland, these numbers were not allowed to give Polish Jewry any real sense of stability or belonging.

"..Poles Grajewo well as in Shtutzin ..first murdered ..Jewish intellectuals and householders as to immediately get their hands on their property. ..All classes of Polish society took part in ..slaughter." Khaye Golding-Kayman.

After the ravages of World War I there had been sought out many vicious accounts from amongst non Jewish Polish and against Polish Jews of both the whole Poland and from here within Grajewo. Perhaps most cruelly, and unaware what the ending of mass immigration to America would ultimately mean, with the passage of the Immigration Law of 1924 it carried with it greater restrictions for those Jews deperately seeking a way out of Poland and out of harms way. At the time this was simply a migration of Polish Jews on the grounds of economic consideration, though all manner of abuses played a leading hand in the decision making process. But this was not yet to become a matter of life over their death, a death which would eventually consume them. For more than 3,000,000 of Polish Jewry, that murder process came in a systemised, industrial, mechanised and annihilatory Slaughter.

Here too in Grajewo, while there were now some 2,834 Jews, or 39% of a total population of 7,346 residents of the Town, we understand a great loss was made of Jewish life in the world conflict. In 1928 there set in upon the area the deepest winter cold, an intensity of cold that was not recorded again until the occupation period just prior to Hitler’s attack on Russia in 1941. In 1929 there was a Jewish Revisionist Party founded in Grajewo and the era of Zionism, now speaking for a national shelter for World Jewry had arrived in all its forms. Also, and with the realisation of Hitler's confirming intention to strike at World Jewry, the prospect of taking Polish Jewry away from the scourge of an antisemitism that was 2,000 years in the making appeared less reactionary and more a realistic prospect for the sanctity of Jewish life.

"..silence does not last long. A door opens and closes with a bang. A boy with a brass kettle in his hand runs to River Street for tea. Slowly ..whole hamlet arouses from ..deep slumber. This is how it was in summertime ..every Saturday afternoon ..year in ..year out." Dr. George Gorin.

The essence of a more National identity did not leave the Jews, and those thoughts of Eretz Yisroel while taking shape, still had home firmly fixed under foot in Poland. However, since Hitler’s rise to power, the region itself became a hotbed of anti-Jewish feelings once more, empowered somewhat by the rhetoric of hatred coming from within Germany. Educationally, great determined studies were adapted and they were clearly refined by local Scholars which many non-Jewish Poles did not avail of, and this bolstered the misguided belief in an educated Germany undermining the racist hatred of Hitler. Amongst the Scholars to give hope to Grajewo were Dr. Emanuel Olschwanger, Abraham Mordecai Piorko, Professor Simon Rawidowicz, Dr. Zwi Woyslavski and Ari Ibn Zaav and many others, all are markedly renowned as innovators and leaders.

"..Particularly horrible was of Miss Elkon ..a Woman ..mentally unbalanced person whom ..Nazi had dragged into ..Bogusha woods. They put out her eyes and left her blind and dying. A peasant had found her and brought her home in ..wagon." Nakhman Rapp.

With learning proving key to the growth of Jewish understanding, great strides were still being made collectively, for Jewish enterprise in Grajewo. In 1933 and then through 1934, 1935 and again into 1936 the sting of widespread Pogroms filtered back into Polish actions. The boycotts of Jewish Business and assaults against the Jewish People were never controlled, were sporadic and less coordinated. But still, they continued across Poland as if to sanction somehow the bile which Hitler presented now on a World stage. Gradually, Polish non-Jewish intentions became more clear and assaults upon the local Jewish integrity started to become more focused and even politically motivated and organized. In 1937, on what would be Dr. George Gorin's last visit to Grajewo before the Catastrophe, the chill of hatred failed to wrm the spirit of his visit and he was increasingly concerned for the future structure of Poland with its Jews locked within its rapidly closing borders.

"..a fiery antisemitic sermon in church and ..murderous instincts had been aroused. Peasants came to that market day with axes and sticks to beat and kill Jews and they had not forgotten to bring huge sacks in which to pack up ..merchandise from robbed Jewish businesses." Dr. George Gorin.

This was the atmposphere which had greeted Dr. Gorin on this occasion of his visit, which he attempted to make to Grajewo at least once a year. While Jewish strength grew through learnings, catholic church officials could incite the worst excesses of ignorant bigotry which many non-Jewish Poles subscribed to. It was not too difficult to attract this age old bias and bigoted hatred and it resurfaced all too often. Every strata of governance was emboldened and then embroiled in this push toward the very ignorance which should have been enlightenly shelved. The Polish government of Marshal Pilsudski, along with the rightist Sanacja was so debilitated by its focus upon the Jewish question. It is abundantly clear that it too became a bankrupt, undignified and politically ruinous right wing oppressor of its own Jewish strength of Population. This Polish government’s own failure to speak more loudly against the tirade of abuses suffered by Polish Jewry was an abdication of a duty of care and responsibility.

"..It doesn't suffice from them to merely see us die. They had to rape us in addition. Gestapo men and some Poles did ..job. Brother Jews! Take revenge for us and for our shame." Sarah Mayek.

What always allowed for this seeming acquiesence, which sought to further bolster the strength of antisemitic assaults, was both a culpable and calamitous duplicity. While Jewish property was under constant attact, Jewish businesses were robbed and Jewish houses were broken into. Jewish Women were regularly violated and these attacks were widely common place. With so many Jewish doors and windows smashed, and far too often, and with the physical assault against any Jewish neighbour becoming too regular, Jewish life suffered greatly. Even after what appeared an enlightenment post WWI, even when so much promise and expecttion had been raised, the chill wind of conflict bloomed. Then, with the Munich Pact signed between Britain and Hitler on September 30th. 1938, and with the appeasing of Hitler's hate filled aspiration, this agreement practicably ensured for the Jews of Europe, Poland and Grajewo that they now knew they were to be abandoned to the whim of a Hitler hell bent upon destroying them.

"..Thursday before war broke out ..entire population was at ..railroad station. ..heart rending cries of ..mothers whose sons were leaving for ..front mixed with ..shouting of those who had not been able to leave earlier and were now in panic. Drunken Polish soldiers leaped from into ..Jews ..shouting that ..war had come because of ..Jews and that now they would get even." Nakhman Rapp.

No piece of paper can have so defined the betrayal of all Europe than this abandonment of the very integrity of individual nations here in Munich. In the intervening year, in which European Jewry was somewhat lulled into a false sense of security again, it never matched the certain shock waves of despair that had wrung out after the treachery they initially felt, and so accutely. Hope was in abundance though, and by 1939, with 3,850 Jews constituting 40% of Grajewo's population, artesans, tradesmen skilled and un-skilled with Doctor's, Teachers and other professionals being well established, optimism could offer the hope that the disquiet would not. By this time some 400,000 Jews had already left Poland for Palestine and elsewhere, and all this, covering the past few years. However, this still saw 3,250,000 Jews recorded as Polish Citizenry at the time and though hope was held tightly on to, and with no inkling of what was coming, troubled Polish Jewry on the whole, sank back into the sanctity of their belief that all was well.

"..I ran to ..window to see what was happening. A thick column of smoke rose to blocking out ..light. Were it not for ..constant firing and explosions might have thought that was not being attacked but merely put to ..torch. Not being able to see anything through ..window ..I went ..onto ..porch. But as soon as I put my hand outside ..I was hit by a piece of shrapnel which tore off ..2 fingers. I fainted and my wife carried me indoors." Yosef Kalski.

Imitation is never the best form of flattery and that should certainly be subscribed to the Polish conduct and their efforts to resemble the Nazi assaults and Murders being reigned down upon the Jewish People in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. Right up until it became Polish Jewry's turn to feel the weight of Nazi aggression, in full and even in Grajewo itself, Grajewo was immediately impacted by Hitler’s Invasion of Poland on September 1st. 1939. Here, Polish sovereignty was all but quashed and under the yoke of Hitler's aggression, Polish Jewry and the non-Jewish Pole would suffer these consequences, but not as The Final Solution of The Jewish Question would contend. Almost immediately, Polish Jewry was set to be Murdered in their entirety, amongst the very many Poles who had fallen defending their Country, were the many Jews who had fought alongside their erstwhile Cousins.

"..Remember this day ..remember it well will tell generations to come about it one day. ..we have been shut away in ..ghetto. I live here now is separated from me and I’m separated from" Renia Spiegel.

Jews, even affected as they were by the rampant antisemitism present within Poland, and this did not disappear once they entered the Military, they joined up for the exact same reasons that National pride must dictate. Alongside these were those Polish Jews who had come from Grajewo to stand squarely for that very reason which dictated what would be a unity of spirit. However, that was barely reserved for Jews in Polish Military service once Poland had tasted defeat. Here though, for the loss to the Jews of Grajewo, and I mention barely a few of those lost to us, it cannot be forgotten the good and decent non-Jewish Pole who saw nothing different in serving alongside any Pole, Jew or not, in the service of their Nation, and its pride. With the close proximity of Grajewo to the Polish border, this meant that these regional Poles and Jews were the first to fall in battle. While any of these military survivals were treated wholly differently by the invading Nazi’s, it was especially so for the Jews.

"..There is very little documentary material available on ..subject. ..Polish Army ..defeated ..left no written records of its men taken prisoner ..scanty files of ..Polish Government in Exile in London hardly mention ..fate of ..Jewish prisoners of war." Shmuel Krakowski.

Bearing in mind there was little of any Polish Military command structure after Hitler's victory, the Polish Army command had run away and across the Romanian border. Petty squabbles once again settled in and age old hatreds came to the surface to either blame or accuse the Jews for the defeat. With German inflammation of such divisiveness, former comrades in arms saw the Jewish plight as a method to ameliorate their own predicament. With the formative Einsatzkommando operating with impunity, identifying Jewish pow's was often gifted these Einsatz supplementary forces. Of course, there is little substantive evidence for what was politically motivated or even militarily expedient. But with regards the treatment of the Polish Jewish Military, past comraderie was placed else where. Certainly, German treatment of Polish pow's was severe, though that Jewish status emerged to ensure as Jews, they were brutalised incrementally more savagely than their former non-Jewish military colleagues. The Jews indeed received the most barbaric and brutal of treatments, whether they were Jews of the military or not. As to the Jewish soldiers treatment by their non-Jewish former Polish Military, once the defeat had settled upon them, which was clearly subscribed by Nazi intention, former shared heroics were selfishly confined to self and was tribal.

"..I see before my eyes my Brothers ..Sisters of my birthplace Grajewo ..who died under torture and in great pain. I hear their last desire unspoken ..tell of our deaths. ..Let not our memory ..memory of our sorrows be forgotten. ..Let ..memory of our martyrdom remain as a headstone for ..few survivors of our city where they may come to weep and recall ..tragic loss. ..for our people ..let it remain as a spark which ignites a great flame ..a constant reminder." Nakhman Rapp.

The Jewish People were singled out for being Jews and it is a reprehensible course which then segregates them out, and also within the Polish Military any mutual code was displaced. Jews were made unequal from their non-Jewish Polish comrades despite their equal effort in fighting against the common enemy. Once battle had been done though, and from amongst the prisoner’s of War were these Grajewo Jews forced to die, Chaim Epstein, and though Yakov Shia Kaminski was captured, he managed to escape but would later be Murdered in the Ghetto with his Parents. Any and all forms of Survival was a temporary measure required by Hitler for those Jews whose fate within Poland he had sourced and then secured. There was Benyomen Kureyvowski, Chaim Kurzhondkowski, Chaim Mendel Levine, Yosel Levitt, Yankel Rutski, the Son of Falk Rutski the Painter, Tobiashora, Gershon Viernik, Moishe Viernik, Moishe Yitzhok, Leibl Zeligson all lost for doing what Citizens’ have been doing for Century’s, fighting to protect their Homes, their Nations, their status in Statehood.

"..They took ..youth and especially ..males into ..synagogue and tortured them for 2 weeks. There in ..synagogue it was a real hell. Such tortures would be better to die rather than suffer so much. They twisted their arms ..ripped out their tongues ..tore out their nails. They whipped them every day in ..morning ..100 lashes each. When one of those tortured fainted ..they threw him into water with chlorine and lime ..and when he regained consciousness there was another new torture ..jumping over various barricades ..over benches ..tables." Christina Helene Nadolna.

The Town itself fell victim pretty quickly and though many of the Polish administration took flight and made its way to Bialystok, there were many Jewish residents who both chose to stay or could not afford to flee their homes. Those intial 2 weeks of September were crucial in establishing German clear intentions, as many places of Jewish worship or study were attacked and even burned down. With the killing of many of those Jews, who were completely at a loss as to such scenes, this was an unimagineable horror from supposedly civilised a nation. Jewish Grajewo was often times traumatised in the past, now it was more entrenched and from an external source. The enforced transport of many Jews to places unknown was a further concern for all Jews, both present and returning. Meanwhile the brutality against those Jews remaining knew no bounds as Dovid Rapp, the 17 year Son of Itsik Rapp the baker, was quartered alive with swords by Nazi murderers. On September 17th. 1939, and though the Jews of Grajewo could not have known it, while 20 of Laskarzew's Jews were being murdered in their homes and streets, Russia occupied the Eastern portion of Poland.

"..young engineer Kirshboym. ..was not from Grayeve ..came as a refugee from Warsaw. ..was happy to jump from ..2nd. story and tried to run away. Poles ..standing around and taking pleasure in ..Jews' suffering ..caught ..Jewish engineer and threw him into ..big pit near ..shul. ..pit was a ..big ..garbage pit ..Germans ..made near the shul. After they threw him in ..unfortunate engineer swam around and grabbed ..boards of ..rim with his hands and tried to crawl out of ..excrement." Yan Kalski.

We learn the names of othrs of Grajewo's Jews, Moyshe Pinievski was amongst the bakers of Grajewo but it was Khaym Leyzer, who had a bakery on Shul Street whose Daughter was blown apart with a handgrenade. These Jews faced the wrath of the German's for no good reason other than their Jewish antecedence. Khaym Leyzer's Son Srolke, just simply disappeared. A few residents also known to Grajewo History included Avraham-Itsik Faynshtayn, Shabtsi Frida, Mr. Genakhovski, Itsik Gershtanski, Sender Guzhik, Mr. Gvirtsman, Mr. Kahane, Tsvi Kaptshavski, Mr. Kats, Khaim Katsprovski, Beynesh Kolko, Mr. Kravtsinski, Ruvn Malakhovski, Mr. Markus, Elimelekh Pomerants, Khaim Itsik Ravidovits, Henekh Raykhelzon, Mordkhe Rembelinker, Mordkhe Rinkovski, Alter Tsuker, Mr. Vapinski, Elihu Vaks, Dr. Tsvi Vayslavski, Dr. Velikovski, Dr. Viner, Itsik Vitkievits and Mr. Yezherski. Amonsgt the many Jews taken away were the 15 year old Son of Khaytshe Baykovski, Abrasha Baykovski and Khaym Fridman, the Son of Feyge Malke Fridman. Khaym Fridman was the only one of these Grajewo Jews removed to a killing site in the Bogusze Forest who managed to escape and return.

"..After that they stood them all up in rows and each tenth person had to jump through ..second story window. If anyone jumped and lived ..Germans killed him on They twisted ..Jews' hands with barbed wire ..and with ..same wire they twisted their heads backwards and threw them into ..cellar of ..shul like that that they would die there. ..dead bodies of ..tortured were only taken out a year later ..completely decayed. You could not recognize who anyone was. ..workers who were driven together for that work became deathly ill with several diseases. ..corpses were thrown into a pit with lime that had been in ..cellar." Christina Helene Nadolna.

Other’s taken away for Slaughter were the Rabbi, Itsik Ayzik Grosman and the owner of the mill, Avromtshe Ayzenshtat. Such was the onslaught in those formative days, that for those Jews who did manage to flee, they began their return only once it appeared German influence could be assuaged by Russian intervention in their areas. Under the Soviet occupation of September 20th. 1939 until June 22nd. 1941, when Hitler launched his operation Barbarossa and Invaded Russia, Jewish businesses were nationalized and Polish Jewry West of the demarcation line were left to the mercy of Hitler’s murderous legions. On September 21st. 1939 Heydrich issued clearer instructions as to the Einsatzgruppe aktionen to be taken against the Jews of all Poland and this too was keenly felt in Grajewo. Gradually too, the very Jewish complexion of Grajewo settled into a post apocalyptic calm and business resumed as it had before. The Jewish People were not oblivious to the on going threat to their presence, livliehoods and even lives, and though many were resigned to a fate as yet unknown, there were many who spread the word of those atrocity's to disbelieving ears and incredulous minds.

"..standing around ..laughing at ..zhyd ..submerged ..filth. When they saw ..young man was crawling out ..ran to him and with iron shovels split ..unfortunate's head into pieces." Yan Kalski.

The Russians for their part entered Poland on the side of Hitler and his regime, and here, some of the most influential Jews of Poland, along with their Families, were extracted by the Russians. The Russian administration were somewhat bemused by the Polish non-Jewish conduct toward their Jewish Neighbours. This anti-Jewish antipathy cannot be stated without acknowledging the great rift that was present amonsgt the Russian elite and their Jewish counterparts in Russia. The Jews of Russian were not always seen kindly or treated well. During March and April 1941, military subscription was brought in by the Russian Red Army and all those of Military age were conscripted into Stalin’s realm. The Jews of Grajewo were not slow in signing up and those who went were, amongst many, Chaim Adanstein, Leibel Dorf, Gershon Gringross, the Son of the Butcher, Zorach Gringross, Shamai Marcus, Yosel Mayek and Yankel Roimer. All went on to fight against the Nazi terror which tore apart the very existence of Jewish Grajewo.

"…we sat down on with our feet tied together and so ..night was passed. ..night was very terrible. First ..because they would not allow us out to urinate ..people suffered a lot. Second such a time all kinds of thoughts occur. One says ..they will set us on fire ..another says something else." Mayer Kletski.

On June 19th. 1941, and from Grajewo itself, a number of Jewish families, the Beykowskis, Yosef Bialostocki and his family, the Kirshenbaum’s, the nurse Mania Kaplan and Aaron Leizerson were all moved to what might be considered safety, the hinterland of Russia. Some of these Grajewo Jewish residents, and many other Polish Jews, and even non-Jews were exiled from Poland into deepest Siberia. For these Jews expelled, exiled, removed, for those who survived the rigours of Russian climbs, they indeed Survive what Hitler had intended for them. In Grajewo, the old synagogue, which had been burned down by Hitler's horde was replaced by a theatre, described as beautiful and which could safely accomodate the seating of 1,500 of those attending Plays, Shows and Concerts. The intention to dismantle the study system and the belief system of the Jewish People was fixed but circumvented.

"..I often returned to find there consolation and a retreat from ..strange wild world." Dr. George Gorin.

Hitler’s legions did him proud as they had burned all the synagogues of Grajewo, and elsewhere throughout Poland, their Synagogues became recognisable targets. A Grajewo communal prayer house was conducted in Moishe Piniewski’s home. Moishe was another of Grajewo’s baker’s, and so some semblance of Religious life resumed. Although in somewhat more cramped surroundings and with an air of strick secrecy surrounding it, Judaism was given light in the still darkness. A part of the Yiddish School too was set aside for Religious activity and this was ably conducted by Anshel Kotchak. When the Germans set fire to the large synagogue Yitshok Grobgeld succeeded in saving one Holy Scroll and a number of prayer books which were of great use during this time. By June 24th 1941 a German military kommandatur arrived in Grajewo and it settled into its Headquarters on Pilsudskiego Street.

"..Grayeve Ghetto was larger than that of Shtutzin. Not just one small street ..but several streets and ..2 or 3 well constructed buildings." Khaye Golding-Kayman.

Normality of sorts for the theatre actors, who so graciously strode the stage, was for all too many of them their swan song as they did not Survive Hitler's intentions. Nor did any of Grajewo's Children who had wistfully watched so many of these fine performances. All Grajewo's Jews were either Murdered by the Nazi's and their collaborator's, on the spot or within Majdanek, Treblinka or Auschwitz. Then, as Hitler's forces prepared for Barbarossa, the unprovoked attack on his former ally Mother Russia, many of those already exiled Polish Jews would now be saved from certain annihilation. The Germans recaptured Grajewo on June 22nd. 1941, and instituted a reign of terror against its Jewish Community. As the Germans reoccupied the Town, Assaults, Rapes and Murder were immediately conducted against these innocent Jewish inhabitants. The Ghetto within Grajewo, which would eventually contain more than 3,000 Jews was in existence the following day, from June 23rd. 1941.

"..In ..morning ..overseers came in and asked with a smile ..So ..little Jews ..How did you sleep." Mayer Kletski.

Within Grajewo itself, and with it its immediate regional Jewish life, all was forfeit to the whim of the Nazi administration and also to the local antisemitism of fascist Polish organizations. In what has been termed the Bermuda Triangle of atrocity against Polish Jewry, this triangulation was the area of Bialystok, Grajewo and Lomza, the Polish non-Jewish population was freed from restraint and were driven enthusiastically toward atrocity against their former Jewish Neighbours. I remember here, as I took my own persoanl journey from Warsaw to Malkinia, and I would be setting foot in the Treblinka Death Camp, which had consumed 900,000 Jews from Europe, Poland and Grajewo, I witnessed signs which pointed to Augustow. I also noticed the very names of these 3 Cities and Town's which were forming that triangle of Destruction Bialystok, Grajewo and Lomza.

"..A city is like a living creature. It has a heart that feels ..moods of melancholy ..frivolity ..enthusiasm ..worries. It seems there were a lot of Grayeves ..each ..a different face ..depending on ..different circumstances." Dr. George Gorin.

There too the signs pointed towards Szczuczyn, all of these places bridging that abyss between my own knowledge and its integrity that was buried in each of these places I mention. I sat on my train journet and realised that this cascading effort in atrocity, which reached in from Germany and would consume Polish Jewry in almost its entirety, was particualrly rampant along the border areas in those initial stages. Warsaw and hence Treblinka would become part of that onslaught while Grajewo had been reeling from its effects from day one. With anti-Jewish attacks escalating even further, and immediately after Hitler's invasion of Russia, the Jewish predicament went from precarious to annihilatory. The Stronictwo Narodowe, the ‘SN’ was a staunchly anti-Jewish element and they were instrumental in the attacks against many of the Jews who found themselves beaten and even Murdered in Grajewo and elsewhere.

"..After ..Germans entered ..our lives ..changed completely. We were in constant fear that we would be deported to ..Camp. We knew that it is happening. We were very worried about our future. We met our neighbors and discussed what would happen to us. We were afraid ..still afraid." Runia Lunski.

When, on June 25th. 1941 the Yellow Star decree was enforced, few in Grajewo saw other than a distinguishing mark rendering them prey to easier recognition, even though the banner of its pride was somewhat raised. The full scale of what Hitler had intended for all the Jews of Europe was now more clearly on display, locally, Nationally and within Europe as a whole. The divisiveness of anti-Jewish feeling was keenly felt and the segregation of communities impacted sorely. Resonating within the Jewish presence throughout Europe, as newer strains of anti-Jewish violence entangled its Jews, and while here in Poland and here in Grajewo, it was more immediate the echoe grew louder, vocifierous and stronger. On June 29th. 1941 local non-Jewish Poles attacked their Jewish Neighbours and 10 of Grajewo’s Jews were Murdered and a further 30 of the Town’s Jews were injured.

"..People smile again in harmony with nature ..grateful not only for ..fact of being freed from ..bondage of Egypt ..but also from ..severe ..long ..lonely winterpictures of Grayeve stand before my eyes, etched in my soul. They are unforgettable, like still impressions and happenings of the childhood years which remain a part of us for the rest of our lives." Dr. George Gorin.

Then, on June 30th. 1941, with the German occupation forces facilitating a further bloody assault upon the Jewish Community, with a further 500 of Grajewo’s Jews, who were rounded up and confined to the marketplace and here, where the non-Jewish Poles stood, they brutally attacked and injured 100 of these innocent Jews out of vindictiveness and because they could. This all appears in a running commentary on hatred's most vile expression, an antisemitism that has persisted for far too long. Given the very educating experience and principles of civilised reasoning, how could any enlightened society turn to the barbarism of brutality, atrocity and mass Murder. However, on July 3rd. 1941 a further round up was sought which saw barely 300 Jews surrender their person, fearing what they now knew awaited them. These who arrived, as suspected, were savagely beaten and then detained in the local Theatre. Here they remained right through till August 1941.

"..One night ..Germans came to our apartment and took us to ..Camp that was on ..edge of ..Town. ..They gathered all ..People from ..area. There was not much food. We hardly ate anythin." Runia Lunski.

Some of these Jews were forced to jump from the floors of the Shul to their deaths. For these Jews, and unless they had not survived the non-Jewish Poles assembled below, they were brutally killed with shovels and pry-bars. Velvl Piekarevitsh, the Son of the Staviski blacksmith Avrom Shleyme, was one of these so brutally Murdered. No amount of interpretation can deliver to the reader the maximum terror and horro of such incidents. That this seeks to add to a memory all too many would allow to fade into the shrouded history of our terrible past, words find newer meaning in their emphasis. Velvl Piekarevitsh himself, who had jumped through the window of the Shul and ran toward the Jewish cemetery, was one such Grajewo Jew who is in Memory for the horror inflicted upon him.

"..On Wednesday July 25th 1941 at 10:00 am ..they drove all ..Jews together in ..middle of square and kommandant Greiss read aloud for them ..decree from ..high command." Mayer Kletski.

Giving chase, the non-Jewish Poles caught up with Velvl and threw him still alive into the lime pit near the shul. What then followed was the enforced labour, continued assault and the constant threat and enacted Murders of some 40 of these Jews. This entire atrocity proceeded with a relentless zeal. Released for a selection from the Shul, and from amongst the entire Jewish Community, as many as 10 more of these incarcerated Jews were Murdered. Amonsgt those brutally taunted, assaulted and brutalised there was Mayer Kletski and he informs us of the feelings of terror and horror as a Survivor of that nightmare. With that said, what no one reading any such account can comprehend, nor will they come close to the terms with which they are decribed. We recognise for its completeness the significance of testimony in delivery of the essential truth that we seek.

"..Jewish nation is a criminal nation and as such has earned a hard and eternal punishment of hard labor and imprisonment. They are forbidden to live free and together with other peoples ..because they do not have pure blood. Sooner or later they must all die. They must be obedient to every German ..under penalty of death. ..Jews will be distinguished by a yellow star ..which they must wear on ..shoulder and breast as a sign of their shame." Greiss.

On August 7th 1941 between 100 and 300 Jews, including Children, were shot in the local Cemetery and some 1,600 to 2,000 of Grajewo’s remaining Jews were then confined to create The Grajewo Ghetto. The Ghetto itself was enclosed and bounded by Dolna, Lazienna and Zielona Street. It was established on August 10th. 1941 with Zalman Sutker as its President. Zalman, who was heading a Judenrate with 1,600 Jews initially, were all contained within the Grajewo Ghetto boundary. Zalman Sutker, who was born April 24th. 1892 oversaw this Jewish Ghetto population expand toward 2,000 over the coming days. The Jews of Grajewo at the time worked closely with the Judenrate president, all seemingly believing that this mechanism would truly represent the route toward their very existence. Active amonsgt the Grajewo Jewish Community were Joseph Bialystotski, Luba Fabilinska, Julian Glatt, Chaim Goldberg, Abraham Grinberg, Yehuda Grinberg, Leyzer Leishke Grossman, Shloime Gumovitch, Shmuel Kaminski, Karbowski, Berl Khilare, Berl Kletski, Meyer Kletski, Joseph Marcus, Iosher Tevel Oz and Lea Popovski the Secretary.

Tuesday October 7th. 1941 "..In exceedingly severe fashion ..politics of antisemitism ..applied. ..arbitrarily on October 7th. order given by ..officer. Jewish personnel personnel sent to Koltubanska ..put under ..command of ..officer ..known to be ..antisemitie. Jews ..removed from other formations ..segregated ..discharged en masse." Stanislaw Kot.

Amongst other's who simply understood they were hopefully facilitating the relief of their own Jewish People and controlling, with expedience, their own Community's relief from the trauma which surrounded them were Neiman Reubin, Moishe Slovatitski, Pinyeh Suraski, Tennenbaum, Yitzhok Voyslavski, Sholem Zaidenberg, Yitzhok Zharkowski and Vovek Zilbershteyn. While we look back to History and recognise the tortuous times the Jews lived in, at the time, and while these informed Jews clearly recognised that the Jewish serving soldier in the Polish armies fared no better than any civilian Jew within Poland, they contended with it being a Polish assault. However, at the hands of non-Jewish Poles, it became routing and though they somewhat expected better from the more accultured and supposedly classically civilised forces of Hitler's Germany, they were to be so cruelly betrayed by their own belief in all humanity.

" of Grayeve stand before my eyes ..etched in my soul. ..unforgettable still impressions and happenings of ..childhood years ..part of us for of our lives." Dr. George Gorin.

Now though, with Hitler fully engaged in Russia, many scores were settled by the Polish military against the many exemplary Jewish military commanders. All due to that aged old hatred, Jewish officers and the ordinary Jewish recruits were severely treated and totally discredited on the basis solely of their Jewish antecedence. Maligned in many ways this insensitive, intolerable and indifferent outlook spilled out and over the national status of the Polish Jews. All of this was to be the focused experience for many all too civilian Jews in Poland in the wake of defeat. In many Villages, Towns, Cities, Shtetl's the length and breadth of the Country, Jewish life and existence was at the mercy of yobs of Polish miscreants. These roving bands of brigands were totally unfettered by an absent Polish government which had clearly run away from any and all responsibility for its nation and its People.

Thursday January 1st. 1942 "..Hitler aims to destroy all ..Jews of Europe. ..Jews of Lithuania are fated to be ..first in line." Abba Kovner.

The wildly diverging strains of 3,000 years of antisemitism in the World became polarised here in Poland at a time when Jews too were aligned and had been fighting for the better good of the Polish nation. However, and no matter how exemplary had been the Jewish conduct in the recent battle to save national pride, the Jew was still a Jew and was deserving of nothing other than a derisory, contemptable and a wholly despicable treatment. Unfortunately, this state of affairs was not solely the Jewish experience in only Poland. The varying assault upon the Jewish presence was rampant throughout The Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and in the Balkans region amongst the Croats. Tragically for History, it is difficult to name any Country which did not possess the abiltiy to show an immense intolerance toward the Jews.

"..Jews of Grayeve ..were kind hearted people ..proud of their city." Dr. George Gorin.

Such was the hatred that was latched on to, the intolerance shown was never compensated for by

church which seemingly shared such a sentiment as was rife with sheer religious indifference. Often seen and witnessed even with a fervour which some of the christian churches clearly and callously stoked, the strains of any christian tolerance and human charity was consigned to the remaining vestiges of a sadly lacking concern. As the criminal pyres raged and the flames consumed the Jews of Europe, a conflagration that was unprecedented and unparalleled in all of History, Grajewo was gripped by its own sense of foreboding. During June 1942 most of the young Jewish Women of Augustow arrived in an enforced attachment to the Ghetto and were settled into ever cramped and delapidated surroundings.

Saturday August 15th. 1942 "..pogrom of Jews in Poland ..a preliminary probing operation test ..behaviour of conquered nations. ..pogroms help ..police ..become more efficient ..intimidate. ..Shaulises ..Latvian fascists ..well trained in ..murders ..preparing. ..crimes against ..Jews be looked upon as a ..warning." Polish Freedom Tribune.

Then, and unlike previous events when Pogroms forced the Jewish People to consider their national status, this time, and while they considered it would all pass by, something more cruelly stringent was in the air. Here, while awareness of the great wrongs being done to Polish Jewry does not seem to limit the very vehicles of Polish freedom, such tomes are clearly expressing some satisfaction at the Jewish plight. This polish freedom tribune was noting this too as a warning of worse to come. Not just that, elements of the Polish state were so confident in the very nature of the atrocity against their Polish Jews being accomplished by roving bands of Shaulises, the Latvian militia willing to adopt all and any methodology in the procurement of the Jewish Slaughter, little protest was ever stressed. Such mercenary undertakings, whether Latvian, Polish or Ukrainian should have greatly rankled Polish sensitivities.

What with the Germans occupying the whole of Poland now, with Polish sovereignty now non existent, it beggars belief that other nationals could be thus employed. Why there was no need to protest these other foreign nationals behaving with such impunity upon Polish soil. Perhaps the answer indeed lies in the fact that the abusive treatment of the Jewish People was considered an acceptable loss to Polish pride at the time? Through whole swathes of the Polish nation, many government agencies, churches, groups and individuals all turned a very blind eye to what befell their Jewish Community. That a nation, on the whole grew deaf to any Jewish pleas is enough of an accusation which History owes to posterity to accuse as many as can be identified for such intolerances and indifferences.

Thursday August 20th. 1942 "..200,000 Ghetto residents ..already ..deported. ..lootings ..with ..German Police ..Lithuanians ..Ukrainians ..Latvians all taking their turns. ..succeeded in finding out ..way to kill .in ..Treblinka ..gas chamber. ..24 hours a day ..dredging machine ..digs a deep ditch. ..corpses ..simply tossed into that ditch." Armia Krajowa. The Polish Home Army.

What we knew of the time, from both the residents of The Warsaw Ghetto, who were the Jews of Warsaw and its surrounding districts, is accurately stated in the pages of dispatches sent to the Allied powers. We do not need to enter here into the debate as to why der Einsatzgruppe reports had been intercepted but were largely ignored with regard to their Jewish content. But we are certain that the very detail which contained the excess and Murder against 100's of 1,000's of Jews throughout The Baltic States, Poland and the Ukraine were known to Allied intelligence and recorded as such in Nazi telexes, the OSR's or Operational Situation Reports. Also, and in the many other such statements made and these were made on a regular basis by the supposedly resisting Polish Home Army, such was the truth that could not ever be denied.

As such, that very truth and cognisant awareness of the awakening resolve to Murder all of Poland's Jews has found all too many willing now to deny the very fact of what here has been clearly acknowledged with its factually truthful integrity. With the expellation of Warsaw Ghetto Jewry toward Treblinka, this ensured that these 200,000 Jews were recorded as having being transported to be Murdered in the Treblinka Gas Chambers. Here too, with the corpses to be interred in the ditches dredged by the dredging machines on a 24 hour basis, and on every single day, such information never appear to have formed the Polish resistance toward this genocidal effort. On behalf of the Jews who were being exterminated, until it was enacted by the Jews themselves, resistance was in very short supply from those more ably equipped to do so, the non-Jewish Polish forces of the state.

"..I talked with Zalmen Sutker ..Julian Glatt ..Leyzer Grossman ..Vovek Zilbershteyn and others I met in ..Judenrate." Khaye Golding-Kayman.

On October 25th. 1942, and with the arrival of 600 Jews from the Rajgrod district, this was to be a fore warning of an approaching storm for all the remaining Jews of Grajewo. On November 2nd. 1942 the Ghetto itslef, in accordance with The Final Solution protocol was surrounded by Police units, SD and SS from 4:30 am. With measured and attentive force the Jews of the Ghetto were brutally dragged from their homes and made to gather in the square. Any attempts to hide or even resist was met with immediate death and during this whole liquidation process, 6 entire Jewish Ghetto Family's were murdered on the spot. The Ghetto, which had lasted until this day had contained as many as 3,000 Jews. They had been drawn from Grajewo itself, from Bialystok, Grodno, Jasionowka, Krynki, Pruzany, Rajgrod and Sokolka and all of the smaller Shtetl's and Villages with pocketed the surrounding areas.

Then, on November 11th. 1942, when those few survivng Jews of Grajewo's Ghetto faced the consequences of their own final end, no outside clamour for their safeguarding was ever muted, motioned or heard. After its final dissolution, with at least 2,500 of these Grajewo's Jews having been sent straight to Treblinka, the hollowness to what remained echoes throughout Poland as a desolation of the fountain of Jewish existence. Many others of these Grajewo Jews, still managing to resist toard a bitter end would be held over for later deportation to Auschwitz. The final impact on the entire Jewish existence in Grajewo was both colossal and terminal. Any of the remaining 2,500 Grajewo, and those otherJews from the district, who were either Murdered on the spot or were transported to the Slave Labour Camp and Ghetto at Bogusze, these then formed that subsequent Auschwitz transport.

"..We did not know where we are going to. We stopped in Czestochowa. In ..ghetto there was family. ..husband pulled me out of ..carriage. ..Germans did not fire. ..perhaps 2 soldiers for 250 Jews ..they did not notice us. Somebody from threw us a coat." Runia Lunski.

For these, the very remnants of Grajewo Jewry, who were told they would be sent to a Labour Camp in the area of Silesia, where Auschwitz and Birkenau awaited them, they were duped further as they by-passed the Treblinka Death Camp along from Malkinia. Then, by December 15th. 1942, most of the remainder of Grajewo's Jews had been finally readied for transport to be resettled in Treblinka and where extermination awaited them there also. Zalman Sutker and his entire Family were included in the Treblinka resettlement and were indeed expelled toward Bogusze and then onto Treblinka. On December 16th. 1942 with his Wife, Ida Vilenska Sutker, Father, Meir Icko Sutker, Mother, Basia Itke Wojewodzka Sutker, Berl Sutker and Feiga Sutker, Zalman entire Family headed for a fate only they can know and toward what they may have felt was a certain destruction.

"..On January 2nd. 1943 ..Germans ordered ..Jews to pack up and prepare to leave day." Nakhman Rapp.

However, while rumours abounded that this transport was being sent to the crematoria of Treblinka and annihilation there, hope, that last feeling to cling to, was their consideration. For who would believe such things could be, and this became their reality. Initially, the rumour was not believed and as the Bogushe Camp was emptied of 5,000 of its 7,500 Jews, amongst them Leyzer Grossman, Zalman Zutker and his Family, Treblinka was their final destination. After that, Birkenau now awaited the residue of Jewish Grajewo existence with their entire presence all but finally eviscerated. This terminal period arrived for these Jews on January 6th. 1943, as assigned to the Augustow transport and resettled in Auschwitz. As Grajewo is now declared Judenrein, or cleared of its Jewish People, their History is extinguished to a faded memory upheld by fewer and fewer of those Survivor's who truly knew and lived through the catastrophe. On January 7th. 1943, the Augustow transport arrived, and on the ramps at Birkenau, of the 2,000 Jews who were summarily assessed, 296 Jewish Men and 215 Jewish Women were separated out for work.

"..highlighting Grajewo. ..A cousin of my father’s escaped ..carnage and joined ..partisans. ..defeat of Russians and occupation by Germany was done in ..blink of an eye. Eyewitness reports exist in ..Yizkor book so there were a few Survivors. But of course they fled. Grajewo was Judenrein so very quickly." Evelyn Fine.

This temporary reprieve to work in the Camp, did not extend to the remainder of the transport as 1,489 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were immeidtaely gassed. This now sees Grajewo’s few remaining Jews, who were transported here to Auschwitz and destruction in Birkenau, complete the transition toward their destruction at Hitler's behest. Much of the sheer evidence of Jewish existence, from the German Polish border through Grajewo and into Poland, heading deeper and deeper Eastward, was almost completely obliterated in an account it has proved impossible to wholly reclaim. Of course, there were vestiges of Jewish persistence, but while most of Grajewo's Jews had been reduced to ash, and the culture of that hereditary life had been brutally vanquished, study resurrects barely their memory. Despite what The Final Solution of the Jewish Question sought to achieve we have sifted through that clear intention to obliterate not only all of European Jewry, but the very evidence of their transport through History and time and the very evidences of all that had been enacted against them. For the study of such Jewish eminence, the echo of any Jewish past no longer resounds with its usual vibrancy and the crucifying and hollowed resonance which marked the Jewish presence within Poland.

"..On January 3rd. 1943 ..last Grajewo Jews left ..Bogushe camp forever. In jammed cars ..they left ..Prostken railway station and rolled on through Bialystok ..Warsaw ..Treblinka. When ..train passed Treblinka and did not stop ..a ray of hope shone among ..unfortunate. They did not yet know that there were other Death Camps besides Treblinka." Nakhman Rapp.

In places like Grajewo there is deafening quiet, a depleted and destroyed presence no longer vibrant nor tangible. All those Jews of the East, Murdered, riven from places with their decimation sustain a very vocal stillness, stubborn with certainty that time will not allow us to forget them. Of all Jewish presence in the areas of former Jewish existence, Graveyards to a Jewish past, but hidden under a pile of blood and the ash of their Existence, we tread across lands saturated in atrocity. It is an understatement for the Polish underground of the time to not only conclude that some 3,000,000 of Poland's Jews have been effectively Murdered, it would be disingenuous for them not to do so. Knowing too well the full order of that destruction in places like Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka and every single Community where Jews had lived fruitfully for 1,000's of years, words cannot be left to any attempt to undermine this truth. What has awakened a Jewish and non-Jewish scholarly endeavour to Remember, Recall and acknowledge their Annihilation drives forth the Memory to be recorded.

Tuesday March 23rd. 1943 "..Insofar as ..can be ascertained ..fate of ..Jews has undergone a further deterioration. Considering barely several hundred thousand Jews have remained out of 3,500,000 one has a fair insight concening ..scale of atrocities ..perpetrated." Polish Underground.

But for those, the witness who also was the Perpetrator, the Participator and the willing, complict, duplicitous collaborator in the scale of the atrocity waged against their own Jewish Citizens, their words must not prove culpable in any attempt to ameliorate what we know. The Grajewo Teacher, Ezra M. Obodzinski, was part of that very resistance, though his was a Jewish Resistance, that was active. Ezra was a participant in the Bialystok Ghetto uprising, a resolve that fought so valiantly from August 15th. till August 22nd. 1943. Ezra had served well already the student body of Grajewo and alongside other Teacher's like Beykowski, Yisroel Borekh, Fromer, Haika (Chaja) Grosman, Josef Jambor, Kureivovski, Moshe Pomerantz, Lea Popovski, Chanan Rubin and Abraham Shlonsky, Velvel (Vovak) Silberstein, Dora Wapinska and Shlome Wronsberg, these others taught too the values that life could bring to their students. That the student body of Grajewo was hugely dissolved and Murdered makes us all the more willing to listen and to learn from the examples those like Ezra have set. However, as Hitler unfurled his Murderous campaign and resolve to destroy all Jews, many of these Teacher’s too suffered the fate of their Student’s.

Ezra, after escaping to the Knyszyn Forest joined the group of Vafroid Jewish partisans but he was subsequently killed fighting against those same Nazi's in the region who were Murdering his own People. Many Jews throughout Poland spoke of the fate of their People and many of them died with a defiance upon their lips so largely omitted from History. From amidst the nations which had courted them, even as Jews, allowing them to establish themselves, even as Jews, few others fought hard to protect the continuing onslaught upon their very existence. Even as non-Jews, the war against Hitler was being waged and no account was gven to the Jewish People over what else Hitler had asssigned them. When Gisi Fleischmann wrote her letter to the Daughter she had resigned herself to never seeing again, we become witness not only to the trauma of the Jews of Europe, of Poland and here in Grajewo, but we find a very distinct heroism that was present amongst these very communites. From amongst the 6,000,000 Jews who were annihilated, culled, executed, exrtracted and always murdered, Jewish Resistance persisted, even when pressed hard against the force of a bullet.

Monday September 6th. 1943 "..Fate has willed us apart. ..Yet ..same fate has also willed that during ..years of our people’s greatest misery ..your mother is fulfilling a great mission in order to ease this terrible suffering. If I survive this difficult period ..I think I will be able to say that I have not lived in vain. In this spirit you must bear this separation. ..suffering of ..People of Israel stands above any personal pain." Gisi Fleischmann.

We can all wish to stand above personal pain and do so reluctantly, and while many even wish to condemn the Jews for the Slaughter inflicted upon them, we cannot legislate the Jewish mood of hope or expectancy. Who would foresee, from the nation of German's who should have acted with all Humanity, the barabarity that was unleashed, unfettered and unprecedented. Remember too, that what Elie Wiesel sought to insist, and that while not all victims were Jews, All Jews Were made Victims by Hitler and German intervention. From that very clear premise we know, and while we are very certain that Hitler sought to enslave the Poles, Hitler even allowed for their demise at a cost to productiveness, but here any comparison ends. To enter into the destruction of a People, wholly intended and offer up any form of comparison, to do so would be unjustified in the course of History. Relevance clearly shows that with Poland and its Jews, it was with typical Hitlerite inconsideration for their lives that their lives were lost.

While some 3 million non-Jewish Poles paid for that sought after slave labour with their lives, this was not immediately sought. However, none of the actions against any other of the People's of Europe was as systematically legislated for and directed as was The Final Solution of the Jews of Poland and then all the Jewish People on Continental Europe. That the non-Jewish Poles were not sougtht out for total eradication, slaughter, annihilation nor extermination is clearly expressed. Every facet of Hitler's claims for the Jews of Europe sought out the Jewish People for an unparalleled atrocity. The Polish Jews and their entire being on the Continent of Europe, were already forfeit as Jews to the whim of Hitler. When Poland was assailed in 1939, Polish intelligentsia was sought out too for Murder, but all and any Jew was sought out for Slaughter, all 3,000,000 plus of them.

"..Grajewo ..Judenrein ..can sleep peacefully. No more Jews in Grajewo. But of Grajewo shall not rest for a long ..long time. Long ..very long shall sleep be taken from ..eyes of those in Grajewo who helped in ..great crime. ..pain of ..murdered Women ..Children ..Fathers ..Sons ..shall long disturb their rest. Mortal fear shall grip them by night and black melancholy shall torture them by day for ..awful deeds that they have done. ..curse which our martyrs cast in moments of their being shall pursue them eternally to ..end of their days. ..Then ..blood of martyrs shall be quieted." Nakhman Rapp.

What has since emerged from the trauma of realisation, has seen a resurrgence of a Jewish persistence of spirit, and in places like Poland which seeks to justify its unjustifiable position with regards to their Jewish Community, the Jewish People persist. More than 90% of Polish Jewry was wasted in a claim to destroy them all. On the back of this intolerance, which then sought the assistance of a monumental indiffernce to all Jewish struggle, Polish Jewry was submerged in such cruelty, it is unfathomable. Largely lost to all eternity, more than 3,000,000 of Polish Jewry has not been given up to a past forgotten. Nor has their destruction abandoned the call for a State which would have secured more of a safety net for them than the World provided. With the Right to Return, this Law, The Law of Return was passed on July 5th. 1950 and it signalled for the entire World of Jewry, the remnants of Polish Jewry and those Jews of Grajewo who Survived, as we speak of them a space they can call Home awaits them.

Ever since the inception of the State of Israel, created out of the trauma of Survival and our abandonment of them, on May 14th. 1948 for what must be the accepted moral and ethical realisiation of that Jewish space. After what we allowed to happen to their People, the 3,000 year Diasporan Jew could finally cease their wandering, if they so choose. Here in Israel, the weary Jew, the World Jew, what is left of the Polish Jew and what remains of the Grajewo Jew can settle amongst their fellow Jews in a Land promised to them. I do not solely speak of a mandate of Jewish Humanity, but of a god of Judaism and christianity who acknowledge that right of return. That return fully recognises an equality that would be enshrined in what would be wholly deliverable to all Israeli Citizens, whether they are Jewish or not. In the gravest of terms, which persist to this Day, life for the Jewish People is not enshrined in their liberty, livlihood nor their ability to contribute to all and any community they live amongst without fear.

"..past ..will never return. ..only thing that remains are memories ..sweet ..lovely. ..Dniester River ..which keeps flowing ..distant ..strange ..cold ..which hums ..not for me anymore." Renia Spiegel.

The Right of Return.

I Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an Oleh.

II Aliyah shall be by Oleh's visa.

An Oleh's visa shall be granted to every Jew who has expressed his desire to settle in Israel, unless the Minister of Immigration is satisfied that the applicant

i is engaged in an activity directed against the Jewish people; or

ii is likely to endanger public health or the security of the State.

III A Jew who has come to Israel and subsequent to his arrival has expressed his desire to settle in Israel may, while still in Israel, receive an Oleh's certificate.

The restrictions specified in section 2 (b) shall apply also to the grant of an Oleh's certificate; but a person shall not be regarded as endangering public health on account of an illness contracted after his arrival in Israel.

IV Every Jew who has immigrated into this country before the coming into force of this Law, and every Jew who was born in this country, whether before or after the coming into force of this Law, shall be deemed to be a person who has come to this country as an Oleh under this Law.

V The Minister of Immigration is charged with the implementation of this Law and may make regulations as to any matter relating to such implementation and also as to the grant of Oleh's visas and Oleh's certificates to minors up to the age of 18 years.

So when the Jews went in search of a European meaning to a tragedy of the Shoah, they found a precedent had been set in The Holocaust term. For that tragedy alone, which met 6,000,000 Jews and Murdered them wholesale, there is a greater need to maintain reference to them within that term than to deny them the last vestiges of our human decency denying them its space. So the meaning is clear. The Jews of the World, whether they emerged from the deep trauma of a hostile environment and from the murderous tentacles of The Holocaust, or whether they now wish simply to live amongst like minded, spiritual and efficatious Jewry, Israel afforded them a space to call their own. Even though the Jewish State is under constant threat of its destruction, we are morally obliged to support and assist the after our broken covenant with Humanity. I have made an effort to steer clear of politicising the terms of reference given to The Holocaust, but the right to Jewish existence must be given a consideration above all other's by dint of what the World allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of their own, Our own.

"..senseless murder of 6,000,000 Jews is difficult to understand ..even more difficult is that ..World was silent. ..I stopped trying to understand it because it defies logic ..I prefer to use ..lessons I have learned ..stand ..against all evil ..never give up ..treat people with fairness ..forgive your worst enemy ..think of one thing you can do to make better." Eva Moses Kor.

So while I have listed some of these, these Jews of Grajewo which We have all lost, who were Murdered intentionally and were chosen systematically by Adolf Hitler, and solely for being Jews, no account will ever be complete. For Hitler who epitomises an enemy of our own Humanity, each and every Jewish name, mentioned here in the account I can barely comprehend, they all stand as an accusation of the inhumanity that was allowed to be shown and as an affirmation of a loss we will seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget. The account is not in the least bit as complete in detail as it should be and toward the Memory we seek to Remember for them, it is sadly incomplete by many 1,000's. While every attempt has been made to identify with Grajewo's Murdered, it is likely too that many who were born elsewhere were Murdered here. It is also a case of happenstance that might include those Married to a Jew of Grajewo. There was for some, who were merely a Jewish visitor to the Grajewo an assault upon them which forms their enclosed status as a Jew of the Town that was Murdered.

Lejzer Hersz Abkevitz, Boruch Abkewicz, Brajna Abkewicz, Fishel Abkewicz, Khana Abkewicz, Motl Abkewicz, Rywka Abkewicz,Wela Voula Abkewicz, Brynke Abkewitz, Layki Abkewitz, Rochel Abkewitz, Shayna Merka Abkewitz, Velinki Abkewitz, Chaszka Khasia Abkiewicz, Mendel Abkiewicz, Mosek Abkiewicz, Pinkus Abkiewicz, Wela Sara Abkiewicz, Ben Abkiewicz, Jochewet Abramska, Sara Abramska, Jakub Abramski, Josef Abramski, Matatiahu Abramski, Szejna Abramski, Szymon Abramski, Taibe Abramski, Tova Abramski, Mordekhai Abramski, Rivka Abramski, Yaacov Abramsky, Yokheved Abramsky, Kivel Abramson, Guta Adamshtein, Awezer Adamski, Chaim Adamski, Faiwel Adamski, Guta Adamski, Lazar Adamski, Guta Adamstein, Abram Adamstein, Khaia Agushevich, Moshe Agushevich, Zelda Agushevich, Cyla Tzipora Ajzensztadt, Cypora Ajzensztadt, Jakob Ajzensztadt, Mina Ajzensztadt, Jacques Ajzensztat, Jankel Ajzensztat, Yakob Ajzensztat, Avromtshe Ayzenshtat, Abram Bajkowski, Hersz Bajkowski, Khano Baykovski, Cipa Bialystocki, Cypa Bialostocki, Dawid Bialostocki, Dawid Bialystocki, Rachel Bialystocki, Rakhel Bialostocki, Yokheved Burshtein, Aviezer Dorf, Breina Dorf, Ester Dorf, Frida Dorf, Luba Dorf, Moniek Dorf, Sara Dorf, Yisrael Yaakov Dorf, Yitzkhak Dorf, Yosef Dorf, Peshka Fabritzki, Abraham Fainstein, Hadasa Fainstein, Khaim Fridman, Menukha Fridman, Yacob Leib Fridman, Malka Fridman, Chaim Friedman, Chana Friedman, Faige Malke Friedman, Menocha Friedman, Shaindel Friedman, Liptza Frydman, Sarah Frydman,Doba Chana Glas, Dora Glas, Tzura Glass, Chaim Goldberg, Abraham Grinberg, Chaja Khava Grinberg, Khaia Grinberg, Yehuda Grinberg, Yisrael Grinberg, Abraham Isak Gringrass, Itsik Ayzik Grosman, Khana Grosman, Masia Grosman, Mina Grossman, Natan Grosman, Rachela Grosman, Riwka Grosman, Yitzkhak Grosman, Juda Gruenberg, Chawa Grunberg, Frida Zmojewski Grunberg, Afroim Guzik, Jankiel Guzik, Kalman Guzik, Motek Guzik, Sara Guzik, Chaja Kac, Rubin Kaminski, Avrum Kaminsky, Chana Kaminsky, Tzvia Kaminsky, Refael Karmin, Avraham Mordekhai Katz, Chonon Wolf Klecki, Sheina Zelda Klecki, Dov Klecki-Kaletzki, Hershel Tzvi Klecki-Kaletzki, Khaim Yehuda Klecki-Kaletzki, Shprisha Kolka, Gitel Kolko, Hersz Kolko, Izzak Kolko, Moshe Kolko, Nella Kolko, Reina Rakhel Kolko, Reizl Kolko, Sprysza Kolko, Szymon Kolko, Yaakov Kolko, Arie Leib Levit, Mendel Lewin, Yda Hinda Lejzerson, Srolke Leyzer, Sara Liner, Berko Malachowsky, Josef Malachowscki, Ezra M. Obodzinski, Velvl Piekarevitsh, Chemio Piorko, Miriam Piorko, Mojzesz Piorko, Mosze Piorko, Mosze Piorko, Relka Piorko, Sara Piorko, Tzipa Piorko, Mirjam Piurko, Rela Piurko, Lea Popovski, Mina Mindo Radak, Dovid Rapp, Yehuda Reimer, Chaja Alta Rozenbaum, Abram Rynkowski, Chackiel Rynkowski, Chaim Rynkowski, Rachel Rynkowski, Rywka Rynkowski, Ahuva Luba Sarna, Rejza Serejski, Ester Sosnowicz, Basia Itke Ida Sutker, Berl Sutker, Feiga Sutker, Ida Sutker, Meir Icko Sutker, Zalman Sutker, Mordechy Vapinski, Rachel Vapinsky, Chana Waks, Lea Waks, Meir Waks, Mejlach Waks, Rachel Wapinska, Chaya Alte Wiernik, Dina Zilbershtein, Szulamit Zylbersztejn.

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HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, September 28, 2018 16:39:12

This modern page from the rampage of The Holocaust, a page mostly written by Natalie Mehlman Scharf, begins with her birth in 1925. As Hitler is gaining influence and while Europe is wrestling with the devastation and trauma after World War I, supposedly the War to end all Wars, Adolf Hitler has entered the political stage. Across Germany, and certainly within Poland, punitive measures are being sought which will decrease any influence the Jewish People are allowed to have within their own communities. Here, as antisemitism gains a newer voice, the threat to Jewish antecedence is not wholly appreciated. As the Schutzstaffel or SS is borne, Hitler now has a personal bodyguard which will be known to infamy as the pliable tool in the destruction of 6,000,000 of European Jewry. Also, Hitler's first volume of his assumed book, Mein Kampf, his so called struggle is published and the warning signs as to the future treatment of the Jewish People is more clearly spelled out.

"..I was born November 15th. 1925 ..a ..10 year old little girl. I recall on Easter how ..Poles were coming out of ..Church full of scorn and anger at us ..cursed Jews ..for killing Jesus their God and Saviour. We stayed indoors till Easter was over." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

As Europe was composed of many differing factions, all vying for political power, the catholic church was unrelenting in its own issuance of edicts aimed against the Jewish People. Such pastoral letters would have fallen on fertile ground in Jaworzno and a particular pastoral letter from the Austrian Bishop, Johannes Gfollner of Linz, states most irreverently and without charity, that it is the duty of all catholics to adopt a moral form of antisemitism. This gives many antisemites leverage in their campaign to bully, abuse and take from the Jews what belongs to the Jews, especially within Poland. The following day of this pastoral letter, on January 30th. 1933 Adolf Hitler is appointed German Reichskanzler. This single event, as if to confirm the status of the Reich was in accord with the church, they would strike their bargain. All through the swathe of the 1930’s, amidst the political turmoil and financial unrest, the Jews of Germany and Austria faced a critical onslaught against their very integrity.

"..Marszalek Pilsudski died in 1935 ..start of our gehenna ..our hell." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

By May 12th. 1935, when the Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski dies, ever more anti-Jewish measures escalate their opportune moment, ever more rancid and glaring, and within Poland, tangibly so. The government of Poland, and in fact most of the Polish political parties will call for discrimination, economic boycott, expulsion, and physical violence against their Jewish People. Young Natalie is becoming aware of the difference here presence is causing and she is not yet 10 years of age. Meanwhile, the Polish catholic church with most of its priests and the catholic press all advocating a more pronounced assault, the Jewish presence within Poland was under a consolidated and direct attack. Even catholic schools administer to the whim of bigotry and downright racism. Places of learning will sanction all manner of discrimination and or violence against their Jewish Community in School’s, Colleges and Universities.

Friday August 16th. 1935 "..solution of ..Jewish question of ..Fuhrer ..not ..individuals." Heinrich Himmler.

Such was the succession of anti-Jewish rhetoric, it was difficult to hear above the rabble, the ameliorating terms of any ‘christian’ efficacy, tolerance nor understanding. The political will of the few was shaking the branch of the tolerant many and the entire infrastructure of any moral probity was being lopped off, root and branch. Such was the clamour for a victim, all too many rode the intolerance mode of hatred and indifference to what was being stated became a muted symbol of the culpable and complicit nature of duplicitous agreement with what was and would continue to emerge, until The Holocaust was fully formed. Along the way, individual assaulting of Jews gave way to individual killings of Jews until the growing spectre of mass killing, in the few, the dozen’s, the 100’s and then the 1,000’s became common place. By August 25th. of that year we even hear similar words from a protestant pastor, Martin Niemoeller, and with words no so called ‘christian’ should ever have uttered of an assault upon the human tolerance toward the individual, due to their difference.

Sunday August 25th. 1935 "..dark and sinister and under a curse for they brought ..Christ of God to ..cross but are also responsibility for ..blood of all ..righteous men who were ever murdered." Martin Niemoeller.

Martin Niemoller, a reformed and then ardent anti-Nazi protestant church minister, who was convinced of the greater wrong to be achieved in even supporting Hitler, managed to initially support what Hitler stood for. Here, while he still preaches that the Jews are ‘The Christ Killers', Niemoller is playing directly into the hands of those he opposed on a theological and religious basis. For Niemoller, it is clear to him that the history of the Jews is both a dark and sinister influence and as the age old hatred that has blighted human existence, Niemoller has liberally expounded and endorsed most readily, that the Jews were the culprits in the killing of christ. This church devotee’s antisemitic rhetoric of more than 2,000 years of hate filled illegitimacy, stands alongside even the most sinister of Hitler’s pronouncements. It is difficult, given the reverence attributed to Niemoller over his other wordy claim to fame, that when they came for all other’s he did not speak nor did he voice any concern over the Jewish plight.

"..First they came for ..socialists ..and I did not speak out because I was not a socialist. Then they came for unionists ..and I did not speak out because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for ..Jews ..and I did not speak out because I was not a Jew. Then they came for me and there was no one left to speak for me." Martin Niemoller.

Then, when it came for Martin Niemoller to be taken away, he recognised no one remained who would speak for him, because they had become inculcated in the Nazi crimes of hatred and murder of the Jews and others. So instead of Niemoller speaking out in earnest for the tolerance necessary to be truly ‘christian’ and though he did refute the Hitlerite legacy of ‘Race, Blood and Soil, Pastor Niemoller was consigned to concentration in the Dachau camp. When many of those who appear exemplary in their ministry, they are exposed critically when on September 15th., when the racist Nuremberg Laws are passed, and Jews are defined biologically by 'race,' there is little of any concerted effort to be heard in protest. The National Citizens Law now strips away Citizenship from its Jews and with the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, for European Jewry, this 'Lawlessness' became the Law unilaterally promulgated against them.

"..My poor kind Father asked a few of his customers ..begged them please help me children are starving give me a few potatoes ..a few onions a carrot to make a potato soup ..for we are so hungry. Every one of them closed their doors and told us. ..I went with my Dad to help him carry ..he could hardly walk ..he would say eat I am full are growing." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

I had already completed what I intended to write on the place of Jaworzno within The Holocaust and then am focused on what seems appropriate to alter that earlier intention. When I am reminded of Friendships and recognise that a Camp guard, extradited from the US to Germany might yet evade 'justice', I am urged to write even more on why we must never relinquish our hold on memory. I for one know where responsibility lies and I will contribute further to the understanding of Jaworzno’s place in The Final Solution of The Jewish Question with an unbounded accusation. With those resigned to a terminology which is used to conceal the clear cut intention to Murder all Jews, and let us not be complacent, die endlosung der Judenfrage was and always was intended on becoming, The Holocaust for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, All Men, Women and Their Children of them. Essential in all aspects of what I have been delivering has considered the power which does not belong to us to forgive.

"..They told us don’t ever come to us. We cant even talk to you ..besides we have no food ourselves. Yet in ..back I saw a garden brimming with loads of fruits vegetables ..chickens ..cows ..pigs a veritable food haven." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

For these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, including those many here at Jaworzno, forgiveness does not belong to me, nor to the Survivors and certainly not to any judiciary which singularly failed the loss to these many Jewish People. What belongs solely to those 6,000,000 Jewish Victims themselves is the essential in forgiveness, a gift that is freely given and these Jews have no ability to deliver it. I hold firmly to the contention that No one has Any right over that ability to forgive other than those directly involved in the Catastrophe itself. For those who Survived, they are at liberty to forgive those who rampaged against them, bullied and sullied them, abused and battered them and truly brought them to the brink of extinction. However, that does not reserve the right for anyone to then Forgive for the abuse, the barbarity, the execution or the annihilation which 6,000,000 Murdered Jews then suffered for which their ability to seek an apology or render any acceptance of it, has been so brutally slain.

The two positions are demonstrably and interminably separated by the final Catastrophe which overtook these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, those who did not Survive. Here too, though mine is a replacement detail for those who should and did not do anything, nor enough to alleviate Jewish suffering or stem the flow of atrocity toward them, my accusation bears no semblance of any forgiveness whatsoever. As a consequence of an intolerable atrocity, The Holocaust, fully underwritten by a World’s indifference to the Jews of Jaworzno and the struggle of 11,293,300 Jews to Survive, we owe a debt to All Jews which will Never be repaid. It is an irony that the policy of a Jewish State that might have saved more, was unacceptable to far too many Jews of the time. But how could these Jews of Europe, let alone Jaworzno know the horror that was to come? As the exacting detail that was set out by The Wannsee Conference shows, far more Jews than were destroyed would have been annihilated.

"..That’s ..way it was. I lived it. I remember it all." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

It is our fortune that those like you Natalie have Survived as a consequence of some haphazard form of luck which remains inexplicable. Sadly too, and for you Natalie this is a further tragedy, you have to relive a horror so blatant and cruel that we can come to understand or remotely comprehend what was so wrong back then and what continues to be an unlearned lesson in this world today. Much of what I write here is incomparable to what those, like Natalie Mehlman Scharf, Aron Krakauer or those like Ruth Marshansky and Nathan Roth came to know of. For me, it is to these Jews, both lost to us and those who survived the destructive efforts of far too many, who wrote words to deliver truth to us, it is for these that we must thank, and in Remembering their glorious effort to Survive and afford us their Testimony, recognise their uniquely precedent efforts. For those who have undergone or have learned of those experiences, this will trouble History for eternity.

"..I didn't have any experience of a Polish worker giving me food ..I do remember ..area where they had their lunch and ..they did leave rather generous ..if you want to call them ..potato peelings from boiled potatoes." Nathan Roth.

Also, and for those who still managed to Survive, we come to learn a horrid detail of a terrible lesson which 6,000,000 Jews fully experienced and cannot ever relate to us in person. Though many have left tiny capsules of their past, we cannot gain the terrible tragedy of their lives without constructing from the detail of other’s who suffered similarly up to the point of their own Survival. For that reason, I am eternally grateful to those like Natalie for the detail of her story and I write it down, not just for posterity, but to catalogue a Crime against all of Humanity which we must learn appropriately from. The truth we come so glaringly close to becoming a witness to, which Natalie and other’s relate is so evidential that this one person is now so enabled to relate it to us. Natalie allows for our intervention into a horror we cannot begin to know in any form of reality to feed our sense with terror so horrifying it seizes us and consumes our ability to suggest the inhumanity in human beings can be restricted to those we know are the evil doers.

"..Dear Patrick. I am 91 years old ..a faded old beauty ..born in Jaworzno ..Poland. I came from a family of 8. My father and Mother Ichak and Rosalia Mehlman. Kind law abiding people along with my three sisters Eva 29 ..Regina 28 ..Salusia 12 years old nephew Willy 6 niece Frieda 6 months old ..that I never saw." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

Dearest Natalie, this piece, so appropriate to Jaworzno, or Neu-Dachs given its German name, related to you specifically as a member of this Jewish Community, who were forced into a Labour Camp where too few of the 1,600 to 3,700 Jews detained emerged. There your fellow Jewish neighbours were drilled into an extinction immeasurable in human terms and significantly so for Your close proximity to the scene of the atrocity itself. So before I go any further with my response to your willing ability to share with this World what you experienced, I wish to repeat a sentiment I share with all Survivor’s. I have always made it a point, when I meet with Survivors, to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For the whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration, Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get the opportunity to greet you in person, I apologise to You for the inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust, who cannot direct their own appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved on their behalf.

"..In 1942 was slaving ..starving ..infested with lice ..eaten by bedbugs in a Concentration Camp in Czechoslovakia ..for 3 years until ..blessed day when we 350 very lucky young innocent girls ..were liberated by ..raggedy tired but victorious Red Army." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

In each of you Survivor’s, the World entire has been saved. It should not matter that I have issued this statement many times, but each time I do, it is with a profound respect for what you manage to achieve, in spite of the enormous injustices other’s have caused you. I took time out to learn a little more of the specific detail of Jaworzno and I wish to provide some basic facts about this little space, tragically present for its Jewish Citizens amongst The Holocaust. The town we will come to know is called Jaworzno, which lies in the Silesian Province of Southern Poland and was a mere 40 kilometres from what was to become the most sophisticated Murder Mill in all of History, Auschwitz and Birkenau. Here, within Jaworzno itself, local Jews and others from the Town and surrounding areas were worked toward Death to ensure the Destructive capacity at Birkenau was kept at a peak requirement. Jaworzno is some 22 kilometres Southeast of Katowice and about 301 kilometres Southwest of the Polish Capital, Warsaw.

Jaworzno has been in existence as a cross roads to the furthest reaches of the East ever since the 13th Century. Jaworzno opened its first Coal Mine in 1767 and this is where capital gain would meet the decapitation of its Jewish presence. By 1795 the spread of the Austrian Empire had gained sovereignty over Jaworzno and after annexing it from Poland, it became ensconced into the fabric of a more Austrian concern. Mining was to prove a stable enterprise as it enriched the locale and by the end of the 18th. Century there were close on 100 Jews residing within the Jaworzno Township. This Jewish influence steadily increased to close on 1,000 Jews throughout the 19th. and early 20th. Century. For the burgeoning community, both Jewish and Polish, an upturn in Jaworzno’s status moved the entire community more gradually away from a rural economy and more towards an industrial complexity of business.

"..Natalie Mehlman Scharf Survivor of Concentration Camp Gabersdorf part of Camp Gross Rosen now part of Poland." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

Here, by the turn of the 20th. Century, and by which time the Town had become a City, life fitted both sets of the community. For the Jewish People of Jaworzno however, this was with a tentative acceptance of any Jewish presence by the non-Jewish and Polish majority. The Jews, from amongst a more voluble and learned status than perhaps the Poles enjoyed, still became a more acceptable influence. By the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, of the 13,000 residents of Jaworzno, more than 1,300 were Jewish and 12 of these were members of the City Council. Both sides of the community suffered the incongruous nature of hostility in War and learned of their dead with equal solemnity. For Jaworzno between Wars, the World conflict did not consolidate that very close proximity to tragedy with any shared grief for the losses to the Jewish community. From amongst the still virulent antisemitic legacy of a church led antipathy towards the Jewish People, the community continued along a similarly strained path.

By the time Hitler Invaded Poland on September 1st. 1939, more than 1,800 Jewish People now lived in the City of Jaworzno. Their presence became a beacon for further biased and even brutal action rallied against them and the German presence instilled in the Polish community a more fixed attitude against their Jewish Neighbours. The German occupation saw the Ghettoisation of all local Jaworzno’s Jews and then the Jewish People from the surrounding areas and Jews from Chorzkow, Katowice and Siemianowice were all moved into the cramped space that formed the Ghetto of Jaworzno. For the Jewish People, and from the moment of the Nazi occupation, both the local Jews and those of the entire area were severely brutalised and many were even murdered. Here, as elsewhere, Hitler's carefully phased segregation's came into focus and in the latter part of 1940, with still more added restrictions upon Jewish life, the ability of the Jewish Community of Jaworzno to interact further with any degree of equanimity with their local neighbours was more abruptly curtailed.

"..Monday August 28th. 2017 07:00 am. Dear Patrick ..In June 1942 my whole family was still alive. In march 1943 most of them were gassed and burned in Auschwitz a town a walking distance from Jaworzno near Krakow were I was born." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

Along with sporadic assaults, there was the continuous confiscation of Jewish goods and the property's and lands of Jewish ownership were stolen from them. As well as the steady flow of Murders meted out to any Jew which both Nazi or Polish non-Jew saw fit, these were a regular occurrence in and around the City limits. For instance, on the Night of July 12th. 1942 more than 2,092 Jews were rounded up by the SS details officially ascribed to the area. With the assistance of the local Police force, the gradual evacuation of all the Jews were transported towards Auschwitz and then Birkenau and toward their eventual Destruction there. Fewer than 12 of these transported Jews of Jaworzno were admitted to the Auschwitz main Camp and the remainder were Murdered in Birkenau. Here, the fate of the last Jews of Jaworzno is intertwined with what remained of the Jews of Silesia, and from amongst the last Ghetto's still to be liquidated in both Bedzin and Sosnowitz. Few Jews from Jaworzno had Survived the early onslaught, and if not Murdered by der Einsatzgruppe aktionen, transports to Ghetto's awaited them further afield and the end result of being either gassed or shot was never far from them.

"..taking of my brother and my brother in-law ..March 42 ..left my Mother ..Father my 4 Sisters and my self completely broken ..minimal rations constant wailing ..fear ..who will be next of us to be taken. ..Taken where. ..To be beaten ..cut ..raped ..we were like dirt in ..street to be swept away." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

The following year, and on June 15th. 1943 the Jaworzno Camp, or Camp Neu-Dachs given its German title was numbered 3,296 in Hitler’s labelling system, was also an Auschwitz satellite Camp. The camp itself was established for the extraction of Jaworzno’s those coal reserves still contained and some 1,600 Jewish prisoner’s would be enslaved here. In order to keep both the power station there burning and also ensure adequate stock of coal reached Auschwitz, enslavement of the local Jewish populace was ordered as an essential. Subsequently, and along with the Bedzin, or Bendin Transport of August 1st. 1943, which contained the last x2 remaining Jewish Family's of Jaworzno, and these were amongst 2,000 Jews drawn from the Bedzin Ghetto itself also from Gleitwitz and from Kattowice, and these are all transported to Auschwitz & Birkenau and certain death for all too many of them. Of these x5 transports of 2,000 Jews each, that is in excess of 10,000 Jews, some 1, 689 Jewish People were subjected to selection for labour and were not immediately gassed.

"..I will tell you how Hitler exterminated our entire family. ..March 1940 ..they arrested Mendele and took him to Berlin. ..2 years in jail ..released ..sent Fiaski near Lublin and after 6 months to Majdanek and from then on there was no sign from him." Aron Krakauer.

Of the 8,400 of these Jews, including the last Jewish Families of Jaworzno, were the Jews from Bedzin, Gleiwitz, Kattowice, these the remnants of Silesian Jewry all extinguished at Hitler's behest. Hitler had clearly identified with the raw materials to be gained in pursuance of his twin aims, the War and The Final Solution. He saw in its promise a sustained war effort that would allow him his final resolve of that very Jewish Question which was to proceed at all costs. Let no one in History deliver to you any other recourse than that which Hitler had established for the Jews, ahead of World domination, his Weltanshauung, there stood The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. Unhindered and unhampered by any other concerns, the youth of Germany was squandered in a defence of a failed ideology that the majority of the German nation were in awe of. That it was an awesome brutality which would remain unrelenting until the very end of the flaccid life of the instigator himself, Adolf Hitler, is now measured in 6,000,000 selectively sought our Jews of Europe for systematic slaughter and 50 to 70 million dead in total, as a consequence of World War II.

"..And yet ..lives of ..Poles went on like before. ..They ate ..worked ..loved ..had children ..cows were grazing in ..fields ..Polish children ..My former friends were playing evenings in ..snow ..while we Jews at 4:00 pm had to be in our homes ..waiting in dread for ..morning." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

Hitler of course had established many layers of perversion to gain his ultimate aim, this destruction of the Jews of Europe and here at Auschwitz & Birkenau and its many sub-Camps, one of which was here at Jaworzno, Hitler could exploit the already brutalised Jewish labour force. As Jaworzno itself was so near to the Jewish embattled population, at the very doorsteps to their own destruction in the Gas Chambers at Auschwitz & Birkenau, life became a temporary reprieve for those Jews Hitler could exploit further. Here, the labour camp at Jaworzno was doing just that, opened to exploit the Coal reserves in the area, and the production which kept the power station working also stoked the very furnaces of the destructive processes at Auschwitz and Birkenau which obliterated the last traces of any Jewish presence from the area. Aron Krakauer, a former resident of Jaworzno and Survivor of Auschwitz informs us of the fate of His Parents, Wolf and Lieba, and his siblings Mendele and Mentze, all of whom did not Survive.

"..I have suffered a lot. I ..don't know how I survived." Aron Krakauer.

For me personally, arriving in this arena of both a terrible wrong and an immense horror, I don't EVER claim to know all the answers. This is why I have no wish to create the impression I am any authority on The Holocaust. I merely put words to an acknowledgement that those, like Yitzhak Arad, Professor Bauer, Yisrael Gutman, Lucy Dawidowicz are clearly the enlightenment I have sought. There have always been 6,000,000 reasons why this odyssey has been important for me. I cannot know what it is those I mention know, with certainty, with surety and with a front row seat to all the inexplicable horrors I flick through on a daily basis. Their understanding of what I seek to comprehend is set in a Memorial to 6,000,000 of their fellow Human Beings, all Murdered because they too were Jews. I have struggled with what emerged as my 4th. Book on The Holocaust of the Jews of Europe, but I have delivered it to posterity knowing that what Hitler sought to achieve, and Belzec was merely one instrument of that solution, at Jaworzno, Jewish People known to Natalie never returned.

"..Wolf and Lieba Krakauer lived in Rinek 3 ..Jaworzno ..ran a clothes store ..where both Jews and gentiles used to order suits. ..In ..1938 ..when Polish Jews were expelled from Germany relatives ..arrived and stayed in until they found a place to live. Lieba was especially loved by" Ruth Marshansky.

Wolf and Lieba Krakauer were both murdered during the period of The Holocaust, Lieba was transported to Auschwitz, and quite possibly from the transport of July 12th. 1942 and Wolf was also transported to Auschwitz, the following year in August 1943. I have endeavoured to ask various questions all the way through the writing process, certainly of those, like Natalie who provide the key to opening up a further aspect of The Holocaust all too often not quoted. These confidants, for whom I remain eternally grateful, have guided my awareness of the subject of the loss which is contained within the terms and the tenets of The Holocaust. As the World of war against Hitler progressed, here at Jaworzno camp more than 3,600 prisoner’s remained alive incarcerated. But of these, 3,000 were forcibly marched West and away from the liberating Russian Armies to deny the fundamental truth of a false ideology which could not ever explain the inequities of the horror’s Hitler and his follower’s heaped upon the Jewish People.

"..I was grabbed by ..SS April 17th. 1942. And never saw my dear kinfolk again ..and now ..deniers ..marching Nazis with arms and permits and trump defending them ..they had permits there were nice people amongst he said. Americans not just ..fair Americans ..good folks in our land speak up." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

It is more important as time progresses us from this period, that we know from those who knew, what we are searching for in terms of comprehending any part of this atrocity. It is vital and essential that the Survivor, who will lend us the essential truth of their Survival, gives us a glimpse, almost a snap shot of the horror that consumed 6,000,000 Jewish lives. While communicating with Elie Wiesel I was struck by his determined approach and his suggestion that I should seek to not deliver a version of The Holocaust that was anything but an historical account. This has left me struggling to proceed with this, my 4th. attempt at a literary endeavour. I sought too to revisit Babi Yar, the most devastating single event within this destruction of the Jewish People, so as to deliver a narrative full of the sense of pain and abject despair for those Jews forced to endure and die in horrendous circumstances? How could I come close, ever, to understanding the magnitude of feeling each word that has been carefully wrenched from their deep seated experience, in order that it delivers for us all, everything we need to know.

"..Jaworzno went on day in and day out ..until in January there was an air raid. ..Russians were coming. ..air raid I remember were ..American ..planes were coming across. ..seeing ..American star ..hoping that they were going to start dropping bombs here." Nathan Roth.

Survivor’s like Natalie can lend us the insight into a catastrophe which destroyed 33,771 Jews in those 2 days at Babi Yar and went on to annihilate 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. I merely borrow their words, ensure I achieve the form of care necessary for them and then lend them back to all who wish to experience what History has yet to learn from. My journey will not end until my understanding of the complexities of The Holocaust allow me to comprehend why one man can so direct his hatred onto so many other's and its result is the Destruction of 6,000,000 Jewish People. I am bereft too of any understanding as to how this World stood so idly by, acknowledging the knowledge of it all, while ensuring they kept that knowledge in house and away from a World that would damn them for doing so! For me therefore, if the Slaughter of The Jews of Europe is to be the defining expression which is, The Holocaust, then places just like Jaworzno are key to appreciating individual losses on an intimate and more concentrated scale.

"..Our Dear Mother Lieba was sent ..July 1942 to Auschwitz ..our Dear Father Wolf ..August 1943 to Auschwitz and Dear Mentze also ..same at ..end of 1943. ..In January 1945 she was still there ..when ..Russians came closer they evacuated deep into Germany and on ..way ..shot ..90% of ..survivors." Aron Krakauer.

Also, and surely the 'Survivor' is not only the Jew who emerged from within the ravine at Babi Yar, or the City of Jaworzno but is the Jew who emerged from within Hitler's immediate grasp also? I don't propose to know the despair of any Jew who faced this terrible, on going ordeal and 'genocide', but I know of that desperation and feeling of abandon through study, research and a human empathy which feels shame for those who stood so idly by. I carefully calculate from all of this, that any Jew who came out of the Death and Concentration Camp, from the Ghetto or who crawled away from Jaworzno, Babi Yar or Ponary, that Jew is the bearer of an extraordinary insight into an intolerable evil and is an accuser of such despicable intolerance's and our indifference to their plight. What is intelligent of having such knowledge when the lives of 6,000,000 Jews are being destroyed with an other’s will. Can it be that such intelligence is greater than the sum total of abandoned lives, because simply, they were Jewish lives. The answer to the sheer indifference shown for these Jews is written in the vaults of government buildings in Europe and then throughout the World.

"..Uncle Wolf and Salla were shot on ..May 15th. 1942 in Z'abna. Aunt Leta was sent in February 1943 to Auschwitz. Little Hani at ..end of 1943 also to Auschwitz. Nechemia and Shlomek perished in Yetke and Shaul to Auschwitz. Erna and ..children to Auschwitz. With Joshua and uncle Zagorsky ..I was all ..time together at He died in July 1944 and poor Joshua was taken in August 1944 with ..sick transport to Auschwitz and from then on there was no sign of him." Aron Krakauer.

For me, this is an ever spiralling curve of learning, and I have yet to catch the tail end of what is known, by those who knew, know and were made aware of. For what The Holocaust is, there are People like Natalie who know all to well the answer! So if we then accept, for argument sake, that Hitler's intention was indeed to destroy all of World Jewry, as Wannsee insists, then from inception to an almost complete accomplishment of that fundamental demand, 6,000,000 Jews paid an inordinate bill and too heavy a price for us to contemplate. We must also accept within that remit, that Hitler gained such impetus from a World's indifference, that we too are historically blighted with an acquiescence in the gravest crime ever to be inflicted upon the Jewish People! What we thus gain from the perspective of Hitler's hold on power, when the function was initially perceived that the Jews could indeed be destroyed, and continually all the way up until 1945 when that full intention was catastrophically applied, any Jewish choice was totally removed from the Jewish People.

"..April 1942 they expelled ..Bragers from Kweltze to Hshanow. They couldn't take anything and dear mother lent them 1,000 Marc ..60 Dollar. Mrs. Brager was meant to write to her children ..but regrettably ..they took ..Bragers together with Mother immediately thereafter. I was with their son together during 18 months at and I don't know what happened to him later." Aron Krakauer

For those Jews within Hitler's reach, who looked to us, as 'christians', even catholics, and saw our fall from grace, we have to express clearly that what had been deemed by a so called civilised humanity, that this was a catastrophe of unparalleled brutality that is unequalled in all of history. Not just that, our failure to stand against this pernicious model of Hitler’s evil, runs concurrent alongside the greatest genocide ever inflicted upon a single People which remains as criminal as it is morally reprehensible. So for the Jews who would emerge from within the dragnet of Hitler's clear goal to destroy them, these must be included amongst the list of Survivor's an understanding and appreciation of the intention to murder them. That said, the Survivor clearly remains outside that term which held the Jew within The Holocaust's reach. Like I have said, I cannot know what The Jew of The Holocaust knows, but I can know of, from a moral perspective, that any christian duty should have sought to deliver all Jews from any victimisation, harm or that capacity for destruction which consumed them.

."..Dear Salomon ..I am writing now ..first letter after ..war. You can't imagine in what a state I am. Besides being physically broken .my soul is completely broken. I am living without a family, without friends or acquaintances. I feel so lonely." Aron Krakauer.

We are the accused and we must set about accepting that responsibility so that our future generations do not have to? I think that Yehuda Bauer argued in his worthy book, Jews for Sale, that The Final Solution to a Jewish Question was Hitler's responsibility. But the outcome for the Jews of Europe must become the responsibility of all those who seek to ensure, we acknowledge the wrong done to the Jewish People, here in Jaworzno or wherever they were met with such enmity and hatred. The part the World played in allowing this all to happen is a detail we all must be reconciled with. Whether the World seeks to attribute to the destruction of 6,000,000 Jews our responsibility, or seeks to placate this with some unintended functioning, this is immaterial. The very fact that the World lost 6,000,000 Jews to a terrible accounting, while we added a crime to History, that is incomprehensible.

"..marched us ..west. ..maybe 2,000 of us ..from and night. ..SS used to come and pick some people to go back and pick up the corpses and bury them. 100's and 100's shot." Nathan Roth.

There are those who might suggest antisemitism had a hand in this account which must resound and reverberate where it is a clear expression from the many who perpetrated the crimes? But lest we forget, the christian god sent his only son to die for us, so the christian god is not only culpable in the Crucifixion, that god stood aside while The Holocaust was vented upon the Jewish People and clearly, it was not the Jewish People that delivered christ to what god intended. Think then how any man can conjure with a title for a Book that has Jews for Sale as its header, and then we might approach a small detail of what Professor Bauer wishes to share with me, with You, with this World and with History! If we can come to terms with what the World allowed to be achieved in The Holocaust, we can perhaps accept that within Jaworzno, in the depths of The Holocaust, innocent People were callously slain to satiate a hatred that should never have been allowed to persist.

"..Sometimes I claim to God ..why I was ..only one of ..who survived. I am not happy to be alive. Now I understand ..saying ..It would be better not to be born." Aron Krakauer.

Quite often I find myself repeating a sentiment I have held dear for quite sometime, and it is difficult not to allow this to become sanitised when in fact it is a sentimental reflection upon what is lost. It is for that reason that I restate, The Holocaust has NEVER just been a part of History for me, and has ALWAYS been an affront to my person, as a Human Being. I have been entrusted with certain memories which I pass along in Remembrance of those Jews, from Jewish Community's just like the one at Jaworzno almost completely extinguished, in order that we never forget them! Also, I have been given an opportunity, which I managed to promise to a Survivor along the way and that I would at least visit all x6 Death which Hitler had established in Poland. I felt it as a duty to do so that I could retrace the search for words I would use to describe the places of such a calamity. That said. I owe it to those like Natalie to ensure, Jaworzno is not only a mention from with The Holocaust, it is a place that establishes the depth and breadth of the Catastrophe which is The Holocaust of the Jews of Europe.

"..God bless all liberators of this time in history. My family was gassed and burned in Auschwitz Poland. My dear late husband Bernard Benny Scharf ..only survivor of his family and I met in 1946 Fell in love and came to our blessed land in 1947. We have 2 children ..Jeffrey I. Scharf MD Andrea R. Scharf Gal ..3 Grandsons." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

Clearly, the Jewish grasp on life was to become an eradication which ensured by the conversion of a rhetorical hatred from one man. Hitler, whose vented rage contorted to a final resolve which was eventually accomplished by many who aspired toward similar hatreds was exacted in Jaworzno as equally brutally as it was in Auschwitz, Babi Yar, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Ponary, Sobibor, Treblinka or Tuchinka. Here, while I have always clearly stated that I am not an authority on The Holocaust, and that clear distinction belongs to the many fine Writers who experienced what it is I seek to know, I have become well aware of the opportunity my words have given the many who seek to add to their understanding of this greatest wrong! I have never equated anything I have experienced with anything from The Holocaust that so tormented a People or brutalised all too many of them and radically dealt in the Destruction of 6,000,000 of them for being Jews. From any sense of perspective, that is where my work for their memory clearly begins and ends.

"..To ..deniers I tell you. You deny as much as you want. ..only thing that will ever set you free from ..hatred that you have for my Jewish People is not ..shameless lies that you spread about us. This ..Truth! For Truth Shall Make You Free." Natalie Mehlman Scharf.

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HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, August 17, 2018 00:07:16

Who would believe how the Germans would and did act as civilisation and enlightenment were confronted by a Jewish People so used to oppression. Fundamentally, the Jews of the Diaspora had never considered itself exposed to the capricious nature and terms of any systematic annihilation, though brutalisation had been meted out to them for millennia. However, all too many Germans and other nationals became emboldened by the hate filled words of Hitler and enacted upon his rancid vocabulary with like minded and unequalled a murderous interpretation. Embedded in German minds, and as the tide of hatred spread wider and fanned out across Europe, the Jewish People were labelled as guilty of all that ailed them, and as Jews they were wholly detained. Wherever the Jewish People were found, these Jews were contained as Jews and they were subsequently Murdered as Jews. This is true whether they were found and shot or gassed, starved or hanged at the Death Camps, Killing Sites or the Ghetto’s. Places like BabiYar, Belzec, Kovno, the Warsaw Ghetto or here at Delatyn all reverberate with the stench of atrocity.

What we now know of Delatyn, its name in German, Polish and in English, or Delatin in Hungarian was also known as Deliatin from its Yiddish name and even to its Russian transference as Delyatin. It is also known as Dilyatyn in its Ukrainian form and is all so often written as Delyatin, Delyatyn, Diljatyn and Dilyatyn. No matter how the name was spread, all Jews of Delatyn came to know the horror that was to present itself to them. None of this consideration however, what its space name, none of these did make a single bit of difference to Jewish existence. Wherever the Nazi’s were to find a Jewish presence, that Jewish existence would be eradicated. Nor had Hitler’s murderous intention prevented what was a pliant mass of other national’s, who colluded in this final resolve, applying Hitler’s demands for all and any Jews to be murdered where they were found. Everywhere, and there were all too many with their own negative outlook toward the Jews, immediately readied themselves and became more than willing to act in a murderous fashion, no matter their own national allegiance.

What is also certain, in all of these spaces occupied by the Jewish Murdered, is that the Jews had been given no choice whatsoever but to resist the hatred against them with their very lives. In the first place, any of these Jewish People, who were being singled out systematically and sought out from their community’s, had nowhere to escape to, and certainly nowhere to hide. For the longest while they might well have considered that physical work awaited them as resettlement transports anticipated their removal. Finally though, and while these detained and entrained Jews might well have realised that certain death then awaited them, what was the entirety of these Jewish Families expected to do? For those Jews who could actually manage to escape, it became perfectly clear to all those on the outside, that escape would be a futile exercise in retribution levelled against those remaining on the inside. Also, we have now considered the worldly expressions of the time, and while we heard the refrain that one Jew was too many, this all was as an example of the Jewish abandonment.

Clearly abandoned by a World not seeking to import a Jewish Question, let alone any problems they might incur, European Jewry was decimated. Individually, isolationist intolerance that was evoked amongst nations and was an expression clearly raised, did not allow for Jews to be considered worthy of World assistance. In fact, for the world to then accept what it considered it had no wish to import was abandoned to Hitler and his nazi cohorts to resolve its own Jewish Question. Though East European Jewry, Polish, Ukrainian, Byelorussian or Russian Jews might well have been unaware of World intention ranged against them, or of the shameful debate over who actually wanted them, such vast tracts of a continent ruled over by Hitler’s legions was a collective raged against Jewish existence where escape proved impossible. There is also a certain loathing I have encountered, but only in certain small Jewish quarters, against those very Jews who were forced to make a choice were no choice existed.

Those who dissent my understanding of this observance, of a no choice ordeal for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, can say what ever they wish about the Books I have placed before the World. There are x4 books now which are stand alone in their condemnations of what was perpetrated against all of these 6,000,000 Jews and for what we as a supposedly christian grouping of nations allowed to happen. Should I have written these books when I am clearly a non-Jew, aiming shots at non-Jews for what we, an ostensibly ‘christian’ grouping, both perpetrated and allowed to happen. My opinion is of course I should have written even more on the subject of The Holocaust and I should not be denied that opportunity because I am not a Jew. For the many of you who have lent me their details on Family, who have measured your responses as to loss, the comments on places like Delatyn and Jaworzno are important. While there are so many other atrocity’s within The Holocaust term, please do not consider me unappreciative of that shared experience concerning these corners of that vast narrative.

While it is essential that I write, I do not have any ulterior motive in assessing the human loss of those Jews other than Always to Remember, Never to Forget. I am here to stand for 6,000,000 European Jews and in their stead I afford a missing voice to the resonating echo of their fading presence. In this History that has taken these 6,000,000 Jews of your kin from us, this is where I will gain a little more from the search which I have begun. I am deeply indebted to the many friends who have allowed me to add more words to the overall cost to you all by your shared concern for what must not disappear, what must never be forgotten and must always be remembered, 6,000,000 Jewish lives plundered from us. I also acknowledge the greater debt owed to the Jewish Survivor who is troubled consistently by our demands to know more than we have yet learned. For you too, the Jewish People who must struggle more with that very loss, know too the sentiment of that loss is pertinent and personal to me.

For those of you who seek out the same pathway toward this learning from the incomprehensible, it is a journey that I travel willingly and we each do so in communion with a cause greater than mere memory can hold. So for those who read all I have to say, I will return to the scenes of the most despicable crimes ever perpetrated. That said, in each and every Jewish Community were atrocity was visited, were unconcern was expressed and intolerance’s were enacted, individual spaces hold individual traumas the like of which we cannot know and therefore, bear no comparison to anything History has lent us previously. In my effort, I will do all that I can to pay due respect to the position of those places such as Chelmno, Delatyn, Majdanek, Ponary and Rumbuli, where the totality of what was achieved in each and every space dedicated to lost but not forgotten memory, all are adding to an atrocity now detailed as the murder of 6,000,000 Jewish People.

What began in Hitler’s fetid mind as The Final Solution of The JEWISH Question, die Endlosung der JUDENFRAGE, became what is acknowledged by most as The Holocaust. There are lessons to be learned even from the lost, who can so expressly teach us, even from within The Holocaust, the moral warnings to be learned about intolerance and even indifference. Much of the information that so many of you have passed on to me is in relation to spaces not unheard of but little known. For what transpired here in Delatyn, or many such little Towns, Shtetl’s and Villages, much of which is still as yet unknown to History, we broaden our understanding by acknowledging the significant detail of individual places were atrocity was significantly meted out. You have given meaning to these places of People, and a personal insight into what Bialystok, Delatyn, Lodz, Sobibor, Treblinka or Wlodawa must establish as the Jews who had entered them were extinguished from.

But before we delve fully into the complexity of the overall atrocity that is The Holocaust, I will draw your attention to Delatyn, an almost insignificant Shtetl in the midst of the greater tragedy which is The Holocaust. Here, this tiny holding, which thrived with 3,000 Jews, has added to the more losses of the Jewish lives who were murdered in situ. Also, Delatyn’s Jews were Murdered elsewhere or in Belzec, and is recognised as part and parcel of the greater tragedy that is 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe. Before we arrive at the overall calamity though, we must immerse ourselves in the history which took the Jews of Delatyn more than 500 years to fully establish. While Hitler envisaged Poland as a massive graveyard for Polish Jewry, and eventually then for the Jews of Europe, Delatyn remained isolated from the immediate effects until 1939 when Hitler sent his invading forces into Poland. Of course, and all too often and far too regularly we come across individual atrocity's which defy our conscious ability to discern.

As with any form of comprehension that is a measure of the incomprehensible, Delatyn is a Shtetl or Town which has given its sizeable Jewish community to memory. Delatyn is but one such instance where we are brought to the limits of our eager understanding of that certain fall from grace of a supposed civilised German nation. Here was an Eastern Galician Shtetl, which at the time of The Holocaust ambled along, residing as it did so along the course of the River Pruth. Here, on the approaches to the Carpathian mountains, such idyllic splendour was crushed beyond human understanding when Hitler’s forces established a brutal regime fixated on the Jews and their destruction. Prior to World War I, the Shtetl of Delatyn was a tiny part of the old established Austro-Hungarian Empire mixing amongst compatriots with daily struggles they seemed well able to cope with. Even between the two world wars Delatyn belonged to the Polish nation and only added to the catastrophe for Polish Jewry once it was enacted by the Hitlerite arrival.

Delatyn was now home to more than 3,000 Jewish People, a rather vibrant, energetic and productive Jewish community until Hitler's invading Armies breached their often times strained persistence amongst their Polish non-Jewish neighbours. Assault and brutal enactment’s raged against the Jews here but it was not until after Hitler invaded Russia in June 1941, when the escalation toward a Final Solution was concentrated also upon Delatyn Jewry. Firstly though, we have to recognise that there was a presence of Jews here in Delatyn around 1370 ad and their establishment as a community was almost unremarkable in the more than 200 years for laws to establish any rights to all who resided within its confines. The first written mention of Delatyn dates from 1370 and in 1578 the Magdeburg’s progressed the law and then prosperity was fully confirmed with the establishment of a salt mine business emerging there. Within 300 years the industry of salt extraction prospered further the entire area and the realisation so of the medicinal soothing quality of the salt springs brought a further flourish of resource, as a resort was established.

Delatyn is now becoming more and more cosmopolitan. By 1765 there were 87 Jews living in Delatyn and then in 1880, with a population of 4,495, of these 1,577 were Jews. This represented 35.08% of the population. By 1890 there were 5,195 residents of whom 2,096 were Jews representing 40.34% of the whole population. In 1900 the Town had grown to where 6,018 resided in the community and 2,397 of whom were Jews representing 39.83% of the population. By 1910 there was a community strength of 7,852 citizens and 2,997 Jews making up 38.16% of that citizenry. However, by 1921 there was a fall of some 1,879 inhabitants in the Town to 5,973. While 1,576 Jews represented 26.38% of that population, the Jewish presence here also decreased by some 1,421 Jews. With that substantial decrease, while it was quite possibly as a consequence of the effects of the First World War, we merely speculate. But here too, while this can be seen also that as a consequence of the 1,879 of the Towns non-Jewish community who were no longer on the census figures, 458 of these were other than their Jewish Neighbours.

However, in extrapolating from figures, it is all too easy to overlook in Human terms the cost in People this presents to us. From here also, and while the number of Jews are adding to the growing community and is gaining ground, for all Jews who could now gain any source of prominence in and around Delatyn, this increased steadily. By the commencement of World War II, that is borne out, as there were more than 3,000 Jews now living in and emulating their non-Jewish neighbours in and about the Town and in all spheres and walks of life. Here though we reach the invariable encroachment upon all Jewish life, as in September 1939, Poland fell to Hitler’s German forces in some 26 Days. Though fighting in various parts of Poland continued for another 6 days, effectively, Polish resistance ended with the capitulation of Poland in Warsaw, September 27th. 1939. For Delatyn, this all proved pivotal in the approaching crisis as it was the escape route for the Polish government seeking exile as it fled and abandoned the Polish nation.

The Polish government, fleeing through the Delatyn area enroute toward Romania, it is already conceded and recognised that no comfort could be gained for the Polish people’s left behind. Here in an abandoned nation, 6 million Polish citizens would eventually die, including the 3,000,000 Polish Jews who were systematically sought out for Slaughter. By the time of the Russian participation, September 29th. 1939, Stalin’s forces were moving swiftly to occupy the eastern sector of Poland and this included Delatyn. That same October a pseudo-Election was drawn up in the area, in which 93% of the population, of the now Western Ukraine, voted to leave the Ukraine and enjoined the Soviet Russian state. Delatyn was now a satellite community on the outskirts of Stalin’s realm and was affording of a limited security to the Jews seeking to remain here. During March and April 1940 Russian influences increasingly sought to deport from enormous tracts of these newer Soviet lands vast numbers of Jewish, Polish and Ukrainian political, religious and military leaders into Kazakhstan and Siberia.

While this exile amounted to an immediate and seeming saving grace for those Jews of Poland deported further East, many still succumbed to Russian atrocity. Then, with Hitler’s invasion of Russia, June 22nd. 1941, Delatyn was bombed and the position for any Jew within Nazi reach took on a far more destructive complexion. While Delatyn had a Judenrate established that July, located in the middle of the Shtetl, and the orderly curtailing of Jewish activity became central to the Nazi demands, hope was still extended to the belief that Poles, Ukrainians and indeed Jews were being liberated. On June 23rd. an advance party of motorcycle dispatch riders, units from General Karl von Stuelpnagel’s 17th. Army arrived in Delatyn. For his part Stuelpnagel would become implicated in measures aimed at suppressing Jews and then murdering them along his lines of communication. All the while, Stalin’s NKVD were ranging far and wide, assailing and murdering anyone they considered enemies of the new Soviet proposition.

On July 1st. the Germans fully occupied Delatyn and while the Jewish treatment was abuse and more abuse, the annihilation in greater numbers took its time arriving. In nearby Nadworna, which had been treated to an assault that saw 2,500 of its Jews already been Murdered at Bukowinka on October 6th., Delatyn was merely held in preparation for what was inevitably coming. This was more than half the Nadworna Jews of the Town murdered, which could not be suggested as other than intentioned. In Delatyn itself, a similar murderous operation was commenced which sought out the Jews from the non-Jewish Poles. On the night of October 15th. 1941, an elimination force surrounded Delatyn and here on the following day, October 16th. the Director of the Tatarow Border Police force, SS Haupscharfuhrer Ernst Varchmin ordered the 3rd company of Police Battalion 133, under Commander Rehbein to assist in the collection and murder of the Jews of Delatyn.

The rounding up of Delatyn’s Jews was the signal for the destruction to commence and when all of these Jews were gathered together, they were all taken to a woodworking factory where a final selection was made. Some of the younger Jews were kept as a workforce for the foreseeable future while the remainder, some 1,950 of Delatyn’s Jews were taken to Olchoviec and shot. Their remains were interred in 3 mass graves and a troubled calm settled upon the area. However, this mass assault would be but the first of five distinct aktionen against the Jewish Citizens of Delatyn. While most of the listed victims of the Jewish Murdered that took the Jews of Delatyn from us was accomplished during the years 1941, 1942, 1943 and 1944, Jews too were Murdered during the period of German occupation in 1939, and not ostensibly by German hands. Some of these Jews of Delatyn, those young and capable enough to be considered for forced labour were either shot in Stanislawow, during what would be the second action against them, or then transported to The Belzec Death Camp.

As a result of the third action, 200 Jews from Tatarow were brought by Varchmin and were murdered alongside some Jews of Delatyn. The fourth action took place in March 1942 when 200 of Delatyn’s Jews were detained and a further 256 Jews from the neighbouring villages and towns were corralled together in Delatyn itself. From here they were all taken to the nearby Jewish cemetery and murdered, 456 Jews then interred there. Trawling through the districts during the Summer, killing operations continued and toward the end of 1942, more than 200 Jews from Delatyn and the surrounding area were deported to The Belzec Death Camp. By September 1942 the Polish newspaper, basically translated as Polish glad tidings, ‘The Wiesci Polskie’, suggested that there were sources in Budapest who had reports from the Pruth River Valley and that the area from Delatyn to Worochta was now declared Judenrein. It becomes obvious to all who are reading the details of this intelligence information that the very meaning could not be interpreted other than that all Jews had been cleared from the area, eliminated, Murdered in killing aktionen, or in the Death Camps.

But Hitler’s annihilating agents had not quite done with Delatyn. During July 1943, a partisan group led by the Russian, Major-General Sydir Artemovych Kovpak was surrounded and decimated by the forces of General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov in the vicinity of Delatyn. General Kovpak’s partisan’s had even included a number of Jews who had escaped the transports from Skalat to The Belzec Death Camp. Here though, they all fell to the superior fire power ranged against them and in Delatyn, the fifth killing action against their Jews was carried out during the winter of November and December 1943. While Nazi forces were being driven back from along the Russian Front, forces aligned with them, the renegades and collaborationists of Vlasov’s Army now surrounded Delatyn. During the night these combined forces started the shelling of the Town in a softening up exercise and as the people ran out into the street their panic played into the hands of the Murderers who shot them as the emerged.

Eventually though, the Nazis gathered all the Jews who remained in the town centre and ritually tortured and abused them. Partially alive, and even the dead Jews were not spared the final detail, they were loaded into trucks and taken to the Olchoviec forest. Here, some 712 Jews and 95 of their Ukrainians compatriots were finally interred after the remaining living had been murdered. At the end of 1943, the town was proclaimed finally free of its Jews as the remaining Delatyn Jews were sent to Stanislawow. Perhaps as late as January 1944 those expelled Jews of Delatyn finally perished. In Delatyn itself, the Nazis spent their short time remaining there confiscating and robbing all they could from Jewish homes, lands and estates. It is estimated that all but a handful of the 3,000 Jews of Delatyn had been murdered in Delatyn, its environs and the areas that surrounded it. All throughout the period, resistance took on a distinct flavour in the areas around Delatyn and Stanislawow. That said, the role of Jewish Resistance must not be overlooked.

Local Jews, some escaping transports to the Death Camps, Jews escaping from other Camps and Ghetto’s gravitated toward the resistance movement and made their way back toward Delatyn. Resistance therefore, as it was concentrated in and around Delatyn, and for long periods during the War, recognises that many of those Resister's fell in an unequal battle against a far superior equipped enemy. A resistance movement, and local to them emerged here at Delatyn. Amongst these, and there is a great need to add to their account for their bravery, persistence and tenacity are:- Mosze Akselrod, Egber Berisz, Jakow Goldner, Jakow Hecht, Dawid Huberman, Fimek Jarysz and Gitel Kolki are amongst the many killed in action. In fighting the extended reach of Hitler’s hatred for their own People, their heroism has yet to be fully measured. By the time in March 1944, when the Russian Army had reoccupied Delatyn, the addition to Hitler’s Final Solution for the Jews of Delatyn had been resolved here.

However, the end for Jewish fears did not conclude yet, as the sway of assault and counter offensive moved backwards and forwards across the entire region. On April 19th. Hitler’s forces were again within the limits of Delatyn’s confines. Eventually though, the weight of Russian offensiveness told and was pressed home and the Nazi’s were finally evicted on July 26th. 1944. From here, and through the Jablonica pass the Russian forces gathered its resources and assailed Hitler’s 6th. SS Army in Hungary, thus ending German presence in Hungary too. Today, in the Olchoviec Forest, at the northern tip of the town there is the collective graveyard, the final resting place to much that had previously existed of the Jewish presence of Delatyn. Though many other’s occupy the same space, this site belongs to the majority Jewish Murdered by systematic and sought out Hitlerite intention. Here, during the period 1941 till 1943, the local and area Jews were shot and interred here and throughout the entire area also.

While the memorial to the Jews of Delatyn carries an inscription in the languages of the area, recognising the Jewish presence has been all but obliterated, we cannot fully confirm the place of execution of all these Jews. On May 8th. 1945, as World War II comes to an end in Europe, the World must now come to terms with what it knew, what it chose to know or decided ignore with regards to the Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. As part of that assessment, and in relation to what emerges from the tragedy of Delatyn, on May 6th. 1968 this vicious SS Hauptscharfuhrer Ernst Varchmin, a brutal antisemitc hater, and others of his kind, were tried in the Higher District Court, the aptly named Stanislawow Trial, at the ‘Landgericht Munster.’ Indicted over the mass Murder, the group and individual shooting’s and the deportations of 1,000’s of Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians into The Death Camps and not just from Delatyn but from Bukowina, Dolina, Jablonica, Kalucz, Nadworna, Rohatyn, Stanislawow, Tatarow, Worochta and Wyskow.

Finally, to bring a curtain down on the scenes of atrocity abounding in and around Delatyn, on July 13th. 1972, Ernst Varchmin was sentenced to life imprisonment by the West German Federal Supreme Court, the ‘Bundesgerichtshof’ for his Crimes Against Humanity, mostly Jewish Humanity. But Humanity could not be stilled and much that has been taken from Jewish existence here has proven that not all recognition of the acts of depravity has been totally lost. Also, and in a form of commemoration, in a poems titled Shot by Stephen Herz he actually mentions Delatyn. Here, along with many lost Jewish Community’s and from among those other places of atrocity, we hear the name Delatyn ring out. Herz focuses also his accusation as he relates some of his lines to those who also participated and perpetrated these crimes.


"..shot in the synagogue

shot up against the wall in the headlights

of the truck

shot in the farmyard by the dung heap

shot in the hospital, the maternity ward

shot in the city, the town, the shtetl

shot in their houses, in the streets, in the market square

shot in the cemetery

shot in the warehouse after machine-gun muzzles were pushed through holes in the walls

shot in the roundups trying to escape

shot in bed

shot in their cribs

shot in the air, the baby thrown over its mother's head

shot because they stole a potato

shot because they were betrayed for a kilo of sugar

shot because they weren't wearing the yellow star

shot because they were wearing the yellow star

shot by the Einsatzgruppen

shot by the Reserve Battalion of the German Order Police

shot by the Gestapo Firing Squad

shot by the Waffen SS and the Higher SS

shot by the Hiwis-Ukrainian, Latvian, and Lithuanian volunteers

shot by the Hungarian Fascist Nyilas, the Arrow Cross

shot by the Polish police and Polish partisans

shot by the Croatian Ustasa

shot by the Romanian army, police, gendarmerie, border guard, civilians, and the Iron Guard

shot by the Wehrmacht

shot by old men in the German Home Guard

shot by young boys in the Hitler Youth

shot in Aktion after Aktion as if it was "more or less our daily bread"

shot in the search-and-destroy mission, the Jew Hunt

shot in the "harvest festival," the Erntefest

shot in order to make the northern Lublin district judenrein

shot in Zhitomir, Poniatowa, Jozefow, Trawniki

shot in Lomazy, Parczew, Bialystok, Kharkov

shot in Bialowieza, Lukow, Riga, Poltava

shot in Miedzyrzec, Khorol, Kremenstshug

shot in Slutsk, Bobruisk, Mogilev, Vinnitsa

shot in Odessa, Lvov, Kolmyja, Minsk, Rovno

shot in Majdanek and Brest-Litovsk

shot in Neu Sandau and Tarnopol and Rohatin

shot in Dnepropetrovsk

shot in Kovno, Pinsk, Berdichev, Tarnow

shot in Kamenets-Podolski

shot in Krakow, Szczebrzeszyn, Siauliai

shot in Stolin, Kielce, Lutsk, Serokomla

shot in Drogobych, Luga, DELATYN

shot in the Warsaw Ghetto

shot in the ravine of Babi Yar

shot in Bilgoraj, Nadvornaya, Stanislawow

shot in David Grodek, Janow Podlesia

shot near Zamosc." Stephen Herz.

Finally, as the names of the lost are a memory of what we will ensure must never be erased, and these names that are listed below are but a tiny account of those who were finally Murdered. However, they do fully stand as symbols of those grave wrongs which have never been judicioulsy accounted for. In my effort, and while there are many Jews of Delatyn presented with their given Surnames, I have only chosen to list those who are identified in both Forename and Surname. This leaves an immense hollow where memory does no credit to the burden of Remembrance. It is important for us to recall though that of the fallen, we can know there was the presence for all too many of an entire Family with but a Surname known. The future tragedy, with no one left to represent them as they were, those who were all destroyed at the same place and on the same date, we can only look to the names presented.

This effort though, where names are either listed or not, could have included many other’s of their families names, the relatives and kin without fuller names but we know they had lived. All too often what has been written into the detail of the crimes commited against these Jewish People, where there might be a spouse name that is missing, or the names of Their Children which cannot be recalled from our past, we should never allow for their presence to be forgotten. Though there are many Jewish Murdered who have been listed and are not to be forgotten, their contemporaries must form another account given over to the scarcity of the information that must prove necessary. We have thus far gained little of the fuller content of the atrocity delivered to the Jews of Delatyn here, but we persist in memory of the more than 3,000 Jews of we know are lost to us.

Moses Abasch, Israel Aberbach, Abrum Abosch, Hersch Abosch, Jakub Abosch, Mosze Akselrod, Chana Aldesberg, Chana Altman, Israel Anzug, Mendel Auch, Dawid Auschusman, Frida Auschusman, Hersch Auschusman, Abrum Auschustman, Abrum Aviusdemon, Meiler Babed, Eugenia Bandel, Jakub Bandel, Pinia Bandel, Rifka Bandel, Yosio Bandel, Adam Bartfel, Josef Bartfeld, Sara Bartfeld, Kramer Bartko, Hersch Berger, Ilias Berger, Schaia Berger, Yuda Berger, Egber Berisz, Karl Bernstein, Tuli Bibmoni, Moses Bilberg, Asias Birkenhelt, Dawid Bitman, Isak Bitman, Naftaly Bitman, Rifka Blach, Burah Blai, Burich Blai, Halia Blai, Maia Blai, Moses Blai, Rifka Blai, Issio Blater, Chaim Blei, Dawid Blei, Herz Blimenstesch, Jakov Blitner, Chana Bloch, Chaim Bloch, Dwoira Bloch, Michel Bloch, Pinkas Sammel Bloch, Samson Bloch, Schmala Bloch, Tomas Bloch, Elias Bluch, Kasimira Bluhspefi, Hersch Boder, Abrum Bomer, Osias Breitler, Abram Bresler, Abrum Bresler, Israel Bresler, Pinkas Bresler, Sara Bresler, Singer Bresler, Tauba Bresler, Aron Brin, Wolf Brunwaser, Chana Buchwald, Enta Buchwald, Leibusch Buchwald, Michal Buchwald, Ribel Buchwald, Salomon Chasker, Adas (Adam) Dachs, Frida Dachs, Schimon Dachs, Sora Dachs,

Abraham DEMNER, Feiga DEMNER, Josef DEMNER, Moses DEMNER, Seida DEMNER,

Isak Dener, Lea Dener, Frida Denmer, Frida Denner, Isa Denner, Liba Denner, Pin Denner, Salamon Denner, Salamon Diamant, Josef Dikker, Efroim Dinet, Maks Dinet, Cirla Drimer, Dawid Drimer, Stelko Drimer, Yosio Drimer, Yoslio Drucker, Abrum Druker, Chana Druker, Jakub Druker, Hersch Dulberg, Naftaly Dunker, Fredi Einstein, Moses Endelstein, Cirla Enkerentent, Schaia Fange, Chaia Fanzer, Aron Felzenstein, Frania Fenster, Frima Fenster, Josifa Fenster, Rifka Fenster, Zauder Fimel, Abraham Flamer, Sosim Flor, Zoia Flur, Leiso Fraim, Herz Franwal, Chana Fridfertig, Dwoira Fridfertig, Itzak Fridfertig, Moses Fridfertig, Rimka Fridfertig, Boruh Fridfertik, Reg Fridfertik, Juda Fridman, Yuda Fridman, Naftaly Fritz, Alter Fuchs, Elsa Fuchs, Emma Fuchs, Enta Fuchs, Hersch Fuchs, Moses Fuchs, Schpak Fuchs, Emma Gah, Pincas Gas, Samuel Gerner, Fichs Gildenrad, Frida Gildenrad, Inka Gildenrad, Isa Gildenrad, Israil Gildenrad, Mordko Gildenrad, Osias Gildenrad, Rafail Gildenrad, Rifka Gildenrad, Sura Gildenrad, Yosio Gildenrad, Berta Ginselrad, Feifel Ginselrad, Frania Ginselrad, Mordko Ginselrad, Pina Ginselrad, Rifka Ginselrad, Liman Girt, Pepi Gitman, Semon Gitman, Simon Gitman, Chaim Glaser, Emma Glaser, Emner Glaser, Hersch Glaser, Ivan Glaser, Mordko Glaser, Isa Glauser, Schirinda Glauser, Freilia Goh, Isa Goh, Jakow Goldner, Sala Goldstein, Yister Goldstein, Yonas Golstent, Israel Gommer, Sala Gommer, Schaider Gorder, Ruchla Gortstein, Isa Grifel, Berta Grin, Mordko Grin, Dawid Grinberg, Moses Grinstein, Herz Grosman, Moses Grosman, Grin Gruber, Hersch Gunderman, Dwoira Gutes, Grischko Gutes, Leib Haber, Frida Haf, Samuel Haf, Rifka Haftman, Leopold Hammer, Sala Hammer, Salamon Hammer, Jakow Hecht, Hersch Herman, Salamon Herner, Grin Hersch, Nuta Hersch, Marian Hilman, Rafael Hindelrat, Salomon Hofman, Perla Hoker, Dawid Huberman, Salomon Hunderman, Sura Hunderman, Sara Imerkler, Fimek Jarysz, Stein Kalin, Sala Kamil, Israel Kandil, Fraer Kanfer, Glonton Kanfer, Dino Kard, Marcus Katz, Leib Keifer, Israel Kenig, Israel Kirchiner, Kastrol Kischner, Polbert Kleimer, Jakob Klingelfeld, Chaim Knol, Fischel Knol, Hersch Knol, Leon Knol, Leibusch Kofer, Aron Kofler, Dawid Kofler, Leib Kofler, Schaiba Kofler, Gitel Kolki, Josef Kolmenberg, Mina Kolstan, Dwoira Komarnik, Guda Komarnik, Israel Komarnik, Motio Komarnik, Blima Komornik, Chaia Komornik, Dwoira Komornik, Feiga Komornik, Emma Komornik, Isak Komornik, Israel Komornik, Mechel Komornik, Michael Komornik, Ruchla Komornik, Schloma Komornik, Rosa Korkel, Frida Korn, Karl Korn, Lipa Korn, Poem Korn, Yuda Korn, Bartko Kramer, Beila Kreitman, Leon Krisman, Mina Kudasch, Selven Kudisc, Atonas Kuker, Marcus Kuker, Pinkas Kuker, Piza Kuker, Sura Kuker, Schmidt Kupfer, Lea Kupfer, Pincas Laert, Ester Laet, Emalin Lagutman, Moses Lakriz, Dwoira Lander, Leon Langer, Reiklei Leisor, Leib Lenowel, Rifka Libman, Osias Libtez, Ruchla Lorbert, Fimel Lortel, Isak Marat, Saul Margman, Issak Margosched, Dr. Isak Margules, Dr. Leib Margules, Solomon Marh, Dawid Marks, Blai Meier, Leib Meier, Leib Meiseles, Yuda Melna, Senda Mendel, Sobel Mendel, Rifka Mendel-Freir, Jakub Menschenfreind, Adasch Michal, Israel Moker, Pina Moker, Pinkas Moker, Rosa Moker, Yonas Moker, Avadia Nadel, Gusen Nadel, Haskel Nadel, Michal Nadel, Hersch Neiman, Hersch Neuman, Leit Neutman, Guda Nodel, Jacub Nodel, Hersch Norman, Naftaly Orenstein, Sander Orenstein, Alexander Osadze, Tkinaliy Paster, Mendel Pauker, Otto Peril, Abraham Petranker, Chaim Petranker, Hersch Petranker, Josef Petranker, Leib Petranker, Selven Petranker, Maia Phemer, Mosa Pheter, Moses Pheter, Haftman Piker, Ten Piker, Isak Piler, Rifka Piner, Pinkas Pirkel, Froila Pitnia, Maia Pitnia, Moses Pitnia, Motel Pivtnia, Yusa Pitnia, Chaim Plac, Hersch Plac, Ihalo Plac, Isak Plac, Ansa Plivler, Hersch Plivner, Sima Posternak, Abraham Preminger, Jakub Preminger, Abraham Quartler, Chana Quartler, Abraham Radgaur, Martin Radgaur, Moses Radgaur, Abraham Ransner, Husler Raschner, Moses Rasentrendler, Chaim Reiser, Isa Reiser, Leib Risel, Rifka Risel, Israel Rodser, Leib Rodser, Rosa Rodser, Osias Rosen, Strois Rosmus, Traus Roten, Rifka Sager, Salomon Sak, Abraham Sandel, Elia Schafer, Herman Schafer, Leib Schafer, Muso Schafer, Otto Schafer, Pinkas Schafer, Tekla Schafer, Moses Schaffer, Dawid Schaufman, Rubel Schazberg, Hersch Schechter, Zita Schefr, Isak Scheiner, Israel Scheiner, Leib Scheiner, Pinkas Scherf, Hersch Scheringer, Hecht Schimon, Israel Schiz, Frima Schlaer, Mendel Schleimer, Jacub Schneider, Fanz Schort, Salomon Schraf, Touba Schreier, Abraham Schuchter, Moses Schuchter, Emma Schunsenger, Rita Schunsenger, Chana Schwarz, Ester Schwarz, Gedowin Schwarz, Samnel Schwarz, Samuel Schwarz, Marcus Seger, Rifka Serwaser, Salo Serwaser, Chaim Sisler, Michail Smik, Buruh Sobel, Josef Stal, Jakub Stander, Pinkas Stanger, Frael Stein, Froel Stein, Froim Stein, Etna Steinbach, Isif Steinberg, Michael Sternberg, Abraham Storg, Boruch Storg, Emma Storg, Eugeniy Storg, Fimel Storg, Huda Storg, Leib Storg, Moses Storg, Schimon Storg, Yonas Storg, Salomon Straus, Schimon Streiberg, Alter Strum, Gisela Strum, Polin Strum, Hersch Suker, Mania Sunderman, Perla Sunderman, Abraham Tabasch, Ila Tage, Elsa Tager, Feila Tager, Osias Tager, Salamon Tager, Schaj Tager, Dawid Tank, Hersch Taper, Elias Tauber, Moses Tauber, Emelian Taubman, Josef Taubman, Leib Taubman, Moses Taubman, Schimon Taubman, Yosio Taubman, Ida Tauborg, Feder Taufman, Josef Taufman, Moses Taufman, Bertko Teibman, Leib Teibman, Pepe Teibman, Leib Teisman, Babcia Toker, Isak Traurer, Frida Trauser, Josef Treimer, Emanuel Triper, Chaim Wakner, Dr. Kornela Walah, Ida Waldhorn, Jakub Walthorn, Friz Wantelberg, Hersch Weingart, Chaim Weingarten, Hersch Weingarten, Sima Weingarten, Ester Israel Weis, Ciba Wener, Dawid Wener, Emma Wener, Salomon Witman, Jacub Wulderman, Berl Wunderman, Gidal Wunderman, Pinkas Wunderman, Selda Wunderman, Simon Wunderman, Zachariy Wunderman, Ida Yarlih, Aron Zangler, Fipel Zauder, Moses Zauder, Mordko Zawder, Salamon Zawder, Abraham Zeider, Fimel Zeider, Hersch Zeider, Isak Zeider, Marko Zeider, Salomon Zeider, Chaia Zial, Jacub Zial, Natan Zifer, Abraham Zimer, Emma Zimer, Hersch Zimer, Israel Zimer, Josef Zimer, Wolf Zimer, Karol Zimerman, Lina Zimerman, Mordko Zimerman, Sanda Zimerman, Seida Zimerman, Senda Zimerman, Moses Zimet, Maria Zimringer, Binamin Ziper, Rifka Zuker, Salomon Zwerk.

Through these final deeds, the Surnames of The Lost cannot be forgotten and though they are not as accurate an account as we would wish to have known, these are the Surnames containing losses to Delatyn of 3,000 of its Jews, and perhaps more. All too often too, the names hide the depth of the tragedy meted out to these Jewish People for merely being Jews. My great fear in searching through the Catastrophe though is in missing a single name, not by intent nor omission purposely, but not seeing what is there to be recalled and therefore Remembered, the names of Human Beings whose act of life was extinguished because of a hatred for their existence.

Abash, Aberbach, Abisz, Abosch, Abosh, Abush, Abusz, Abysz, Adlershtein, Ajtman, Akselrod, Aldesberg, Altenhaus, Altenhauz, Alter, Altman, Angstrajch, Ankertrajch, Anzug, Arnold, Aron, Auch, Auerbach, Aurszpringer, Aushesman, Auchussman, Auschusman, Auschussman, Auschussmann, Auschustman, Austein, Avieusdemon.

Babed, Babette, Balai, Balok, Bandel, Barlas, Baron, Bash, Bartfel, Bartfeld, Bartko, Bauer, Bawar, Beisner, Berle, Berger, Berisz, Bernstein, Bibmoni, Bikel, Bikil, Bilberg, Birkenhelt, Bitman, Bittman, Bittmann, Bivering, Blach, Blai, Blaj, Blater, Blatter, Blay, Blei, Blimenstesch, Blitner, Bloch, Block, Blokh, Bluch, Bludstein, Bluhspefi, Boder, Bomer, Boniuvka, Breitler, Bresler, Bressler, Brig, Brin, Bring, Brinshtein, Bronshtein, Brukel, Brunwaser, Buchwald, Burger, Bursztajn.

Calmus, Cauderer, Ceuder, Chasker, Chtorh, Comarnic, Cyglob.

Dachner, Dachs, Daniel, Deen, DEMNER, Dener, Denmer, Denner, Deutsch, Deutscher, Diamand, Diamant, Diamond, Dicker, Diker, Dikker, Dinet, Dojtner, Dornfeld, Drimer, Drucker, Dulberg, Dunker.

Edelstein, Eichenstein, Eilenberg, Einhorn, Einstein, Eisenberg, Eisner, Elenberg, Endelstein, Engel, Engelman, Engelmann, Engler, Enkerentent, Erlich.

Faler, Fange, Fanzer, Feder, Feierwerker, Feler, Felzenstein, Fenster, Fernhoff, Ferster, Feuer, Fimel, Fischbach, Fishbakh, Flamer, Fleiser, Fliegler, Flor, Flur, Fogel, Fojgel, Forster, Fraim, Franwal, Freier, Freiwald, Fribler, Friedfertig, Fridfertig, Fridfertik, Fridlender, Fridman, Fritz, Frydfertig, Fuchs, Fucs, Fuks.

Gah, Ganc, Ganz, Gas, Gelber, Gerner, Gildenrad, Ginselrad, Girt, Gitman, Glaser, Glasman, Glauser, Glazer, Goh, Goldberg, Goldner, Goldstaen, Goldstein, Golstent, Goldsztein, Goldsztejn, Gommer, Gorder, Gortstein, Grifel, Grin, Grinberg, Grindlinger, Grinstein, Grosman, Grossfeld, Gruber, Gunderman, Gutes, Gryn.

Haber, Hacher, Hacker, Haf, Haftman, Halem, Hammer, Hass, Hausler, Hecht, Heiferman, Helem, Heller, Helm, Hendel, Henig, Herman, Herner, Hersch, Herszkowicz, Hertl, Hilman, Hillman, Hilt, Hindelrat, Hittmann, Hoch, Hochman, Hofman, Hoker, Horenreikh, Horner, Hornreich, Horowicz, Huberman, Hunderman, Hundert.

Imerkler, Iung.

Jahr, Jar, Jarysz, Jung, Juran.

Kalin, Kalman, Kalper, Kalperfeld, Kamiel, Kamil, Kaminer, Kandil, Kanfer, Karabczewski, Kard, Katz, Kazwan, Keifer, Kenig, Kerker, Kirchner, Kischner, Kitner, Kleimer, Klein, Kleiner, Klingelfeld, Klingenfeld, Knobl, Knol, Knoll, Knor, Koch, Koenig, Kofer, Koffer, Kofler, Kolki, Kolmenberg, Kolstan, Komarnik, Komornik, Komornyk, Kopelman, Korkel, Korn, Kornsztein, Kotz, Kraemer, Kramer, Kranz, Kratz, Krauthamer, Kreindler, Kreitman, Krekar, Krell, Kremer, Kressel, Kriegsman, Krigsman, Krisman, Krothamer, Krygsman, Kucer, Kudasch, Kudisc, Kugler, Kuker, Kupfer, Kusznir, Kwartler.

Laden, Laert, Laet, Lagutman, Lakriz, Landau, Lander, Langer, Lappe, Larisch, Lauber, Lautman, Lautmann, Laytner, Leibovitz, Leisor, Lenowel, Lewin, Libman, Libtez, Lichtenschtein, Lichtenstein, Lifschitz, Lifshitz, Linder, Linka, Lipschitz, Liser, Lorber, Lorbert, Lortel.

Maier, Majer, Malter, Marat, Margalit, Margman, Margolis, Margosched, Margules, Margulies, Marh, Mark, Marks, Marmorstein, Marton, Mauthner, Mautner, Mayze, Mazes, Meiblum, Meier, Meiseles, Melna, Mendel, Mendel-Freir, Menschenfreind, Menschenfreund, Menshenfrend, Menshenfroind, Menszenfreind, Michal, Moker, Moster.

Nacbar, Nachbar, Nadel, Nagelberg, Nagler, Neiman, Neuman, Nodel, Norman, Normand, Normann, Nottes

Ohrenstein, Orenstain, Orenstein, Orensztein, Ornstein, Osadze.

Paster, Pasvag, Pauker, Pelc, Peril, Perl, Petranker, Petrower, Phemer, Pheter, Piker, Piler, Piner, Piper, Pirkel, Pitnia, Pivtnia, Plac, Platz, Plec, Plirtz, Plivler, Plivner, Posternak, Preis, Preminger, Pressler, Pribler, Printz, Privler, Priwler.


Radgaur, Raihter, Ransner, Raschner, Rasentrendler, Ratner, Regenstreif, Reghinstraif, Reiser, Reizel, Remler, Respler, Riesel, Risel, Rizenberg, Rodser, Rosen, Rosenberg, Rosenblatt, Rosenfeld, Rosmus, Rot, Roten, Rotfeld, Rozen, Rozenberg, Rozenfeld, Rozenkranc, Rubin, Rusel.

Safran, Safrin, Sager, Sak, Sala, Sandel, Schaerf, Schafer, Schaffe, Scharf, Schauman, Schazberg, Schechter, Schefr, Scheiner, Scherf, Scheringer, Schimon, Schiz, Schlaer, Schleien, Schleimer, Schletter, Schlosser, Schmerler, Schmerzler, Schneider, Schoenfeld, Schorr, Schort, Schraf, Schreber, Schreiber, Schreier, Schtorch, Schtrum, Schuchter, Schunsenger, Schwartz, Scic, Seger, Seid, Serwaser, Serwasser, Shinold, Shitz, Shlemer, Shmertzler, Shreier, Shtaner, Shvartz, Sielber, Silber, Silberhertz, Silwer, Sisler, Smik, Smolinski, Sobel, Socol, Somer, Sovol, Spigel, Sprechman, Spritzer, Spund, Stal, Stamler, Stander, Stanger, Stein, Steinbach, Steinberg, Stern, Sternberg, Storch, Storg, Straus, Streiberg, Strum, Suesler, Suker, Sunderman, Szafer, Szauber, Szic, Szneider, Sztigman, Sztrum.

Tabasch, Tagar, Tage, Tager, Tagor, Taler, Tahler, Tank, Taper, Tauber, Taubman, Taubmann, Tauborg, Taufman, Teger, Teibman, Teig, Teisman, Thaler, Tillinger, Toi, Toker, Touibman, Trajber, Traurer, Trauser, Traysser, Treimer, Triper, Troper, Tuchmann, Turteltaub, Tzigenlaub, Tzoiderer.

Udelsman, Unger.

Vaingarten, Videlman, Vilder, Vizelman, Vogman, Vunderman.

Wakner, Walah, Waldhorn, Walthorn, Wantelberg, Weber, Weich, Weingart, Weingarten, Weingold, Weinreb, Weis, Weisberst, Weissberg, Weissenberg, Wener, Wiener, Wiesel, Witles, Witman, Witteles, Woal, Woinilower, Wulderman, Wunderman.


Zager, Zangler, Zankel, Zauder, Zauderer, Zaunkoenig, Zawder, Zeider, Zeuder, Zial, Ziegenlaub, Zifer, Ziglaub, Zilber, Zilberherz, Zimer, Zimerman, Zimet, Zimmer, Zimringer, Zinger, Zin, Zins, Ziper, Zirler, Zisler, Zommer, Zucher, Zuker, Zwerk, Zyngier.

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We Confront Denial.

TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, July 23, 2018 20:39:22
"..with regard to ..Jews ..I've found myself remaining inactive. There's no sense in adding uselessly to ..difficulties of ..moment. One acts more shrewdly when one bides one's time." Adolf Hitler.

There is a terrible hatred paroling this World from only a temporary reprieve, any of which is leasing back a Humanity stolen from it. The fact of the inhumanity that is to be discussed, which will never return us to where civilisation had brought us toward, is the most horrendous crime in all of history. This, the most vitriolic hatred ever envisaged and conceived of was conducted during these times by a Hitler regime designed for the purpose to destroy, annihilate and obliterate every conceivable trace of any Jewish presence in our midst. That Hitler practicably achieved much of this resolve, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, is tantamount to the most accursed accusation that has ever been aimed at us in all of history. From Hitler’s spoken word, which always sought to articulate the literal threat to the Jews of Germany, spreading widely over all of Europe and then finally the conflagration to then be carried to the World of Jewry, and in a punitive way, is documented so well proven.

"..Poles. ..pliant ..servile to their masters ..joyously ..fervently anti-Semitic just short of advocating pogroms in ..camps ..incredibly ignorant and chauvinistic." David Rousset.

If there was any eloquence from Hitler as to what the world heard, it was largely ignored as the expiation of 6,000,000 Jews commenced. Immediately upon Hitler's ascendency to the power brokerage he was fixed upon, and on a World stage, with the murder’s of Jewish Citizen’s running concurrently alongside his expressions of all hatred for all Jews, the political and religious World receded from its moral and ethical substance. While many commentator’s, historians and writer’s so often refer to the hate and bile of Hitler's words as mere word play, we simply cannot ignore the fact that his words re-framed his intentions. Not only can Hitler’s words not be seen as just the merest of his hate filled rhetoric, but when all about him the Jewish People were being subjected to ridicule, abuse, assault and murder, it is preposterous notion. We can clearly identify that under Hitler’s steely gaze and command, his wishes were carried out and to the wider German public, enacted upon.

" Jewish population of was estimated at 17,000,000 in 1937. ..over 10,000,000 were in Europe." Dr. Richard Korherr.

Here every edict of what Hitler clearly determined appropriate for a quickly marginalised Jewish People was enacted upon by the widest structure of German society, business and institution. Other nations too took heed of what Hitler was being enabled to achieve and those like Poland, who as a sovereign state was the first to feel the full weight of Hitler’s intentions toward the Jews of Europe, acted similarly. Poland was to be no hiding space for their Jews, 3,000,000 of whom would prove the tenacity of Hitler’s hatred. As Hitler had clearly expressed, and for more than seven years since gaining power, Jewry would be confronted totally and annihilated mercilessly. For me still, the correct response to what is The Holocaust has yet to be made judicious or commendable. As the World of brutal conflict rages on and its torn people are continually tortured by strife, Jewish existence is continually under threat. What this ensures is that not only have the lessons of The Holocaust not been clearly identified, they are as far reaching in their forming of some acceptance of its gravest wrong. But no response should EVER seek to deny the place of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews in the space of European History, which some who seek to redefine their loss to us would suggest we should do.

"..Once I really am in power first ..foremost task will be ..annihilation of ..Jews. As soon as I have ..power to do so ..I will have gallows built in rows ..Marienplatz in Munich many as traffic allows. ..Jews will be hanged indiscriminately ..they will remain hanging until they stink ..they will hang there as long as ..principles of hygiene permit. As soon as they have been untied batch will be strung up ..and so on down ..line ..until ..last Jew in Munich has been exterminated. Other cities will follow suit ..precisely in this fashion ..until all Germany has been ..cleansed of Jews." Adolf Hitler.

The European Continent, that has been so liberally littered with the ashes of the Jewish People and has been literally marked so indelibly with such brutal inhumanity, all of this must be clearly acknowledged as such. Along with the blood soaked soil of every nation within Europe, and with that the desecration of our clutch on humanity, we clearly must attribute all of this catastrophe to Hitler’s urging. What proved such an unprecedented and unparalleled massacre, so much so that comparison of any sort will only trivialise our loss, is to be recognised in every facet of the move toward the Jews final cataclysm and affront to what we see as our civilising principles. Here, part of the denial aimed at these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews is the inability by the hate filled denial lobby to process that fact. Clearly the intention is what Hitler had dedicated statisticians pointing him toward, and this was the very presence of more than 17,000,000 Jews in the World.

"..We shall regain our health only by eliminating ..Jews." Adolf Hitler.

Dr. Richard Korherr would come along and draw up the statistical analysis for which The Wannsee Conference would then draught its own compliance to. That The Wannsee Conference recognised that 11,293,300 Jews could be Murdered, is essential in determining what we know are the accounting for which Hitler made full use of. With that in mind, any response to any form of denial of The Holocaust must Always be unequivocal and responded to with the completed facts that are its integral truth. The narrative of The Holocaust must never moderate its stance on the truthful conveyance of each and every pertinent identification of the final course with the clearest and relevant facts pointing toward it. What cannot be denied in all that Hitler spouted, with his defining threat to annihilate the Jews would be met precisely with their extermination.

Tuesday August 22nd. 1939. "..destruction of Poland is in ..foreground. ..aim is ..elimination of living forces ..not ..arrival at a certain line. I shall give a propagandist cause for starting ..war ..never mind if it is plausible or not. ..victor will not be asked later on whether he told ..truth or not." Adolf Hitler.

Bearing all this in mind, we must never enter into any discourse which is other than the historical truth and everything which has been gained with such historical accuracy. Its the entirety of The Holocaust, from the research of those facts which delivers to posterity its posthumous legacy that history remains truthful. The entirety of history has gained the essential proof that historically cannot be compromised, especially in the case of more than the abundantly surveyed nature of The Holocaust. Fundamentally, all of humanity must be regrouped and even reborn from the ashes of the Death Camps, from the Ghetto’s and from the Killing Sites and for the World to recognise the very flawed nature of the human fall from grace. What has been proven by Survivor’s from their witness testimony, so replete with the horror’s they too endured, has been fully corroborated by the evidence to be sought.

"..Today we must conduct ..same struggle that Pasteur and Koch had to fight. ..cause of countless ills is a bacillus ..Jew. ..We will become healthy if we eliminate ..Jew." Adolf Hitler.

Along with the first hand knowledge of what emanated from practically day one, and with the somewhat depleted evidences of those who completed their murderous duty with relish, we have gained more than that copious awareness of the increasing move toward The Final Solution. Throughout what I will present here, facts that are emitted by all those whose knowledge of the truth of The Holocaust has been stated, Hitler’s call for the enactment of a eugenics programme was seen to be the preliminary toward marking the Jewish People more significantly for slaughter. What may be argued over, and has now been denounced has been the conflated terms then denied by lesser beings than humanity requires. But the truth holds sway over all of the inconsistency of hatred, which sweeps through community’s at the behest of those who seek to divide us along racist lines. Those who seek to diffuse the truth, to suit their own racist agenda, cannot bend the truth to those of a recognisably ignoble diminishing of the truth.

"..essential ..we do not proclaim our views ..before need for that ..main thing ..we ourselves know what we want. .. Nobody must be able to recognise that it initiates a final settlement. This need not prevent our taking all necessary measures ..shooting ..resettling ..we shall take them." Adolf Hitler.

One of the constituent preambles of the denial lobby too is the confusing issuance of the place of The State of Israel in their narrative. Israel, which truly began its existence as a regard to such Jewish losses as remain unimaginable, cannot be a bargaining chip over 6,000,000 Jewish losses. Also, Israel was delivered by the World as a purge of conscience over what led to our own human failings. Truly, as indifference to the Jewish struggles in their moments of most urgent need, raged about us, we did not stand firmly enough for what should of commanded us, our humanity. As The Holocaust emerged, and for the duplicitous and complicit nature that reigned while 6,000,000 Jewish People were being Murdered, we stand before the alter of History, fully accused. We cannot allow this factual criticism of our behaviour to escape when the incrimination of humanity for what we as human beings achieved is clearly evident. What was finally allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of our own, simply because they believed differently to us or were born with an immeasurably remarkable gene pool, is a scandal we must bear as the controversy of The Holocaust is the slaughter of 6,000,000 Human Beings who happened to be Jews.

"..Where ..Jews were left to themselves Poland ..most terrible misery and decay prevailed. ..In Poland this state of affairs has been fundamentally cleared up. If ..Jews there did not want to work ..they were shot. If they could not work ..they had to succumb. ..This was not cruel ..even innocent creatures ..have to be killed that no harm is caused by them. Why should ..beasts who wanted to bring us Bolshevism be spared more." Adolf Hitler.

None of this sorry saga of indifference and slaughter does credit to what civilisation has posed for itself, let alone a supposed enlightenment that was meant to shine for other’s. For me, all of this carnage makes the deaths of anyone, even other than these Jews who are the subject of my own committed remit during the World War II, inexcusable nor can we process them as any the less significant. Nor does the lessons we should have supposedly gained explain why The Balkans exploded, the Rwanda tragedy erupted or that the My-Lai massacre did in fact occur. Nor indeed can The Holocaust explain why humanity has yet to step up to the plate to stem the flow of innocent lives still being lost and entire continents remaining awash with innocent blood. My study of such human loss is not unique in the terms of reference laid before you, and while it has been engrossed in the many facets of The Holocaust horror, there is the very detailed terror to expand upon.

"..Russian campaign decimate ..Slav population by 30,000,000 ..troop of low characters would have to be formed." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski.

The devastation, which struck at the heart of 11,293,300 Jews of Europe and consigned far more than 50% of these to annihilation, troubles my senses as I still seek out the detailed horror in order to add clarity to what is so clearly lucid. For any being to interpret the humanity of another with clearly such distorted a view as can deliver such purging of humanity, my own mind is then steeped in their vacant call for a vengeance, a retribution or even a response they cannot make. There has been this vastly misunderstood claim, that revenge has ever been the call of Israel. Also, such retribution as would be entirely appropriate has not emanated those Survivor’s who are burdened by the sheer loss all too many of these Survivor's have also endured. However, the Survivor's call for Justice echoes humanity's own much anticipated demand and as yet this has been largely ignored. As the fate of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews has been sought out by all too many to be left to the past, we urge the memory of their presence to continue to the future.

"..Our strength is our quickness and our brutality. Jenghis Khan had millions of women and children hunted down and killed ..deliberately and with a gay heart. History sees in him only ..great founder of States. What ..weak Western European civilisation alleges about me ..does not matter. I have given ..order ..and will have everyone shot who utters but one word of criticism ..that ..aim of this war does not consist in reaching certain geographical lines ..but in ..enemies' physical elimination. Thus ..for ..time being only in ..East ..I put ready my Death's Head units ..with ..order to kill without pity or mercy all men ..women ..children. ..Only thus will we gain space that we need." Adolf Hitler.

Here though, and there are those who see within the vagaries of such a hatred for the Jewish People, which seeks to secure some need to retard The Holocaust memorial, we ensure that no such validation for their hatred can be gained. For some seeking to even reinterpret The Holocaust on some narrative level, this is grossly distorting of a loss we should feel more deeply. This sought after re-emphasis of the very stringent terms which The Holocaust occupies is wrong on a number of levels. The onerous fact of the slaughter, which is both factual and the realising truth which sees the memory of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews holding the integrity of history, emits its own accusation. There is no debate on The Holocaust which is clearly seeking to obscure. There is though, on a matter of fact level, that which exists as it evolved from what was expressed, then intended and finally carried out for Hitler and toward The Final Solution. The continuous arguments over the when, why and what constitutes The Holocaust narrative does not detract from the single fact that it exists in our history.

Friday December 12th. 1941 "..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives." Adolf Hitler.

The Holocaust itself governs its own space in the unprecedented and unparalleled nature of its predominance over all of our own humanity. Perhaps we can recognise its lack of merciful incline and therein lies a fact which subscribes for us and toward seeking the very nature of a comprehension which will never arrive. In all of this there is no doubt as to the veracity of the very existing detail of the crimes committed, perpetrated, witnessed, established, ignored, accepted or with a complete ambivalence toward what was and did happen to these Jews of Europe. All of this is the known truth that remains The Holocaust. This certainty in no way allows for denial to enter the arena that is the proper discourse we deliver on the subject of Hitler’s intention for the Jews of Europe and to understanding what remains incomprehensible to all of humanity. That 6,000,000 Men, Women and Their Children of either the Jewish Faith or Jewish antecedence were killed in cold blood, were clearly sought out and systematically slaughtered, is not a bargaining framework in which denial will persist.

"..At ..beginning of May 1942 SS Oberfuhrer Brack from ..Fuhrer's chancellery suddenly came to Lublin. With Globocnik he discussed resuming ..extermination of ..Jews. Globocnik said he had too few people to carry out this programme. Brack stated that ..euthanasia programme had stopped and that ..people from T4 would from now on be detailed to him on a regular basis so that ..decisions taken at ..Wannsee conference could be implemented. As it appeared that it would not be possible for ..Einsatzgruppe to clear individual areas of Jews and ..people in ..large Ghettos of Warsaw and Lemberg by shooting them ..decision had been taken to set up 2 further extermination camps which would be ready by August 1st. 1942 ..Treblinka and Sobibor. ..large scale 'Vernichtungsaktion' extermination programme ..due to start on August 1st. 1942." SS Untersturmfuhrer Josef Oberhauser.

I use so often what I consider my motto over a widely entered into arena in the hope that it implants upon those reading their words, the moral intention that is both ethically sought and is furnished with truth. The integrity of what this truth as it pertains to these Jews of Europe must mean that it has to be borne factually so as not to distort nor corrupt all of human history. That essential is relevant as it gives rise to a required remembrance for the 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews who remain as a reminder as to why hatred must never be acceptable. So with my use of these words, Always to Remember, Never to Forget, they again resonate for me as a clarion call to those who would seek to further diminish the intensity of the assault on our memory for these Jews of Europe. For this mediocre minority, whose denial seeks to deflect our attention away from those who were and are still responsible for The Holocaust enactment, their vain effort will not vandalise the truth nor betray our search and reliance upon it.

"..I saw them myself ..Chelmno ..Treblinka ..Sobibor ..Belzec." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rudolf Hoess.

Mankind displays its inhumanity before the doors of the Gas Chambers and toward other's of all humanity so as to reign above those they might perceive or consider unequal to them. Whether that is termed racially or religiously, the Jews of Europe were packed tightly into these Death Camps and so brutally driven toward annihilation. I had learned fully of these spaces and when I wrote my first book on the subject of The Holocaust, it was clearly drawn from the Testimony of all those who had been involved in even this obscene spectre of the catastrophe. It was essential at the time to make a statement, and be they the Survivor, the Witness, the Perpetrator, the Bystander or even those we consider the Participator, their evidence all added to a more complete jurisdiction over the crimes we have come to learn of. At pains to bring about an objective view of the words I used I wanted the reader to emerge at the end of the work with all evidences intertwined and without the crucial identification of that evidence not appearing in any way subjective. But also in that title was the acknowledgement that we were losing the ability to learn from those very People immediately knowledgeable of what it is we seek to know of, as it is the Survivor who knows the truth we have so far discerned and corroborated through them.

"..Wirth conducted ..Aktionen in Bernburg. Subordinate to him were ..burners ..disinfectors and drivers. He also supervised ..transportation of ..mentally ill and ..corpses. One day in ..winter of 1941 Wirth arranged a transport of euthanasia personnel Poland. I was picked together with about 8 ..10 other men and transferred to Belzec. ..I don't remember ..names of ..others. Upon our arrival in Belzec ..we met Friedel Schwarz and ..other SS men. ..They supervised of barracks that would serve as a gas chamber. Wirth told us that in Belzec all ..Jews will be struck down. For this purpose barracks were built as gas chambers. I installed shower heads in ..gas chambers. ..nozzles were not connected to any water pipes ..they would serve as camouflage for ..gas chamber. For ..Jews who were gassed it would seem as if they were being taken to baths and for disinfection." SS Unterscharfuhrer Erich Fuchs.

That said, the title of my very first book emerged as Testimony and Fading Memory in The Holocaust which does not alter the wrenching detail nor the essential need to connect with the testimony. We take that marker from all of those evidence deliverer’s and we see them all as essential to us knowing ever more detail of their truth, no matter if that detail is the act itself from the Perpetrators themselves. It is essential, and no matter how reprehensible some of these perpetrator, participator or even these witness evidence’s continually deliver, it is more than evident that we look objectively upon each to develop the whole. Hitler knew, in the very detail of the atrocity his daily reports referred to, that there was a human failing to acknowledge fully what mankind was capable of so readily achieving. But in coming to terms with the incomprehensible nature that is The Holocaust, we clearly demand the horror that the Survivor endured. It is essentially revisited and even relived for the benefit of world history but also for some who will never accede to the truth that humanity is prone to this gravest atrocity.

"..midsummer ..early autumn 1942 ..arrived at Treblinka from Belzec. ..Malkinia station ..already dark by ..time I reached Treblinka. In there were bodies lying everywhere. ..they were all swollen. ..dragged through to ..upper section by Jews. ..working Jews were forced to keep moving by ..Ukrainian guards ..also ..Germans. ..saw them being beaten. ..tremendous confusion and a horrible din. ..went walking around ..established ..some ..guard squads were with girls and ..put down their rifles. ..I established order. I reported to Wirth in ..dining room Wirth ..Stangl ..Oberhauser were there. day longer ..bodies lying around. ..about 9:00 am ..transport arrived. ..already standing naked in .. reception yard." SS Untersturmfuhrer Kurt Franz.

That we continually demand of the Survivor their return to these barren shadow lands is both a cruel and necessary concern for us that their story is still to be learned. I have looked into the eye of the Survivor and I have seen their pain. In acknowledging that this pain is both for what they witnessed and then endured, we must come to terms with that it is also for what we allowed to happen to them. We had become the bystanders to a cataclysmic catastrophe as we either looked the other way or shuffled aside to allow the fuller progress toward The Holocaust happen. The role of History therefore, is not to refute those who seek to deny the truth but to place the integrity of what we know as factually correct. We then place all we have learned to know and before the alter to posterity, we ensure that which judges our own inappropriate response is recognised. Denial is not just the threat that its illiterate and inarticulate refutation of the truth, which cannot be bargained with, seeks to suggest. We have the truth. Their argument is weakened by our relevance and the truth it contains stands before all time to accuse the inability of the world of the time to stem the flow of so much Jewish blood.

"..Between 1937 and ..beginning of 1943 ..Jewish population of Europe should have decreased by an estimated 4,000,000 ..partly due to excess mortality of ..Jews in Middle and Western Europe and partly due to ..evacuations ..mainly in ..Eastern territories." Dr. Richard Korherr.

We have the exacting and even audited accounts of the cruellest detail and I have written the books to show my own acceptance of this very detail which 6,000,000 Jews of Europe underwent. My accusation therefore, of the guilt of the many in all of this, is also what drives the denial lobby forward. It appears a nonsense as to how these racist deniers can still adhere to any form of reverence for a criminal past so as to legitimise an illegitimate political cause. We have our own Allied fighters who fought the good fight and died as a consequence of Hitler’s rabid ambition, are they too to be denied their place in the integrity of our history. How can it be even acceptable to advocate for a distorted view of our own past that will desecrate our present and obscure our future from that past. In this political revisionist nonsense, I guess in essence they seek to alter the truth for which constituted nations and churches would not want to have itself named as either complicit in such inhumanity or have duplicity levelled at it! Which of any of these nations of Europe, responsible in part for what Hitler managed to achieve would seeks to accept it was both complicit and even active in the scale of the atrocity!

"..I ..never knew number ..I have nothing to help me make an estimate. ..I ..remember ..figure in ..larger actions ..repeated to me by Eichmann or his deputies. ..I longer remember ..figures for ..smaller actions ..insignificant in comparison with ..numbers given. I regard of 2,500,000 ..far too high. ..Auschwitz had limits to its destructive possibilities ..Upper Silesia ..Polish territory under German rule 250,000 Germany ..Theresienstadt 100,000 Holland 95,000 Belgium 20,000 France 110,000 Greece 65,000 Hungary 400,000 Slovakia 90,000 ." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rudolf Hoess.

I look to Poland, and what it is trying to achieve in refashioning its past in order to shift the emphasis of The Holocaust, and am aghast that Polish historians can allow for such a Polish distortion. Poland’s attempt to move The Holocaust geographically away from their Polish lands, where The Holocaust was largely conducted, or where it became the conduit for all that Hitler wished for Poland is not to be connived over in any single way. I am constantly asked why Poland does this sought after shift from responsibility, or even its non-Jewish peoples complicity in some of what is The Holocaust, and it appears as simple. Poland is the gravest yard in all of History where some Polish collusion, certain Polish collaboration and even Polish effort all enters a minefield of Polish complicity. While there remains a dearth of duplicitous behaviours, which have scored an indelible wound on all of Polish history, and that too must be confronted, we owe it to those Jews, Polish Jews especially who were Murdered on Polish soil, to acknowledge that fact. We do not sit here to defend against denial nor promote accusation for its own sake nor can we alter the geographical spectrum to obfuscate the reality we know is the truth.

"..Lublin [read Majdanek] 24,733 ..Belzec 434,508 ..Sobibor ..101,370 ..Treblinka ..713,555." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Hoefle.

For world history, denial is too weak and tawdry a hatred to be concerned with and any rewriting of our history cannot alter the facts as we surely know them. What we have in the infinitesimal integrity of The Holocaust is its factual truth, all of which adds to bolster our clearer and totally objective narrative. We uphold here the traditions of History with the factual truth and its integrity assigned to it. We tell it as it is! There is no debate. The puerile essential necessary for those in this denial hatred is that the Jewish People, and while their Jewish Faith has held stronger than their wanton lack of tolerance for their being, we guard against the intrusion of illegitimacy. For the Jewish People, who had felt the sting of hatred, and endured this progress toward their almost complete annihilation for more than 2,000 years, 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, these Men, Women and Their Children stand in accusation against us for the near accomplishment of such an offensive tragedy.

"..SS expert on burning bodies ..ordered us to put women ..particularly fat women ..on ..first layer of ..grill ..face down. ..second layer could consist of whatever was brought ..women ..children ..and so on ..layer on top of layer. then ordered us to lay dry branches under ..grill and to light them. Within a few minutes would take so it was difficult to approach ..pyre from ..50 meters away. was extremely difficult. ..stench was awful. Liquid excretions from ..corpses squirted all over ..prisoner ..workers. ..SS man operating ..excavator often dumped ..corpses directly onto ..prisoners working nearby ..wounding them seriously." Yechiel Reichman.

Here at Treblinka the offence of annihilation and its attempt to obliterate all traces of its undertaken has been considered and will be face a forensic investigation till time ends. What is to be recognised in the unbridled, unprecedented and unparalleled accumulation of all these factors though, will never be reconciled while deceit and the attempt to hide from the truth cements such hatred. The sheer detail in hostility, bigotry and denial is the subjective tenet of a hatred still to climb out of the inhuman abyss. So while we search to deliver the most comprehensive study of each facet of The Holocaust, we must explore every factor of this atrocity to not only secure the memory of the Jewish losses, but to ensure we are aware of all that was done to the Jews of Europe and by those leading the charge. In achieving The Holocaust, and the atrocity itself is what for Hitler remains a posthumous endeavour of sheer brutal atrocity and the inhuman accomplishment above all others which Hitler sought out in his putrid life.

"..Then began ..general exhumation and burning of corpses may have taken from November 1942 to March 1943. ..incineration’s went on day and night ..without interruption ..initially at one ..then at two sites. At one of ..sites it was possible to incinerate about 2,000 corpses within 24 hours. Approximately four weeks after ..start of ..incineration operation ..second site was set up. ..on an average ..a total of 300,000 corpses were burnt at one site within about five months ..and 240,000 at ..second one during a 4 month period. These are obviously estimates of averages. It would probably be correct to put ..sum total at 500,000 corpses." SS-Scharfuhrer Heinrich Gley.

This effort to conceal too, and it was the case for Belzec and every one of the x6 Death Camps on Polish soil which I have stood upon and recognised the hollowed out essence of a disappeared Jewish People. But such is the certainty that it is an unanswerable question as to whether we will ever know the very detail that remained unexpressed outside the gates of Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka or Auschwitz and Birkenau. It is a further tragedy though that we expect many of those who managed to escape the confines of these spaces, these Death Camps of Hitler’s, his Vernichtunglager, to revisit their horror so that we can come up with the impossible comprehension to this incomprehensible atrocity against these Jewish People. The very detail of The Holocaust will not be denied by the admittance that some Poles, acted better than too many Poles. In that descriptive, by the way, no accusation is aimed at All Poles, just merely at some Poles who acted in unison with Hitler's intention to Murder those Polish Neighbours who were Jews.

"..SS Scharfuhrer Herbert Floss arrived at this time who must previously have been in another camp. He then had ..installation built for burning ..corpses. ..incineration was carried out by placing railroad rails on blocks of concrete. ..corpses were then piled up on these rails. Brush wood was placed under ..rails. ..wood was drenched with gasoline. Not only ..newly obtained corpses were burnt in this way ..but also those exhumed from ..ditches. ..burning of corpses proceeded day and night. When had died down ..whole skeletons or single bones remained behind on ..grating. Mounds of ash had accumulated underneath it. A different prisoner commando ..der Asche Bande ..Ash Gang ..had to sweep up ..ashes ..remaining bones on thin metal sheets ..pound them with round wooden dowels ..and then shake them through a narrow mesh metal sieve ..whatever remained in ..sieve was crushed once more. Bones not burnt and which could not easily be split were again thrown into leadership was faced with ..problem of how to get rid of ..huge heaps of ash and bone fragments. Experiments at mixing ..ashes with dust and sand an effort to conceal them ..proved unsuccessful. Finally it was decided to pour ..ash and bone fragments back into ..empty ditches and to cover them with a thick layer of sand and garbage. Alternate layers of ash and sand were poured into ..ditches. layer consisted of 2 metres of earth." SS Oberscharfuhrer Heinrich Matthes.

Let the facts speak for themselves so that the truth is evident and it will confront denial as the truth constitutes the answer to all the lies the deniers wish to spread. Truth openly expressed further dilutes the deniers ability to fashion any argument which is not immediately rounded upon by even those unlearned in the ways of rebuttal. Floss’s arrival at Treblinka from Sobibor linked the entire operation to Blobel’s SK 1005 which was ultimately under Eichmann’s jurisdiction and we have another element of the truth. Even this Eichmann connection did not avail the operatives of SK 1005 access to any of SS Gruppenfuhrer Odilo Globocnik’s Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, a secure position he held onto tightly. Typical in this denial forgery is that The Auschwitz Museum is often accused in statements suggesting it looks purely to the mass Murder of the Jews. The Auschwitz Museum itself pays close attention to these other's murdered within its own confines and particularly for those Poles who died within Poland and indeed within the entire Death Camp system established by Hitler within Poland.

"..of ..1,300,000 deported to ..Camp, they were from amongst 20 nationalities, and these nations gave up their Jews also. Of that total, some 400,000 were registered and kept as Slave Labour and 900,000 were immediately Gassed. While Jews constituted 85% of all those deported here, they represented more than 90% of all those who were murdered. The 400,000 Slave Labourers were gradually degraded till they could persist no longer and added finally to the total number of those Jews and others Gassed or otherwise Murdered. That stated, we assess that of the 1,100,000 who were Murdered from all 1,300,000 deported to the Camp, some 900,000 Jews were Gassed immediately or otherwise murdered in the camp. Of the 400,000 of those registered for Slave Labour, 200,000 died or were otherwise Murdered. These included some 100,000 Jews, 64,000 Poles, 21,000 Gypsies, 14,000 Russian POW's and a further 10,000 other nationals." The Auschwitz State Museum.

While there are those who truly knew the full detail of what they administered, there are those who from outside the confines of these detaining spaces, pieced together the sense of what was being achieved outside their own front doors. Many, who give as precise an account as can be established for history, do not rely wholly upon the evidence those like Hoess can deliver. So I shared with you the uncompromising approach history takes as it settles before you what the Museum of Auschwitz affirms to be the Truth. Clearing this out of the debit door, I have been confronting a certain narrative recently which stems from a voided argument that the Polish people are not all innocent. Realistically, they are accused of some charges levelled against them for crimes against their fellow Poles, Jews who were Murdered during the period of The Holocaust, and on their soil. All of a sudden though the questions are being shared with Poland's Ministry of Culture, so I can only assume that the narrative is being directed along the lines of Poland's recent desire to alter and redirect The Holocaust historical account. These questions appear to present themselves to us with a less than moderate concern for the actual truth.

"..highest number of gassings in one day was 10,000. ..most that could be carried out in a day with ..available facilities." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rudolf Hoess.

But then, what equates the lies that can be attributed to all out denial of the factual truth that is The Holocaust, when 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, all ramifications are clearly a concern when the truth is being confronted. Obfuscation must not be the premise of any state, nor the deliberate obstruction by any nation to gather and harness the whole truth. All elements of Polish present day intention, which must deal with Hitler’s attention to 3,000,000 of Poland’s Jews, cannot be sequestered arbitrarily. In my 20 years of effort on the subject of The Holocaust I have never budged from that direct and unambiguous response to anyone who cites other than 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, be they Men, Women or Their Children cannot be abandoned again. It even seems that there are those who seek to promote an improper discourse in their own Country’s, and Survivor’s and Jews are being faced by the forms of abuse that denial issues forth. It is important too, that while we Remember the loss to the Jewish People, we do not allow for those other's, to be forgotten.

"..transports to Belzec ..gassing operations ..stopped ..suddenly. ..staff members of ..Belzec camp ..informed would be rebuilt completely. of Jews charge of ..demolition work. ..March ..April 1943 ..cremation of ..corpses ..terminated and ..graves ..levelled. ..emptied entirely and levelled. ..some planting ..done there. ..Jewish work commando Sobibor. I remained in Belzec for two more days ..clearing ..loading. ..I was in Sobibor ..heard during ..transport of ..Jewish work commando ..Belzec to Sobibor ..mutiny ..shooting took place which led to some deaths." SS Oberscharfuhrer Werner Dubois.

Though not as systematically chosen for slaughter as were the Jewish People, those who died as a result of Hitler’s Worldview are remembered, Lest We Forget. But the component parts of this Weltanschauung view of Hitler’s recognises that there are some 50 to 70 million people felled World War II who remain to reside alongside the Jews as victims of Hitler's hatred. Hitler and his Nazi's were unrestrained in their abuse of the power they fully exercised against the Jews of Europe. As has been recognised, and against any other’s of those who stood before Hitlerite intention in this World. Those who seek to deny the Jewish People their space also deny the efforts of so many Allied forces set to confront Hitler. For the denial arguments too, the capacity to slaughter is also to be their misguided dispute and is totally undermined by the factual truth. I am here to prove that the sheer capacity to murder all of the Jews of Europe though was not fully engaged as Hitler demanded. Hitler was clearly short of murdering these 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, as were identified in The Wannsee Conference, by sheer lack of time and not by any other factor that was his own indisputable intention for the Jewish People.

"..As soon as ..ramp had been erected in ..castle ..people started arriving in Kulmhof (Chelmno) from Litzmannstadt in lorries. ..people were told that they had to take a bath ..that their clothes had to be disinfected and ..could hand in any valuable items beforehand to be registered. When they had undressed they were sent to ..cellar of ..castle and then along a passageway on to ..ramp and from there into ..gas-van. In ..castle there were signs marked "to ..baths". ..gas vans were large ..about 4-5 meters long ..2.2 meter wide ..2 meter high. ..interior walls ..lined with sheet metal. On ..floor ..a wooden grille. ..floor of ..van had an opening which could be connected to ..exhaust by means of a removable metal pipe. When ..lorries were full of people ..double doors at ..back were closed and ..exhaust connected to ..interior of ..van." SS Scharfuhrer Walter Burmeister.

What we are certain of, if the application of the very detail of die Endlosung der Judenfrage had to be accommodated in any one of the x6 Death Camps, it could have been wholly achieved. While we firstly register what Hoess must have known in terms of the capacity to murder within Auschwitz and Birkenau, we acknowledge that range to do so would have achieved 3,650,000 Murdered Jews. This would have been achieved in the space of a single year on estimates liberally applied. The capacity issue therefore has been fully resolved by the lead industrial killer himself, Hoess himself. Belzec too, which murdered 884,700 of its Jews in a 10 month period, could have murdered these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe within a 6 year time frame. So while Auschwitz was in operation, and Slaughtering Jews on a mechanised and industrial scale for more than 3 years, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka were not in the least bit idle, combining totally a final resolve for Hitler’s solution.

"..You must ..guarantee that ..bodies of these ..Jews will either be burned or buried in every location ..that nowhere can anything else of any kind happen with these bodies." Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler.

While the killing had been continuous however for more than 5 years in Auschwitz, and prior to Birkenau, another eye became focused on the traces of the atrocity, once the end for Nazi Germany was encroaching upon the killing space. Also, as is the case for the 21 Gassing Vans which were in operation during the period of World War II, their entire capacity was aligned to what the Death Camps and Killing Sites achieved and what the Ghetto and other Camps also functioned to achieve. All the while Hitler is seeking to ensure that the truth would not be told or written as Himmler was directed to ensure. East, as each of these Gassing Vans, many with the capability to Murder 1,500 Jews in a matter of 15 hours sees the detailed atrocity for 31,500 Murdered Jews managed on any given day, let alone working on a 24 hour basis could accommodate a capacity in excess of Wannsee’s 11,293,300 target. So in under a year, the target that Hitler had fully set for The Wannsee Conference would have been completed, without the added volume of der Einsatzgruppe shootings, or the fullest emergence of all x6 of the Death Camps.

"..inside ..each member of ..permanent staff had a specific function ..commander of ..Ukrainian auxiliaries ..leader of a working group ..excavation of pits ..erection of barbed wire fences. ..when a transport with Jews arrived there was so much 'work' ..regular activity was interrupted ..everyone on ..permanent staff had to participate somehow in ..routine extermination process. Primarily each member ..of ..permanent staff took place in ..unloading of ..transports." SS Oberscharfuhrer Hermann Erich Bauer.

Also, and along with the starvation which the ravaged Ghetto's with the additionally compounded neglect of those interned within the Concentration Camps, capacity is far from being either negligible nor was it unachievable. Nor have we ventured or forgotten the impoverishment of every single Jew that was still remaining alive in Europe, so that all excess and destruction was practicably achievable by whatever means Hitler engaged his intention. I clearly do not point to the Facts here, merely to the supposition of the possibility given over to Hitler's effort. With that annihilatory task comes the assured suppression of those denials which would suggest the capacity, nor the will to achieve all that Hitler sought from the Jew of Europe was not there. Please, and though this will wound the hearts and souls of those of You who are sickened by what the Jewish People were put through, it is essential for those who do not know yet these truths, to face this confrontation with the true reality of the hatred so audibly expressed.

"..When we were in ..Kiev district CO of signals ..came back quite horrified. engineer Battalion commander ..and this engineer Battalion had ..task of blowing up site which were those 32,000 Jews including women and children." Lieutenant General Otto Elfeldt.

The deliberate confrontation with our senses is NEVER my entire intention, though the capacity to achieve this is paramount in what Hitler sought to finally resolve. While you are saddened by what we, an ostensibly 'christian' communion of nations allowed the Jewish People to endure, my sadness is engraved upon my inner being, and though perhaps not as indelibly as yours, it sears my conscious being. My words so often emanate from a space no longer occupied by 6,000,000 Jews and I use their intention to mark my own intention for them. For those of you who are left reeling by those vagrants who seek to deny any or all of this, I stand between you and them to ensure the truth is known. Clearly, Hitler could have all too easily accomplished the wilful Slaughter of as many Jews as he so wished, and with impunity too. Certainly, Hitler acted without any restraint, and given the World's abandonment of the Jewish People, Hitler recognised the vacuum he would operate in. For those of you touched in any way by this awful Catastrophe for the Jews of Europe, your tragedy is our loss.

"..We shot women as if they had been cattle. ..a large quarry where 10,000 men ..women ..children were shot. They were still lying in ..quarry. We drove out on purpose to see it. It was ..most bestial thing I ever saw." Lieutenant General Fritz von Broich.

I know the many millions of other's whose lives were also forfeit and while I have clipped some of these passages from my own study of the Einsatzgruppen, not to simply show what was managed, but that they seek to confirm what could be more speedily accomplished. If these are then added to the overall resolve for Hitler's Final Solution, and while Hitler sought to extinguish the very existence of 11,293,300 Jews from within Europe, it was achievable and without equivocation. There are attempts to this day, even from within the passages of an enlightened history that is fully seeking to allow for the further diminishing of the space remaining to 6,000,000 Annihilated Jews. It is a matter for me, of the honest integrity for history in general that such a term as The Holocaust can only belong to the Jewish People. No other People were so confronted and so systematically sought out for their Slaughter, than these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe.

"..things I've experienced. In Latvia ..near Dvinsk ..there were mass executions of Jews carried out by ..SS. ..about 15 SS men ..perhaps 60 Latvians ..known to be ..most brutal people in Sunday morning ..kept hearing ..salvos followed by small arms fire. ..Men ..Women Children ..counted off ..stripped naked. ..executioners first laid all ..clothes in one pile. Then 20 women had to take up their position ..naked ..on ..edge of ..trench. ..shot ..fell ..into it." Lieutenant General Heinrich Kittel.

That even the denial of their final resting place is to be further exacerbated by any refusal to identify their uniqueness, in the terms The Holocaust provides, must not be given any space to postulate. Clearly, that even Wehrmacht General’s were both complicit and accepting of such murderous scenes and terms as they came to recognise, must not deliver to history other than the whole truth as to why we place an emphasis on the Jewish presence in The Holocaust. The assertion that many others of the 50 or even 70 million souls lost during World War II require that same space, both to be remembered as a eulogised space for them also, is a fallacy. What is fundamentally wrong in all this sought after space alongside the Jews, who are The Holocaust, is a further leaning toward excluding the Jewish People from the single most atrocious crime ever perpetrated by a human species upon Human Beings. That must not be allowed, as we recall how readily we allowed for the atrocity to occur in the first place

"..from June 1941 to January 1942 ..I was ..Commander of Sonderkommando 4 A. ..June 1942 ..entrusted by Gruppenfuhrer Mueller with ..task ..obliterating ..traces ..executions carried out by ..Einsatzgruppe ..East. ..orders in person to ..commanders of ..Security Police ..SD ..pass on Mueller's orders verbally ..supervise ..implementation. ..order secret ..there was to be no correspondence in connection with ..task. ..September 1942 ..reported to Dr. Thomas ..Kiev ..passed ..order him. ..May ..June 1943 ..made additional trips to Kiev ..after conversations with Dr. Thomas and ..SS Police Leader Hennecke ..order was carried out. During ..visit ..August ..observed ..burning of bodies in ..mass grave near Kiev. ..grave was about 55 meters long ..3 meters wide and 2.5 meters deep. ..removed ..bodies ..covered with inflammable material ..ignited. ..about two days until ..grave burned ..bottom. ..grave was filled in ..traces ..practically obliterated. Owing to ..moving up of ..front ..not possible to destroy ..mass graves further south and east which had resulted from executions by ..Einsatzgruppe. orders ..should have extended ..duties over ..entire area occupied by ..Einsatzgruppe ..owing to ..retreat from Russia ..could not carry out my orders completely." SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel.

Though Hitler fully sought to wage War, this feint of War was all done to ensure the space required would exist to shield from view of the supposed German sensitivity to atrocity. Within that task, the Wehrmacht became the prime source of concealment and even participation. Those General’s, with their measured aristocracy of elite fighting precedence expose the entire rotten core of a German military echelon hell bent upon military achievement at the cost to their own humanity. The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, die Endlosung der Judenfrage crossed all boundaries. That specialist camps were designated for the purpose of this, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, which Hitler had established in Poland, we have to recognise the shedding of so much blood was to saturate the soil of Poland and not be traced back to a Germany to be unspoiled by such savagery.

"..After I had looked at everything ..I returned to Lublin ..following day. On Florstedt's orders ..I and ..unit assigned to me began to cremate ..bodies that had been buried in ..Krepiecki forest towards Lwow. At first I excavated a pit ..but because cremation did not proceed quickly enough in this pit I devised ..following set up for cremation ..I spread old truck tarps over rocks piled to a considerable height ..ordered ..bodies placed on these ..and poured methanol over them. I had wood stacked beneath ..tarps and set on fire. In this way about 100 bodies could be burned at one time. Some of them had been dug up ..some were fresh ..just brought in from After such a load had been reduced to ashes ..these were pounded to powder and dumped into ..pit whence we had removed ..bodies in ..first place. To pound ..ashes we used iron sheets and pounders. These tools were supplied by an SD functionary from Kommando 1005 who supervised my work. In this way I managed by ..end of October to cremate all ..bodies buried in ..forest and in ..region behind Compound V Majdanek. According to ..pertinent calculations I cremated approximately 6,000 bodies in ..forest and approximately 3,000 behind Compound V. These figures also include .. fresh corpses of inmates who died in during this time." SS Unterscharfuhrer Erich Muhsfeldt.

Clearly then, the destruction of all of European Jewry, so roundly targeted, definitely identifies with the Jewish People as the systematic target solely sought. Why is it now that there is an effort seeking to diminish what was Hitler’s fullest remit for the entire Jewish race of People. With all due respect to these vast numbers of people either killed or even murdered during the period, Family member's included, this was a War in which loss was an inevitable cost. None were so systematically sought out, legislated against, corralled and marched to their own destruction with such mechanised and industrialised precision. Also, and what was legislated for, which decries the very supposed ideological nature of these crimes, all future method was to be occupied to disguise, conceal and then obliterate these racist hate crimes. That was Hitler's bequest to humanity, its perfected destruction in the detail of 6,000,000 Jewish lives and the exploitation of any and all material wealth to be pilfered. Hitler's legacy lives on in the denial of a measly term which encapsulates all that he sought for the Jews, and as the greatest butcher in all of History whose edict was The Final Solution.

June 18th. 1947. "..During my visit in August 1943 I myself witnessed ..burning of corpses in a mass grave near Kiev. This grave was approximately 55 metres long ..3 metres wide ..2.5 metres deep. After ..cover had been removed ..corpses were covered with inflammable materials and set on fire. About 2 days passed before had burned down to ..bottom of ..trench. Afterwards ..grave was filled in and all traces thereby virtually obliterated. Because of ..advance of ..front it was not possible to destroy ..mass graves located in ..South and East which had resulted from execution by ..task groups." SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel.

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June 10th.

TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Sun, June 10, 2018 22:53:11

Today is a celebration of the day of my Birth, but it has become more than that ever since Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak became a part of my commitment to that life, its values and The Holocaust. It is safe to assume I have stumbled upon a path which has led me relentlessly on, meeting trauma, horror, catastrophe and the intentional hatred which drove one man to assure History of an atrocity Humanity will never recover from. For me! It is a matter of conscience to state that when so many lives were taken and so many other's could not muster the compelling demand to lift themselves from such apathetic indifference, I assured myself and other's, I would not let go of this journey until I had to. It is a remarkable truth too that while we recognise the darkness in people, we can begin to see the light pouring from many who judge the wrong that is not belonging to all people, when it is rightly attributed and owned by just some.

"..would never have thought that ..given very inadequate nourishment ..insufficiently clothed ..slept little ..lived in ..worst possible hygienic circumstances to all conditions of ..would have thought it impossible ..he would go on living. ..powers of adaptation ..endurance great ..body is capable of efforts ..held to be impossible in normal life. ..many broke down ..perished ..but ..miracle is ..there are still Survivors." Elie A. Cohen.

It is in that degree of certainty that I always search fully knowing I will find, along the way, more answers that need those questions as yet to be asked. When I come across a figure, an assessment of the very detail of the atrocity, it is marked by a grave atrocity History has become aware of and it is recognised. That atrocity is then governed by the degree to which 1,000’s upon 1,000’s of Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were deliberately delivered to some killing space, be it a Death Camp or Killing Site and intentionally murdered. These 6,000,000 Jews of Europe too are the cause of my accusing words and the effort afforded a brutalised People so cruelly abandoned by us. So when it comes to researching the very degree and detail of a particular atrocity, it is important to know that within that degree of atrocity, we are discussing the mass Slaughter of Human Beings, simply because they were Jews.

"..When I stand before you lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment." Gideon Hausner.

With the assessment then made, it can often be brought to my attention that I have under estimated, though never under valued my effort, and recognise there is a figure far greater than the one I arrived at. When that occurs, I go in search of the higher number to ensure to posterity, we have not failed in combining those who rightly are attributable to the most unprecedented and unparalleled atrocity in all History. Personally, I do not believe that we have come to a conclusive assessment of the full assessment to be attributable to The Holocaust. I do not accept that while 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, who are The Holocaust, has been settled upon, it is not correct that this will be any final assessment. While The Wannsee Conference sought out 11,293,300 Jews of Europe for Annihilation, the Survival of 5,000,000 European Jews would suggest that we are still in a search while looking for those 6,293,300 Murdered Jews.

"..Despite ..recent outpouring of popular and scholarly books on Hitler work has yet been produced that satisfactorily explains Hitler's obsessive ideas about ..Jews ..readiness of ..German people to accept these ideas ..and Hitler's ability to harness an enormous apparatus of men ..institutions ..facilities just in order to murder ..Jews. Hitler has proved to be an elusive and unrewarding subject for conventional biography because ..explanations for ..baffling mystique he exercised ..for ..power he came to wield ..and for his unspeakable accomplishments are not to be found in ..facts of a banal life ..but in ..ideas and feelings that created ..symbiosis between him and ..German people. Their mutuality and interdependence thrived Hitler first expressed and later gratified ..Germans' most arrogant and abominable ambitions. He relieved their deepest fears and anxieties and ..near ..end ..disburdened them both of guilt and responsibility for ..wickedness they had given him warrant to commit." Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz.

For these past few weeks my search has been in the very detail of those French Convoi transporting French and other Nation’s Jews to the Death Camps. These French transports alone have thrown up such anomalies as would depress the search for the fullness of that truth we search for. Clearly, we must persevere with the search in the hope that more of the numbers we wish to avail of, will release more names of those Jews still missing from this catalogue of shame. Figures are all too often transcribed wrongly and can hide the full value of loss we seek to Remember. Parents have been known to shield their youngest about their person so as not to attract the attention of those seeking to isolate the numbers into impersonal statistical analysis. So even given the meticulous nature of the German adherence to exacting numbers, and here they are presented with what French officialdom complied to provide, we can be missing some of those included in a transport from the distorted matriculation that has been entered into by competing bureaucracies.

"..I have struggled hard to overcome ..hatred of those who cruelly destroyed my early life family and almost succeeded in exterminating my people. ..I have come to realise ..there are no basically evil nations or racial groups. ..There are only evil people ..seekers after wealth or power." Maja Abramowitch.

So on each and every occasion where there is a celebration of my own birth, there is also corresponding with that date an atrocity that will fundamentally fix us to that point in History we assign our research and responsibility toward. For me, this look back into History will forever belong to 6,000,000 Jewish People of Europe, be they Man, Woman or Their Child. It is important to always remember that alongside the fact that they were Human Beings, they were chosen because the were Jewish Human Beings who were murdered because they were Jews. For me, the accusation of many has often been made and it has been all too often centred on my choice to write. I have refuted so many times as to why I have chosen this well worn path from accusation of bias and even prejudice. I simply have no bias other than to ensure the truth delivers posthumously to 6,000,000 People what would not be given to them in life, and simply because they were Jews.

"..Nuremberg taught me that creating a world of tolerance and compassion would be a long and arduous task. And I also learned that if we did not devote ourselves to developing effective world law ..same cruel mentality that made ..Holocaust possible might one day destroy ..entire human race." Benjamin B. Ferencz.

That is also true of any attempt to confuse objectivity with a prejudice toward 6,000,000 Jews which is both ludicrous and wrong. Agreed, I have set out to write about 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, simply because of the enormous wrong this signifies for us all. My appreciation of the inherent and factual truth of all that happened is part of an integrity History must not be denied. Where truth resides, it becomes a distortion if we do not adopt its fullest detail as accurately as possible. So of course there is a slight connection to my past upbringing as a catholic, which ensured a moral and ethical grounding that would see purely the inherent wrong in the murder of a People based on anything, let alone Race of Creed. I have pursued this Holocaust course now for more than x20 years and I hope I have never deviated from that fundamental principle which defines what was wrong and what is wrong from any speculation over what is both eroding of that truth, if not strictly adhered to and illegitimate if not correct.

Wednesday June 10th. 1936 " generation will not belong to ..Party ..but I shall no longer be here to see ..reversal." Victor Klemperer.

I have heard it said of Victor that he somehow emerged from the endless darkness of Hitlerite slavery into a post apocalyptic Germany fearing that outlook. Here, upon resurrecting some correlation between past and present, and where he managed to survive with his Wife Eva, we read that attempt to make sense in his Survival in diary form. He trained his sights not into some fashioned resemblance to mythic lands of fairies and ghosts, but at a landscape that was devoid of such reasoning as had devoured 6,000,000’s of his People. The truth was so much more tragic and bleaker than that sought after escape, as his soul fought to redefine what remained of his own humanity. Here, recovering into the vista of a bombed out, levelled and destroyed Dresden, which marginally saved him from his own destruction, he sought to live his life renewed. While his own nearness to death, both at Allied hands which could rein down upon him and more tangibly at Hitler's behest, Victor still delivers for us a bibliographic landscape of words.

"..Government and with it ..great majority of ..German people ..are very conscious of ..appalling suffering brought to ..Jews in Germany and ..occupied territories. ..German people in their overwhelming majority ..disgusted by ..crimes perpetrated against ..Jews. of ..German people appalling crimes were committed ..that demand from us moral and material reparation ..not only as far as damages to ..individual ..but ..with regard to Jewish property." Konrad Adenauer.

In a diary form, which was punishable by death for a Jew under Hitler's yoke, Victor bears witness to the bitter end. We who share a gratitude in the words we select to ensure that his gift is forwarded on, do so with appreciation. At this time, and while Hitler is still in the ascendency, it is people like Victor Klemperer who view the pervasive scene of growing and mounting fear amongst the Germans and the German Jewish People in particular. While it is true at this time that the Germans have embraced fully the promises Hitler is keen to make, not everyone sees this in technicolour. Victor, though he converted to the Christian faith, was always considered as a Jew and thus, un-German. However, Victor’s own antecedent descent had ensured he fitted the Hitler agenda, which saw him in Germany not as a German but should be treated accordingly as a Jew. Victor witnessed first hand what for Jewry in the Reich amounted to, and the troubling status they were being denied, deprived of and then destroyed by. Germany would eventually grow afterwards to endorse that their own wrongs were done and make restitution in part for what was staged in its name.

Friday June 10th. 1938 "..Zurich ..Switzerland ..sanity ..civilisation." William L. Shirer.

Another diarist, William L. Shirer, gifts to the world his first hand evidence, in his Berlin Diary, of a journey through the rise to power of Hitler. We observe the growth of Nazi Germany and the infinite threat Hitler brings to the World stage. As War again certainly looms, Hitler is the orchestrater of all that is being proposed to the World. There is one telling point in Shirer’s assessment alone, which deals a withering blow to Polish morals of the time. All told, and while there is a burgeoning apathy that is spreading throughout Europe, Poland is prepared to deal in the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. While this precipitates a failing moral correctness, Poland has not even begun to recognise that Poland itself is in Hitler’s direct line of fire. As a correspondent for CBS, Shirer opens a door to an edifice which sees German's in Germany slipping from the civilised mantle it had once occupied. Ahead of them they plunge into an abyss of atrocity and hate with the annihilation of 6,000,000 of the Jewish People, who are the very reason we have The Holocaust term.

"..Auschwitz may be 100's of kilometres from Hungary but it is part of Hungarian history. ..This Death Camp was ..scene of ..inhumane suffering ..humiliation and death of nearly 500,000 of our compatriots." Janos Ader.

Amongst the many assessments to emerge from the period is also the catalogue of grief and suffering that has become witness to the 50/70 million dead of World War II. From the vantage point of Berlin and Zurich, and though Auschwitz and the assault upon the integrity of Hungarian Jewry is in the future, there is the brutal rise of Hitler's Reich which truly assured us of that premise of the annihilation of the Jewish People would be reached. Where Jewish existence is to be crushed and World indifference toward that growing atrocity is to be exposed, Europe settled into a malaise of appeasing apathy and disregard. While Germany and the Nazi Germans motioned forward exacting what Hitler fully proposed for the Jews of Europe, we see Switzerland begin to renege upon its own duty to offer solace and sufferance, and not just to the Jewish People. All the while the Jews of Austria, Germany and then the wider European Continent were becoming refugees ahead of the destruction which then followed them toward destruction.

Monday June 10th. 1940 "..German Army closes in on Paris. ..dark for ..Allies." William L. Shirer.

The very expression of another World War is an insanity that was so clearly evident and as the supposed German Teuton's brought havoc to bear toward Jews, and all those other’s who opposed the will of der Fuhrer, such mayhem caused would be monumentally deadly. By now Poland had fully succumbed to satellite status, which Hitler had required for it and 3,000,000 Polish Jews were under direct threat of destruction. Almost immediately, and upon the unprovoked Invasion of Poland on September 1st. 1939, Hitler’s formative der Einsatzgruppe began its work dissolving the Jewish hold on existence. That precarious life status too was to be true of some 3 million non-Jewish Poles who would perish in work details so severe, replenishment from human stock was a relentless abuse. While it was recognised that Poland had consoled itself in abusing Czech lands, its own government resigned to exile what authority it had laced together.

Monday June 10th. 1940 "..Italy is in ..War. ..stabbed France in ..back at ..moment ..Germans are at ..gates of Paris ..and France appears ..down." William L. Shirer.

In abandoning the Polish people to a device which Hitler fully exploited, any moral probity by a fleeing Polish administration was shelved upon the destruction, both intended and otherwise, of some 6 million Poles, 3,000,000 of those for being Poland’s Jews. Also, and as we are made fully aware of the very progress Hitler makes in his aggressor form, here from Shirer’s own entry as he has penned it into his Diary, we become aware that France is doomed. That very Monday June 10th. 1940, and by this time this has also now meant that both Denmark and Norway had been formerly defeated in another unprovoked aggression. As Hitler’s erstwhile ally, Mussolini’s Italy had declared war on both Britain and France, the stage was being set for a calamitous War that would become the vehicle by which the annihilation of the Jewish People would be sought. Impulsively, Mussolini was so quick so as to take full advantage of the swiftness of Hitler’s ‘blitzkrieg’ operations.

Tuesday June 10th. 1941 "..famous ..Igo Sym ..collaborated ..with ..Nazis ..executed recently. ..Nazis posted ..placards promising ..reward of 10,000 zlotys for of ..traitors." Mary Berg.

Europe was being trodden underfoot by jackboot and Italian loafer. That such alliances would devour the weak and the strong in equal measure, would judge unfavourably the route taken by those who strode the same path Hitler had urged them to take. This was to be a coldly calculated assessment written in terms so bloody, a word such as Genocide needed to be invented to harness its fullest implications. Then, from a diary of a different persuasion, we learn that Polish collaboration or collusion is equally met with a deadly response. Karol Juliusz 'Igo' Sym was a Polish actor who had collaborated with Hitler's Nazi's. After having served his Country in the Polish Army for 3 years after World War I, it is not easily explained why an obvious patriot might abandon his Nation to collude with an aggressor country?

"..Auschwitz’s largest cemetery ..without a single grave. I held tight to 3 dreams. ..first living through ..nightmare ..surviving ..second was to tell ..even though it ..cannot be explained. There was no reason whatsoever for what was done. ..I knew I had to tell as many people as possible. ..third was that ..if I managed to accomplish ..first two ..I would do anything and everything to bring about ..establishment of State of Israel. ..I realised all three dreams." Noah Klieger.

Sym was assassinated for assisting Hitler’s effort on March 7th. 1941 and this was right outside Mary Berg's back door of Warsaw. What perhaps is unusual in the aspect of this diarist's life, Miriam Wattenberg, better known as Mary Berg emerges from War torn Poland, a Survivor. She was a Polish Jew of Lodz who lived and then Survived in the Warsaw Ghetto. Clearly though, her status as the Child of Lena, an American Mother, is what afforded Mary what many will wrongly endorse as a privileged status. True, she was held aside from what she evidenced was the relentless tide of her fellow Jews being transported to Treblinka and destruction there, she was one lucky enough to have gained a chance against all the odds Hitler had placed before her. For 6 months in Pawiak jail this could not have been an easy comfort zone for anyone, let alone a 17 year old Jewish Child. With all that amounted to uncertainty for Polish Jewry, and while awaiting what might be the same fate of all of her fellow Jews, Mary marks her time with recalling words we still observe.

Wednesday June 10th. 1942 "..Kropotkin. ..reread his first reaction to ..prison cell in which he was to spend several years. ..that account can still teach us how to cope with ..measures by which our own freedom of movement is ..being restricted. to take what little space we are left with fathom its possibilities and ..use them to ..full." Etty Hillesum.

For more than 3 years also, Mary had witnessed what she would describe as a 'Warsaw drowning in blood’ before being sent to a detention centre in France. I am not too sure if Etty was planning to utilise the anarchic lessons which Prince Peter Alexeievich Kropotkin enhanced in his workings though it is intriguing for me to be allowed to assess her words with hints of other’s influence. But while it is with an almost revealing sense of foreboding that she sought out such social philosophies, Etty harbours her own warmth and security in life and gifts us with certainty. However, Etty was always concerned with the inequality that life threw up for people and sought to equate those concerns in the words she used and I am keen to reread and relearn them. Meanwhile further East, Hitler’s Wehrmacht has commenced its hopeful offensive along the Don River Front as 13 Polish prisoners are shot while attempting to escape from Auschwitz.

Wednesday June 10th. 1942 "..Prague immediately after ..assassination attempt ..Heydrich ..always taken ..well known route. ..newspaper ..published ..names of ..many who had been put in front of ..firing squad with their families ..intellectuals ..professors ..doctors." Victor Klemperer.

Also, and while a further 9 prisoner’s remain at large, we cannot begin to imagine what faces those escapees who are then caught and brought back for execution. In France the Seine Prefecture issues regulations for all Jews to be assigned to only the last carriages of the Paris Metro system. Though the tide was relentlessly moving toward a more totalitarian Europe with Hitler as its charge, and a subjugated Continent all too willing to give up its Jewish Citizens, assaults upon Hitler’s designs were being made. While Jewish existence was under duress immediately and then threatened with extinction as time went by, the open secret of what was being executed was being concealed. Though with many reservations and non-compliance's from individuals and even Country’s, it is clear that with 1,000 Prague Jews who can be too readily murdered in the East, not enough was being done to prevent Hitler achieving his final resolve for the Jews of Europe.

"..I have mixed emotions because although ..Germans took everything from me family and my home ..on ..other side of things they allowed me to survive ..war." Marie Supikova.

There was no concerted effort or a will by any of the League of Nations to stem the growing awareness of what Hitler was achieving against the Jewish People. Elsewhere the Germans destroyed the Town of Lidice and this complete and utter destruction of Lidice was in retaliation for the assassination of SS Oberguppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich in Prague six days earlier. Accomplished by member’s of the Czech resistance, retaliation was swift and brutal. Hitler had previously ordered the deaths of some 30,000 Czech’s, and while the German’s rampaged through some 5,000 Villages and Towns, the number of arrests and Murder’s did not finally tally with Hitler’s expectation’s. The previous day, on June 9th. a large contingent of Heydrich’s SD personnel arrived in Lidice and by noon on June 10th., some 173 of the Men of the Town had been murdered and 200 Women were shipped to the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp.

"..That there has been and is being considered in Hitler’s headquarters a plan to exterminate all Jews from Germany and German controlled areas in Europe after they have been concentrated in ..East. ..numbers involved is said to be between 3,500,000 and 4,000,000 and ..object to permanently settle ..Jewish Question in Europe." Dr. Gerhart Riegner.

As more murder’s of those Jews who were saved the initial onslaught would follow in the coming days, Jewish sought to settle into some semblance of normality. Here though, with the Lidice Children removed to Lodz, their temporary reprieve was merely a delay and for their execution to take place in Chelmno along with those remaining Jews who had seen the steady progress toward destruction completely consume their entire World. For Lidice itself, which was effectively removed from the map, it is a monument now to a darker time in our human history. For some however, survival was still possible and those like Marie Supikova, puts much of this down to luck and her looks as a Blond haired Blue eyed Child. For many Children who could be stolen to order and made aryan and even German, many never regained their former identity. Meanwhile, the clean up operation was accomplished by a 30 strong contingent of Jewish forced labourer’s from Theresienstadt who had dug the graves to bury the Murdered.

Wednesday June 10th. 1942 "..noon ..circulars ..posted ..a special food allocation for working people. ..a positive effect on ..populace. ..all other topics ..cares receded. ..universal joy. ..supplemental ration ..2 kilograms ..potatoes ..50 grams ..margarine ..100 grams ..white sugar ..100 grams ..rye flakes ..100 grams ..100 grams ..marmalade. ..ration costs 2 marks." S. Cygielman.

As a Lodz council member, Cygielman adds a dimension to the food rationing concern that takes place in a community being starved toward extinction, and this is the Ghetto of Lodz. As it all becomes clear that the gradual erosion of Jewish existence is taking place, life makes challenges events and events become reason to cheer or at least gain a positive few moments relief from the deeply impacting despair. With the arrival of those Children from Lidice, though well treated and cared for by the Jewish community and its leadership, the food rationing would not have stretched far enough to overcome or even sustain them from the obvious starvation of the Lodz Children. For the Lodz Jews as a whole, even when it was fully certain that these Czech Children would be removed further toward liquidation, words were present which might just ameliorate the immediate anxieties they must have felt. Removed from Family, removed from Community and removed from everything recognisable, we clearly hope they were removed from the knowledge of their final journey.

Thursday June 10th. 1943 "..Have ..last Jews not in mixed marriages been deported. What will happen to us. If I go to ..night shift ..will I ever come back." Victor Klemperer.

The whole of Europe resonated at times with the faintest echo which must surely have presented itself to all those in the darkest days as hope was held to tightly. On Thursday June 10th. 1943 20 prisoners are shot at Auschwitz and tragically this almost seems too routine when dealing with the spectre of the enormous catastrophe to confront us. As 1,000’s of Murdered Jews turned into 1,000,000’s of Murdered Jews, and as other’s faced the rigours of survival, how does one look at the figures of 20 prisoners being shot. It has always been written into the psyche of the overall atrophy of the Jewish People marching toward destruction, that what Eichmann asserts in that known fact which could present 1,000,000’s to become all too easily a statistical analysis, this must be guarded against. These 20 prisoner’s are people, as are the 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish People who are The Holocaust of individually presented Men, Women and Their Children. We must Remember them for they are Jewish People.

Saturday June 10th. 1944 "..advances in Normandy. Goebbels wrote ..he had greater fear of ..invasion not taking place than of its occurrence. ..Hitler before landing ..most crushing defeat would be inflicted on it at ..decisive point. ..I am certain of German defeat ..certain ..since 1st. ..September 1939 ..but when." Victor Klemperer.

Seemingly, even as the tide is increasingly turning against Hitler’s Reich, on Saturday June 10th. 1944 642 inhabitants of Oradour-sur-Glane, Men, Women and Children, were Murdered by a Waffen SS der Fuhrer regiment from 2nd. SS Panzer Division (Das Reich). This is merely 4 days after it must have occurred to many in the Reich that the writing was on the wall, that defeat was coming and that Hitler’s judgement would be closely scrutinised and condemned. At Oradour though, the Community was forced into the local Catholic Church and incendiary devices were placed around the building! This had nothing to do with Hitler’s Final Solution, but clearly, the SS had become immune to the humanity they had dispensed with for more than 5 years and more of War and for 10 year prior to this. The Church itself was set alight and those who sought to escape were machine gunned. In total, 190 Men, 247 Women and 205 of Their Children, all Innocent Civilians, were murdered.

"..Hungary has been occupied by German troops. ..still a million Jews living there ..they too are doomed." Anne Frank.

Almost a universe away Hitler’s resolve to conclusively have his final solution was being met that same Saturday June 10th. 1944. In Hungary however, a deal which could not be done, was somehow concocted with Adolf Eichmann. This to release just 200 Jews from the Hungarian Ghetto of Kolozsvar (Cluj) as part of a blood for goods deal. Rapidly, as the haemorrhage of Hungarian Jewry was bleeding out in Auschwitz and Birkenau, huge numbers of Hungarian Jews were being continuously transported away from Hungary and were totally decimated in Birkenau in quick order. Having commenced the Hungarian detail of The Final Solution the previous month, the pace was extraordinarily swift. Deep within this massive rage against what was left of the remaining large pocket of European Jewry, a method of relief was approached. For to gain any sort of alleviation from the crescendo of these transports, one man, Rudolf (Reszo) Kasztner forged the Kasztner Transport. This accumulation of 1,300 Jews was to be headed eventually toward the Yishuv, Palestine through Switzerland.

"..Let me explain that even though I had been in Auschwitz I did not know about ..gas chambers. Can you imagine that. We thought ..when we were there ..that our parents and ..children were taken to camps which were much better. We assumed that they couldn't live through we were in. It was not until a large contingent from Auschwitz came to Belsen that I had to give up that idea that they were safe. I met 2 women in their 30's who spoke Hungarian and they asked if it was true that ..Hungarian transports were so severely selected people to ..camps and ..others to be gassed. I said ..What are you saying. ..And they looked at me as if I were foolish ..but they didn't want to destroy my hope and so didn't try to explain. I ran back to ..tent and collapsed. I think I cried for weeks. I finally realized that everybody was killed." Maria Frank Abrams.

After much manipulation, 388 of these Cluj Ghetto Jews were brought toward Budapest and a much hoped for reprieve from immediate destruction. Eventually, this was to be gained for them. Meanwhile, the detail for some 16,000 Jews in the Kolozsvar Ghetto, as the gates of Birkenau awaited them, was certainly a bleak one. Destructively so as it emerged, as they were to be part of the over 425,000 Jews from Hungary Murdered in such a short space of time. The emphasis on speed and efficiency in this final round of mass murder could be highlighted by the re-emergence of Rudolf Hoess onto the Auschwitz stage. Separately, the remainder of the Kolozsvar Ghetto had been liquidated over the course of a x2 week period. From May 25th. the entire Ghetto Jewish Population had been removed to Birkenau on x6 transports averaging 2,600 Jews in each of the x20 carriage transports. This final Eichmann effort was an accomplishment of all that Hitler demanded and Hoess assisted in achieving. With these 388 Cluj Jews spared this horror, and this was such a small prize, it is a significant deal to have been done with Eichmann, known for exacting every detail of Hitler’s command, to the very letter, that 1,300 more Hungarian Jews were saved.

"..I revisited Auschwitz. ..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work 100's were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing." Judith Magyar Isaacson.

As we leave the complete, utter and devastating destruction of these 6,000,000 Jewish People, who are The Holocaust in the immediate past, with the commencing on November 20th. 1945 of The Nuremberg War Crimes of The Major German War Criminals, there is a significant hope that Justice will deliver for these failed Jews of Europe. On Monday June 10th. 1946 Arthur Seyss-Inquart testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. It might have escaped many peoples attention but Seyss-Inquart had many titles, chief of which was head of Southern Poland's Civil Administration, Deputy to the Governor General of Occupied Poland and Holland's Reich Commissioner. He was indicted for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. Clearly, the defence of following order’s, which permeates the awful tragedy that is to deny 6,000,000 Murdered Jews any form of Justice, is reprehensible, tawdry a lie. But in the stakes in which so many Jewish lives were taken from us, another lie to conceal the emerging truth is a further nail in the coffin of humanity and its ineffective response to the Catastrophe for 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children.

"..of ..1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..from amongst 20 nationalities ..these nations gave up their Jews also. Of that total ..some 400,000 were registered and kept as Slave Labour and 900,000 were immediately Gassed. While Jews constituted 85% of all those deported here ..they represented more than 90% of all those who were murdered. ..400,000 Slave Labourers were gradually degraded till they could persist no longer and added finally to number of those Jews and others Gassed or otherwise Murdered. That stated ..we assess that of ..1,100,000 who were Murdered from all 1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..some 900,000 Jews were Gassed immediately or otherwise murdered in Of ..400,000 of those registered for Slave Labour ..200,000 died or were otherwise Murdered. These included some 100,000 Jews ..64,000 Poles ..21,000 Gypsies ..14,000 Russian POW's and a further 10,000 other nationals." Auschwitz State Museum.

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Vilma Grunwald

Revisiting the PastPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, May 25, 2018 19:26:12

Vilma Grunwald.

One of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews.

"..You only one ..dearest isolation we are waiting for darkness. We considered ..possibility of hiding but decided not to do it since we felt it would be hopeless. ..famous trucks are already here and we are waiting for it to begin. I am completely calm." Vilma Grunwald.

From a piece of paper, the love and resilience of a Wife, a Mother, a concerned human being who was awaiting her Destruction with her older Son John, recognises that their final end approaches. While it is inconceivable to us that humanity could have sunk so desperately low, it has become so real for Vilma and 6,000,000 other Jews from the whole of Europe. Tragically, we are left to reflect upon what could have been for Vilma and all too many of these 6,000,000 Jews, if we in the World had simply intervened. As we now know, Vilma is taken toward Birkenau, and away from her Husband and younger Son and her destruction and John’s is certain there. From the remoteness of time we become all too well aware that she chose rationally in the best interests of her Son. In those final moments before any choice eluded her, to fully console and care for the one Son who had been chosen to die due to a pronounced limp, Vilma accepted death as the only course open to her.

"..Ultimately ..we have just one moral duty reclaim large areas of peace in ourselves ..more and more ..peace ..and reflect it toward others. ..more peace there is in us ..more peace there will be in our troubled World." Etty Hillesum.

Here, this scene final which fully captivates us, does not reflect even the start of the tragedy for the Jewish People. It signifies the struggle Parents, their Children, their Family’s must have continually and consistently been forced to make. Nor does this individual episode suggest the end of the atrocity for the Jews of Europe is anywhere nearing its final toll. From the very start and somewhere in Germany or even in Austria, and certainly prior to Hitler's rise toward power in 1932, a Jewish Man, Woman or even Jewish Children was somehow Murdered. This relevant though unrecorded fact was administered as a consequence of either Hitler's hatred for the Jewish People, or as an example of the vehemence of Hitler’s clearly pronounced and often stated bigotry. At the end of all that has been recorded in relation to what the Jewish People and here Vilma was due to suffer, of everything we have since assessed and accumulated on the atrocity that is The Holocaust, we are absolutely certain that 6,000,000 Jewish People are no more.

"..My Mother was a great reader of personalities. ..She must have sensed this guard had some compassion. He was older; he was 50 or 60." Frank 'Misa' Grunwald.

Vilma Grunwald alone does not give us a full view of the terror brought to such a horrible place as Auschwitz nor more certainly Birkenau, but what majesty represents for us, is exemplified here by Vilma. Vilma Grunwald gifts her Son John what will remain a final few moments that will be filled with such Love and Devotion, we are bereft of any chosen words to assess the Love she delivers, let alone the Sacrifice she made. That love and devotion is inherent in Mother’s the World over and this selfless devotion will be recognised wherever Children and Parental bonds are in evidence. While we accept broadly, that these 6,000,000 Jews were Murdered and while much of the World stood aside, Vilma Grunwald stands as an example of how humanity should operate, should concern and must behave. As our human race did little to alleviate much of the Jewish pain, or even condoned much of the treatment vented against these Jews, a Mother and her Son faced oblivion amongst those of her People.

"..Thinking gets you nowhere. It may be a fine and noble aid in academic studies ..but you cannot think your way out of emotional difficulties. That takes something altogether different. You have to make yourself passive then ..and just listen. Re-establish contact with a slice of eternity." Etty Hillesum.

The Jews under duress and immediate threat, for whom at the time we simply refused to recognise was imminent, recognised our inaction as intolerable, indifferent and immoral. Due to Misa’s decision later in life, the World has a space filled in with a letter of such courage and is such an extraordinary detailed view of compassion, this one single episode shames us even further. Of course, there are many such instances of this bravery of resistance, and many have gone unrecognised in the initial stages of Hitler’s own rage. While history terms The Final Solution of The Jewish Question as The Holocaust, the Jewish suffering under the directing banner of die Endlosung der Judenfrage is more than a symbol of hatred, it is a club wielding exercise in debauched savagery. What was an unresolved issue for the Jews in Germany, the Jews of Austria, or the Jewish People of the Czech lands, grew with escalating force to a systematic resolve which consumed all 6,000,000 of these Jewish People in a mechanised slaughter upon an industrial scale.

"..You my only and dearest one not blame yourself for what happened was our destiny. We did what we could." Vilma Grunwald.

European Jews, who were forced to repress their anxiety, were still waiting as the conflagration in the World consumed so many other’s and still we watched blindly and then abandoned the Jews to an unprecedented and unparalleled atrocity. Admittedly, we were as unaware of the full extent to which Hitler would raise the stakes in dealing with European Jewry. But the signalling could not have been so more obvious if Hitler had written it himself into his tacky tale of Mein Kampf. However, and even without consideration of such a book, it became quite clear that Hitler would not simply stop at disenfranchising the Jews of Germany or Austria, nor of removing their human rights, nor of stripping them of any worldly value. Here though the supposed ideological impertinence of the act was laid bare and wasted no time ensuring it also delivered a financial and profitable gain. It was an enormous gain for the furnishing of a regime which history will never be able to deny.

"..I want to tell those deniers ..I have seen ..gas chambers ..I have seen ..crematoria ..I have seen ..burning pits. ..these atrocities happened. I was there." Oscar Groening.

With the stench of atrocity, which was permeating Hitler’s whole effort toward the Jewish People, his outspoken words could not be written more demonstrably. These declarations of intent, the pronouncements of a murderous exercise to be conducted against all Jews was not simply orated and not just within his immediate sphere of influence. The World listened to the rancid detail spouted by the Austrian corporal and simply glanced and looked the other way. Here though, and with Hitler’s wider resolve to conduct his affairs against all of World Jewry, his move against the Jewish People was out in the open while being honed into an enormous and murderous confrontation. All too readily the World was eager to denounce as merely rhetoric or simply bluster what the Jewish People faced on a daily basis. It is a sad fact too however, that all too many Jews of The Holocaust struck this as a resigned tone for themselves in not accepting that the vehemence of Hitler stated aims hid a more despicable clause.

"..Destruction of Hungarian Jewry constitutes ..last phase in Nazis war against ..Jews." Randolph L. Braham.

Those Jews who were immediately confronted, and whether from some religious conviction, or being so rigidly berated by the hatred which surrounded them, they all too often looked to what clearly appeared real to them, but as some form of an aberration. How else could innocent Jewish People view a supposedly civilised, cultured and moral German people? However, what caught the Jews off guard was such an aberration that history recalls, it moved swiftly to devour all the best of European Jewry and from many other’s beyond that Jewish Question. As for our own inaction? The Jews who clearly learned first hand and saw their abandonment was evidently clear, and from our vantage point, it might appear that so many of these Jewish People acceded to the capricious nature of what was to become their assigned fate.

"..I have told ..story of ..arrival to people ..when I can see exactly how it happens through this photo ..I relive it. Every emotion. It takes me right back." Irene Weiss.

Simply put, because of our lack of any human compassion for them, their march toward an uncertain fate for all so many of them, was marked by our indifference toward them. Also, and while it was true that many of these same Jews did all they could to alleviate their own and fellow Jews suffering, even when they purchased much of their safety or even sought to enhance their despicable position, this was no guarantee of their eventual nor final security. Where was a Jew to go when it had already been proven that nation’s the World over did not want them. Here though, that simple effort of a Mother’s care and relief cannot but accuse an intolerant effort being watched over by an idle World. It will be so often said of such an indifferent World, which did not do enough of what it should have done, time was wasted in the delivery of care carelessly.

"..Because my hatred towards ..Jews is too great. ..I admit my thinking on this point is unjust ..I admit this. But what I experienced from my earliest youth ..what ..Jews were doing to us ..well that will never change. That is my unshakeable conviction." Hans Friedrich.

The unbridled nature of shooting operations had seeped into the consciousness of the ‘intelligence’ services of the allied nations. Continually too, as Hitler maligned all of World Jewry on a wholly atrocious and unbridled level, Jewish fears were not augmented by much from a World of concern so omitting of compassion or care. Through the lens of hindsight, we see now what must have presented itself to Vilma as she stood amongst her own, and it seems, knowing her fate was to be so destructive, her choice was Motherly and compassionate. Then, once we had reached the end of a Second World War, any such human despair was over written by lost pages and missing People’s reports for these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Here, we know they were Murdered in the most horrific of ways ever envisaged or enacted.

"..I see it as my task face up to these things that I experienced and to oppose ..Holocaust deniers who claim that Auschwitz never happened." Oskar Groening.

The many photographs, some of which form an album of this procession, now known to have been of the soon to be Murdered Hungarian Jews, is a shocking and revealing insight. Of these lines of innocence, there are 6,000,000 Murdered Jews who formed the back drop to a World history that would forever be mired in the destruction of the Jewish People. Today we sit less comfortably than we should because of the deliberately brutalising experience suffered by the Jewish People, all because we moved too tardily to prevent the atrocity itself. The emergence of such photographic examples, added here to a more rounded acknowledgement of what the World refused to act against. Of the overall atrocity that is The Holocaust however, the seeming indifference to the Jewish struggle would set an almost cynical precedent for other’s to follow. Ever since then, there are now many examples of the conduct of other atrocity’s raged throughout the World and these are enacted against their own fellow human beings.

"..Kropotkin. ..reread his first reaction to ..prison cell in which he was to spend several years. that account can still teach us how to cope with ..measures by which our own freedom of movement is ..being restricted. to take what little space we are left with fathom its possibilities and ..use them to ..full." Etty Hillesum.

Peter Alekseyevich Kropotkin touched an anarchistic note with Etty and perhaps from within his own Mutual Aid, she resigned her own fate to other’s. From the text of what turned out to be an accurate assessment of what Hitler always intended, Mein Kampf has pasted the narrative of aggressive realisation that we simply chose to ignore throughout the course of this War. In these grubby Hitler pages, it must be remembered, that for the Jews and Hitler’s world view, Hitler’s dystopian view, die Weltanschauung, there would be a factor of complete dominion over the Jewish People, an aggression of intolerable indifference to their suffering and a destructive capacity that would Slaughter Men, Women and Their Children simply for being Jews. As to the World, it looked on with complete ignorance toward what Humanity fully demanded, compassion, concern and the alleviation of the suffering of that Jewish individual.

Monday June 29th. 1942 "..They want to exterminate us to ..last ..this is a new certainty which I accept ..but an acquired certainty should not be eroded by another. I work and live with ..same conviction and I find life meaningful anyway ..even if I hardly daresay so in society." Etty Hillesum

Here, on June 29th. 1942 Etty Hillesum wrote to her diary what she had just learned on the British Broad Casting radio. It is barely credible that we are here acknowledging that 700 000 Jews had already been exterminated by the Hitler and his Nazis within Poland. This is practically 3 years before the ending of World War II and a significant amount of time for Hitler to press ahead with his overriding agenda, to pursue the liquidation of the Jewish People. It is incredulous from all that has been omitted by time that such was the stark reality facing the Jews of Europe and for the next 34 months. What must have shook those like Etty at this time, who now knew with little doubt that the annihilation of the Jews was at the forefront of Hitler’s demand, could not have envisaged the total inactivity of the World in the fight against this annihilatory process.

"..It was not long before I was assigned to supervise ..luggage collection of an incoming transport. When this was over was just like a fairground ..there was lots of rubbish left and amongst this rubbish were ill people ..those unable to walk. And ..way these people were treated really horrified me. For example ..a child who was lying there naked was simply pulled by ..legs and chucked into a lorry to be driven away ..and when it screamed like a sick chicken ..then they bashed it against ..edge of ..lorry it shut up. We were convinced by our world view that we had been betrayed by ..entire world ..and that there was a great conspiracy of ..Jews against us." Oskar Groening.

Back then, Etty was seized by a double conviction that will never leave her, and she wrote till her enforced transportation toward that destruction stilled the pen which has inspired so many of us to this day. Also, there is no certainty that Vilma, nor Etty came up against these murderous individuals we mention, whose prevailing attitude at the time was obedience to a criminal act which they enacted and witnessed on a daily basis. What can be certain is, and in both Etty’s and Vilma’s case, there were vicious signs of the atrocity before them that were so terrible, that neither one of them could dispute they had arrived at the way station before hell. For Vilma in particular, such a scene as Groening describes could not allow her to leave her Child to the vagaries of a brutal and brutalising system which would all too readily devour her Son and leave him consumed by fear right up to the very moment he would be consumed wholly.

"..In ..ghetto there was an order given out one day for girls under 16 to have their hair cut or their father would be punished. I didn’t even tell my mother. I just ran to this place and sat down. They cut my hair. I had long braids at ..time. They had a way of having people comply." Irene Weiss.

Compliance was a barked at response and here I can only begin to reconstruct what must have been both terrifying and unimaginable. To honest, decent human beings being faced with such savagery, there must have appeared a strange madness before them that confronted their former awareness. How else does one retreat from the ability to describe what remains in Remembrance, for those who have no other conduit of expression before they are catapulted into oblivion. Far more than that which is afforded them, must be reconstructed for them after they have been destroyed. Tragically, and while 6,000,000 Jews were systematically sought out for such Slaughter, both Vilma and Etty coped with the vagaries of their shrinking position and within those measures which sought to restrict them ever further. This is not simply an indictment of Hitler’s policy toward all the Jewish People in isolation, but it is also an accusation of our complete indifference to the Jewish People.

"..You only one ..dearest isolation we are waiting for darkness. We considered ..possibility of hiding but decided would be hopeless. ..famous trucks are already here and we are waiting for it to begin." Vilma Grunwald.

As proof and evidence of the escalating brutality and murderous treatment was made aware, and this was clearly known almost immediately the destructive process was commenced, we moved with a languid approach both reckless and careless. Until the Jewish People had to finally come to terms with the Catastrophe not of their making, we deliberately muffled the inadequacy of response. With a resounding acquiescence that allows for a complicit nature to emerge duplicit in all that 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish lives suffered and endured, humanity has been somewhat immune to concern. Here, and from the overall assessment of too many lost lives, I will borrow the words from both Vilma Grunwald, an extraordinary Mother and from Etty Hillesum, whose Letter’s of an extraordinary Writer, we mark that descent toward the abyss so many were forced to take. Also, and with a long standing sorrow for Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak, I will create the words needed to leave an added legacy of Remembrance for her, that Etty and Vilma have left for us in their own words.

"..Children ..they are not ..enemy at ..moment. ..enemy is ..blood inside them. ..enemy is ..growing up to be a Jew that could become dangerous. And because of that ..children were included as well. ..So many people died in ..war ..not only Jews. So many things happened many were shot many snuffed it. People burnt to death many were burnt ..if I thought about all of that I wouldn't be able to live one minute longer." Oskar Groening.

For me in particular it is essential that the Children are forever at the forefront of this degradation of human concern, as they are the least able to understand, appreciate or avoid the coming tragedy. That all of these x3 individual Jews fully deserve their appropriate space in that recall, that is also my wished for promise to more than 1,500,000 Murdered Jewish Children. It is becoming more and more obvious that we simply cannot ever look at History the same way ever again. There are 6,000,000 Jewish Murdered reasons why that will always be the case. Morally unjustifiable, the assault upon the integrity of the Jewish People was unprecedented, sustained and calamitous. For me, as I look at photographs of Tokele, Etty and now Vilma, and I know the sadness of loss which many in this Human Race have yet to recognise, I find it astonishing still that the suffering of 6,000,000 People, their total Destruction can still be overlooked simply because they are Jews.

"..Stay healthy and remember my words that time will heal if not completely then at least partially. Take care of ..little golden boy and don't spoil him too much with your love." Vilma Grunwald.

Israel knows this tragic detailed assessment all too well and so must The Holocaust Survivors, and as do the Jewish People recognise this a tragedy for all humanity, so must we. For me it is a matter of principle that People should never be used as political pawns or obliterated from our conscious mind with little concern. While I know too that it is the Catastrophe for the Jewish People which can never be calculated in numerical terms, we must correlate our human concern with figurative assessment. For me too, if but just 1 Jew from the sum total of 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, who are The Holocaust, is to be recognised from amongst the entirety of the atrocity, then that one Jewish life lost to our humanity must affront us on every conceivable level. The protection which was never fully afforded them during their period of assault, must be clearly recognised and protected during our period of recollection.

"..We should be willing to act as a balm for all wounds." Etty Hillesum

Etty seeks to heal our wounds, and with the certain knowledge of what was done to her and 6,000,000 of her own People, who are we not to look for the answers which will encourage us to seek to heal the wounds of their betrayal. We can look simply to the resolve of knowledge, and where we are allowed to know the shortcomings that exist in The Holocaust narrative, assign only truth to fix that fact. Fully aware that knowledge of the individual is scant indeed and we have a detailed assessment of the 6,000,000 Jews Murdered, who are The Holocaust, to make, we cannot ever forget we are dealing in the lives of People. So while we know not who all of them are, we are aware that all of those removed from existence were brutally treated and in all too many ways. Now, as we look to the evidence from those places now missing their Jewish Community’s, we search through the debris and records of their former existence to structure their presence in any conceivable way.

"..Both of you stay healthy dear ones. I will be thinking of you and Misa. Have a fabulous life ..we must board ..trucks." Vilma Grunwald.

We also must recognise that in a supposed secrecy we know could not exist, all too many of these Jews were aware of what now lay in front of them. Sadly too, that while we have only named a few more than 4,500,000 of these Jewish People, and what we do know of them is perhaps sketchy at best, it is lacking the fuller detail of their presence and existence. When we are clearly well aware that they have all been taken from amongst us, we can begin to see the enormity of the task remaining to add a newer dimension to their lost identity. Clearly, a Child who enters this life has no expectation of the Love and Nurturing that awaits them. That the Jewish Child of The Holocaust was no different and received both care and affection in abundance, this was not to be denied prior to or after Hitler sought to destroy them.

"..As soon as Mengele saw my brother limping he directed him to ..left with a group of young kids." Frank 'Misa' Grunwald.

With the clearest Hitler intention for All Jews altered that premise of care and compassion, as Jewish Children were forced to depart our concern with all manner of hatred drowning out the warmth and Love they had previously encountered was still met with Maternal love and Paternal care. In so many cases that very strength of compassionate enrichment was secure, and though barely of any extensive duration, it might even have been momentarily afforded but it was surely felt. Thus, forced toward oblivion, the Jewish Child is coerced and uncertain as to why the hatred imposed itself into their short lived lives. For the Survivor who has lost a Child, how much more deeply must the trauma run as the Catastrophe consumed so much Love and Affection. Eventually too, what caught up with the Jewish willingness to nurture their own, it became undone by a fellow human being who must also have nurtured the thought that care and concern were sacred values.

"..We have to fight them daily fleas ..those many small worries about ..morrow ..for they sap our energies." Etty Hillesum.

Surely here in the midst of the carnage, the depth of human emotion struck the very limits of human despair. The immeasurable grief is pinned here with words unable to fathom the recesses of human minds that are shredded by grief, fear and the obvious threat of annihilation. Can we not now mourn this incurable loss without resort to mere blame? Any accusation, which cannot fully exhume what is now missing, must still deliver the Justice necessary to confront this grave wrong. While we seek any tangible link to a specific time or place, we recognise further still the losses incurred as those empty spaces show up their ghostly past. All too often when a Jew has been Murdered, and we know not when or where these occurred in all too many instances, the Jewish Child has also been Murdered, and the Jewish Child is also condemned toward oblivion in the midst of this apparent void.

"..Seeing John alone ..too much for Vilma to bear. She couldn’t let John go into ..gas chamber by himself she chose to go in with him." Frank 'Misa' Grunwald.

The distance, let alone the duration of the killing spree which persisted even outside the gas chambers, and stretching the length and breadth of that very human excess, has all too few markers. These markers to the memory of all too many now remains focused upon that void where once 6,000,000 Jews once resided. There is all too often little remaining of their presence and beside them, locked in the turmoil of conscience over regret, 1,500,000 of their remarkable Children, unproven in the deeds of future possibilities, are a humbling exercise in human awareness. Jewish Children we have to remember, were extinguished from existence over a birth mark they cannot resist. We now reach into that nothingness and continually seek to know their last resting place. That which remains for far too many of these 1,500,000 Jewish Children and the 6,000,000 Jews, who are The Holocaust, is an unknown resting place for far too many of them.

"..Polish antisemites say ..a good thing ..Jews sit behind their walls. At last Poland will be Jewless." Mary Berg.

On September 7th. 1943 Esther ‘Etty’ Hillesum boarded a transport that contained 987 Jews from the Westerbork internment Camp in Holland. This transport then arrived at Auschwitz on September 9th. 1943 and Etty is amongst the 105 Jewish Women admitted to the Auschwitz main Camp, alongside 187 Jewish Men. It is uncertain as to the fate of her Parents, Dr. Louis Hillesum or her Mother Rebecca ‘Riva’ Hillesum, formerly Bernstein. While we know that both Parents did not Survive the selection process. Though we can barely be certain that Etty’s parents died on September 10th. 1943, as prevailing records show, we remain uncertain as to whether they died in transit or were gassed immediately upon their arrival.

"..It’s ..only artefact that they have that expresses a prisoner's feelings right before they were killed." Frank 'Misa' Grunwald.

Etty’s Brother Michael ‘Mischa’ Hillesum remained in Auschwitz until October 1943, when he was moved to the Warsaw Ghetto, where, according to the International Red Cross, he died sometime before March 31st. 1944. As will be noted by those who emerged from with the Warsaw Ghetto itself, there was to be no hiding place for any Jew, let alone a Jew extracted from the West. Of this Westerbork transport, all remaining 695 other Jews are taken forward toward immediate gassing at the Birkenau Death Camp facility.

"..That I should die next week ..I would still be able to sit at my desk all week and study with perfect equanimity ..for I know now that life and death make a meaningful whole." Etty Hillesum.

Amongst these Gassed too are the 170 Jewish Children on board. Etty’s two younger brothers, Jacob ‘Jaap’ Hillesum and Michael ‘Mischa’ Hillesum suffered differing fates. Though Etty only mentions Mischa and her Parents on the postcard, we know with uncertainty too of Jacob ‘Jaap’ Hillesum’s deadly end. It has to be remembered too that while all hope of escape was disappearing, the further Western Jews got from their former Home, and specifically for these Jews who ended up in Poland, the hostility there was twofold. Immediate capture of foreign Jews was almost certain and destruction awaited whatever their intention to save themselves might have been. Here though, and while Etty does not mention Jaap, we are aware that he had not been brought to Westerbork prior to the Family’s dispersal to Auschwitz.

"..Aryan side. ..a number of Jews hiding there in constant terror. Many ..blackmailed by ..Poles with whom they are staying. After ..jewels ..are ..gone ..hosts deliver them to ..Germans. spite of ..fact Polish population bitterly persecuted by ..invaders." Mary Berg.

Jaap Hillesum did finally arrive in Westerbork though, but after his Family’s transport had long since departed. He did not make any awaiting transport toward Auschwitz neither, but in February 1944 he was removed to the holding camp at Belsen as somewhat of a privileged prisoner. Here, as a bartering commodity for Hitler, Jews from all over Europe, from his Death Camps he was demolishing in Poland, they were concentrated in an area and left to their own devices to perish. It is believed that Jaap died some time after the Camp was handed over to the British Army and liberation was then secured on April 15th. 1945. Before Etty departed Westerbork, she composed herself and wrote to her friend Christine back in Deventer a postcard, and before the journey that would take her toward Auschwitz and consign her to a destruction there we are given her insight:


Opening the Bible at random I find this: ‘The Lord is my high tower’. I am sitting on my rucksack in the middle of a full freight car. Father, Mother and Mischa are a few cars away. In the end, the departure came without warning. On sudden special orders from The Hague. We left the camp singing, Father and Mother firmly and calmly, Mischa too. We shall be travelling for three days. Thank you for all your kindness and care. Friends left behind will still be writing to Amsterdam; perhaps you will hear something from them. Or from my last letter from camp.

Goodbye for now from the four of us.


On November 30th. 1943, Etty died in the Gas Chambers at Birkenau, amongst the now numbered 1,100,000 other Jews who shared the same Zyklon ‘B’ gassing, or the other murderous fatality’s that awaited them. Here at the Birkenau Death Camp, merely a short distance from the arrival station at Auschwitz, Jewish existence was being decimated. For Etty, as she had shared her fate with her fellow Jewish People, we are left with a remarkable imprint which will forever allow us to retrieve her memory from the words we are made aware of. These words allow us to link her to the tragedy for so many other Jewish People who have left little or no trace as to their being. For more than 1,500,000 of these Jews they remain but a blemish upon the parchment of words set aside to recall their passage in and amongst us. To add further perspective as to the chances of Survival for any Jew who could escape the confines of these Death Camps, Mary Berg is quite adamant.

"..ocean of blood in which ..Jewish population of Poland is being drowned still has not washed away ..existing antisemitic poison." Mary Berg.

While estimates might vary as to the chances of Survival in and around the Death Camp system, or from deep within the Ghetto complexes of Polish Towns or Cities, history will lend us an assessment which does suggest the possible outcomes. In Warsaw alone there were nearly 30,000 Jews in hiding and barely 11,500 of these Jews Survived. These were mostly Polish Jews who could for the time being escape the attention of all but the intentional betrayer. For Western Jews that possibility was less than uncertain. For varying reasons also, we cannot know why such is this fact but perhaps Mary Berg had lent us her insight. Of course this subjective view might suggest some 18,000 hidden Warsaw Jews alone were betrayed, but it is not a proven fact. When, on July 11th. 1944 Vilma Grunwald, formerly Eisenstein, wrote her note to her husband, in the vain hope that something more lasting than their fading from sight would reach them and inform them of her final moments.

"..Sometimes ..most important thing in a whole day is we take between 2 deep breaths ..or ..turning inwards ..for 5 short minutes." Etty Hillesum.

Vilma must have judged her captor well, for the note made its way to Kurt and Misa, and as a result, History has a further piece of that evidential puzzle which has entrapped 6,000,000 Murdered Jews in The Holocaust. Kurt Grunwald had lovingly imparted the knowledge of the fact of the letter to his Son, and this was sometime in 1946. Allowing for space and time, and when Kurt felt that his Son had sufficiently recovered, at least physically from the trauma, Misa was not quite ready for the ordeal. The sheer weight of their loss, which could have so easily submerged them both, still managed to direct them toward a future that could be filled with hope and promise. With the War still fresh in the minds of Kurt and Misa and their loss was not blurred by such heightened a well of despair, Misa, soon to become Frank, was as an 11 year old without his Mother and Brother.

"..I was curious about ..letter ..but at ..same time afraid ..I think ..for its sadness." Frank 'Misa' Grunwald.

Tragically however, there are 6,000,000 Murdered Jews with no place to hold onto their own Memory as they have been vanquished from existence. So we simply have to assume that within a 3 million square mile area, 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were brutally Destroyed. For them, mostly, no stone can be placed on all the sites were they were shot, gassed, destroyed, annihilated, killed and murdered. So with words and sometimes deeds, we add a newer stone to any such site where we can assert as close as possible that enough is known of them to recall and remember them specifically there.

"..Dr. Grunwald F Lager.

You, my only one, dearest, in isolation we are waiting for darkness. We considered the possibility of hiding but decided not to do it since we felt it would be hopeless. The famous trucks are already here and we are waiting for it to begin. I am completely calm. You my only and dearest one, do not blame yourself for what happened, it was our destiny. We did what we could. Stay healthy and remember my words that time will heal if not completely then at least partially. Take care of the little golden boy and don’t spoil him too much with your love. Both of you stay healthy, my dear ones. I will be thinking of you and Misa. Have a fabulous life, we must board the trucks.

Into eternity, Vilma."

I have been using words to describe the incomprehensible nature of The Holocaust for so long and I have yet to feel I have afforded memory an adequate response. There are however, 6,000,000 very real reasons why the effort to do so, and the effort must continue for the sake of a world looking to strengthen the present with lesson’s from the past. It is all an essential need to ensure that the future is no longer failed by what should have been adequately and truthfully learned. So while we simply cannot know all that we need to know, I point to Tokele and one who was from the last Murdered Jews of The Holocaust. But for now we allow from a short note delivered to posterity, from a Murdered Jewish Wife and Mother of The Holocaust, the last word.

"..Into eternity. ..Vilma." Vilma Grunwald.

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Yom HaShoah

ReflectionsPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, April 11, 2018 23:33:54

If we just consider what Yom HaShoah is all about, and Remember in the very detail of the gravest atrocity to assail all of Humanity, we will recognise that some 1,500,00 Jewish names are still missing, unknown now to all of History. On April 12th. April 2018, as the World should come to realise what is meant by what is in fact missing, and Israel will know what was taken more than 6,000,000 times over, the Jewish World will recognise our willingness to accept our great wrong. So on the day itself please place ALL the names of those Jews which The Holocaust has interred and make their memory known to us all. YadVashem has made it clear, the day will be about Remembrance so list your names and we can all be made aware of Your loss.

Such loss, now amounting to our loss also will never be understood as other than a Jewish atrocity, given the terms which has been applied to The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. There will be those of you who will seek out a fuller audience to remark the absence of those now lost, and I would suggest you contact YadVashem on this page, and make your feelings known. For those, like myself, who will wish to Remember the names of those we have come to reflect upon here together, if you wish to place the names on My Post and I will add them all to what I have always sought. As you read their names they are being Remembered and they will not be forgotten as these mainly Jewish Children who were not allowed to reach their full potential, confront ours.

While many of these names have been presented to you all in words I have already blended alongside them, it is for us, here and now Always to Remember, Never to Forget.

Israel Knaster, Jacques Bronfman, Cywja Borowski, Raymond Brunschwig, Guy Cytrynowiez, Maurice Cytrynowiez, Renee Goldberg, Avivah Gorkin, Lucien Grudman, Henri Hillig, Bernard Jedwab, Henriette Kierszenblat, Joseph Lander, Dan Levinsky, Georges Lion, Ela Srebro, Sylvaine Steinbock, and Jeannine Stickgold.

Avroum Beirach, Francine Beirach, Malka Beirach, Michel Edelstein, Simon Edelstein, Maja Frydman, Laja Frydman, Blima Grosman, Eva Grosman, Simon Grosman, Henri Hirsz, Jacques Hirsz, Rachel Hirsz, Joseph Jinn, Isidor Jungfer, Joseph Lerner, Myriam Lerner, Rosa Lerner, Abraham Wajc, Ajzyk Wajc and Maurice Zysman

George Biglaizer, Laja Biglaizer, Madeleine Biglaizer, Rachel Biglaizer, Albert Cala, Suzanne Cala, Albert Ejchler, Henri Flamenbaum, Annette Fligelman, Odette Fligelman, Claudine Grajcar, Maurice Grajcar, Therese Grajcar, Bernard Gutmajndster, Huguette Gutmajndster, Sywia Gutmajndster, Jean Iglicki, Isaac Jubiler, Jeannette Jubiler, Leon Jubiler, Rachel Jubiler, Rose Jubiler, Rosa Maber, Micheline Perl, Suzanne Perl, Berthe Pojnanski, Esther Poznanski, Helen Ruta, Nicole Turtleband, Dora Wigdor, Ida Woski, Claire Zloty, Paulette Zloty, Suzanne Zloty, Kira Zylberszac, Serge Zylberszac, Jeannette Zylberszporn, Marcel Zylberszporn and Pauline Zyschole.

Jeanine Adler, Gabriel Ascher, Dora Bergman, Helene Bergman, Sylvie Bergman, Jeannette Blatt, Marie Blatt, Simone Blatt, Charlotte Brams, Jacques Brand, Jeanne Brand, Madeleine Brand, Fanny Cukier, Ginette Cukier, Irene Cukier, Fanny Fikman, Ita Fikman, Sabina Goldman, Peter Hackel, Saloman Jonas, Simon Jonas, Helia Kac, Salomon Kac, Suzanne Kac, Zina Kac, Feliz Krajka, Ruth Kraut, Suzanne Kraut, Wolf Kraut, Jenny Lejzerowicz, Marcel Lejzerowicz, Anne Lew, Lucienne Lili Miszkinski, Bernard Najman, Lucien Najman, Myriam Najman, Therese Najman, Desider Schvartz, Joseph Schvartz, Louise Schvartz, Rachel Schvartz, Paul Spiegelman, Berthe Zlotnik, Jacques Zlotnik, Jeanine Zlotnik, Sarah Zlotnik and Yvette Zlotnik.

Abzac, Max Adler, Frida Albaum, Rolande Albaum, Anna Bock, Jeanne Bock, Rosette Bulva, Andre Doskel, David Doskel, Lucienne Doskel, Anna Fisz, Helene Fisz, Berthe Fryer, Bernard Landau, Hedwige Landau, Maurice Lina, Adele Nitka, Paulette Nitka, Armant Rozenblum, Charles Rozenblum, Jacques Rozenblum, Regine Rozenblum, Simon Rozenblum, Bella Rubin, Mata Rubin, Micheline Rubin, Adam Vogler and Hans Werner.

Eva Bufler, Josette Chichman, Michel Chichman, Fleurette Davidowitch, Jacki Davidowitch, Jeanne Miliband, Liliane Miliband, Simone Miliband, Blanche Dziura, Gerson Dziura, Zlata Dziura, Ida Grouman, Isaac Grouman, Marie Grouman, Anna Kapler, Bernard Kapler, Cecile Kapler, Maurice Kaplar, Max Kapler, Florine Loeb, Theodore Motyl, Michel Pelikan, Helene Sokol, Germaine Szejn, Odette Szejn, Salomon Szejn, Claudine Torn, Leon Walter, Lea Zelechowski, Madeleine Zelechowski and Simon Zelechowski.

Albert Adler, Marcus Adler, Bernard Blawat, Blanche Blawat, Clara Blawat, David Bulwa, Paul Bulwa, Andre Epelbaum, Arlette Epelbaum, Henri Epelbaum, Jacqueline Epelbaum, Jacques Epelbaum, Renee Epelbaum, Suzanne Epelbaum, Albert Gober, Claudine Gober,Charles Gerszt, Abram Gorlicki, Marcel Gryn, Jacques Klager, Bernard Laks, Berthe Lederman, Joseph Lederman, Roger Lederman, Suzanne Lederman, Lucienne Lubin, Nathan Lubin, Berthe Orlik, Simon Orlik, Solange Pick, Georges Radomski, Helene Radomski, Lucien Slomka, Violette Slomka, Francine Szapiro, Annette Zeig, Laja Zylberman, Rachel Zylberman and Sura Zylberman.

Sarah Adler, Anna, Charles, Joseph, Robert and Simone Baum, Jacques Fitzig, Chaja-Berth Goldewicht, Leon Goldewicht, Esther Klos, Masha Klos, Jacob Lunde, Madeleine Musk, Roger Najman, Rose Najman, Edouard Schiff, Daniel Sukier, Helene Sukier, Simon Sukier, Marcelle Toporek, Serge Toporek, Eve Wakzul, Nathan Wakzul, Sarah Wakzul, Cecile Zak, Georgette Zylberman and Robert Zylberman.

Adele Arm, Andre Arm, Therese Arm, Monique Ciolek, Charlotte Dancyger, Ella Dancyger, Jacques Dancyger, Emile Fersztendyk, Abram Gelbart, Brandla Gelbart, Regine Gelbart, Bernard Lenczner, Fanny Lenczner, Marie Lenczner, Regine Lenczner, Sarah Lenczner, Henri Sevelivici, Henri Garnek, Jean Garnek, Henriette Hacker, Edith Jonap, Gerla Jonap, Paula Jonap, Ruth Leiner, Henri Nudelman, Rachel Nudelman, Sarah Nudelman, Fanny Rosenfeld, Henri Transport, Marguerite Transport, Raymond Transport, Yvette Transport and Chaya Zylberg.

Simon Gasmir, Solange Gasmir, Brandla Kozubski, Esther Kozubski, Jankiel Kozubski, Sylvain Kozubski, Franciszka, Weindling, Floride Weindling, Jozef Weindling, Daniel Belchatowski, Denise Buch, Helene Buch, Elise Eskenazi, Marie Eskenazi, Rachel Eskenazi, Richard Frenkel, Claude Gross, Jacques Gross, Annabellea Kamil, Ilse Maus, Ruth Maus, Anna Offen, Berthe Payouk, Clara Payouk, Joseph Payouk, Therese Payouk, Rolf Rothschild, Esther Rubel, Sarah Rubel, Feliz Spira, Egon Stocki, Herbert Stocki, Berthe Waks, Reine Waks, Manfred Weil, Marianne Wohl and Jacques Zommerstern.

Adele Abish, Maria Abish, Maurice Abish, Gisele Blech, Anna Goldstein, Bay-Micha Goldstein, David Goldstein, Fajga Goldstein, Renee Goldstein Sonia Goldstein, Esther Herskovic, Germaine Herskovic, Gisele Herskovic, Willian Herskovic, Michel Lederman, Serge Lederman, Henri Magier, Madeleine Magier, Simon Magier, Ernest Niwes, Felice Reiter, Helene Reiter, Jacqueline Reiter, Marcel Reiter, Bernard Saim, Lea Stern, Ruth Taffet, Norbert Vogler, Lipse Zellerkraut and Renee Zellerkraut.

Alix Grynspan, Cecile Grynszpan, Frajdla Grynszpan, Henriette-Regine Grynszpan, Elise Panigel, Monique Panigel, Robert Panigel, Rachel Rubinstein, Jean Baranchouk, Isaac Galinski, Joseph Galinski, Sylvia Kon, Benjamin Konopkis, Rachel Konopkis, Ethel Levy, Leon Levy, Alice May, Malvine Nadel, Hugette Rydel, Israel Rydel, Sima Scharf, Marcel Winzer, Helene Zacas, Jean Zacas, Helene Zeligfeld, Henri Zeligfeld, Simone Zeligfeld, Edwin Zwirn and Simone Zwirn.

Benjamin Beer, Jacques Beer, Evelyne Blywak, Bella Freireich, Lola Freireich, Simon Freireich, Georges Grynspan, Rolande Judkiewicz, Simon Judkiewicz, Germaine Lewin, Dora Mintz, Philippe Mintz, Berthe Poliakoff, Marguerite Rotbart, Riva Rotbart, Therese Rotbart, Margot Spira, Helene Tysz, Leon Tysz, Maurice Viktoovitch, Charlotte Wajntreter, David Wajntreter, Denise Wajntreter, Rebecca Wajntreter, Marcel Yelen, Juliette Zick and Paula Zygelman.

Achile Abramovici, Claude Bloch, Samuel Frydman, Sarah Frydman, Sella Frydman, Suzanne Gelber, Felicie Gumpel, Thomas Gumpel, Anne Judelson, Isaac Judelson, Pauline Judelson, Ariane Kristellar, Jacques Legard, Regine Legard, Jacques Levy, Monique Levy, Nicole Mantel, Liliane Roth, Michel Roth, Paul Stern, Esther Wenger, Maurice Wenger, Estelle Zomersztajn, Joseph Zomersztajn, Maurice Zomersztajn, Paulette Zomersztajn and Paul Zylberberg.

Esther Aizenman, Fernand Bercovici, Henriette Bercovici, Jean Bercovici, Joseph Bercovici, Lili Bercovici, Michel Glezer, Aron Itkis, Esther Itkis, Joseph Itkis, Lisette Itkis, Sarah Itkis, Ruchia Kogan, Georges Malamout, Helene Malamout, Lucien Malamout, Micheline Malamout, Salomon Malamout, Suzanne Sloim, Berthe Slomowics, Carlotta Slomowics, Ernest Slomowics, Gisele Slomowics, Maurice Slomowics, Serge Smilevitch, Georgette Weiner, Simon Weiner and Bernard Zylberberg.

Mira Adler, Henry Adoner, Lisette Adoner, Samuel Adoner, Zizi Adoner, Michel Buk, Annette Buk, Paulette Chouman, Rosette Chouman, Malka Kerner, Paulette Kerner, Armand Kohn, Georges Kohn, Alexandre Roth, Enea Sirota, David Work, Freina Work, Marcel Work, Solda Work, Advierre Wolodorsky, Berthe Zilbermanall and Viviane Zilbermanall.

Jeannette Aboave, Marthe Alion, Henri, Henriette, Jacqueline Benmoya, Maurice Benmoya, Edgard Cattan, David Estroumza, Jacqueline Estroumza, Josette Estroumza, Michel Haim, Anny Leibovitz, Maurice Leibovitz, Beatrice Mand, Isaac Mordoh, Josepth Mordoh, Leon Mordoh, Lucie Mordoh, Luna Mordoh, Myriam Mordoh, Rose Mordoh, Victorine Mordoh, Henri Pilo, Rachel Safan, Eliane Safan, Elie Safan, Jeanne Saltiel, Liliane Scioel, Nicole Scioel, Samuel Scioel, Henri Torres, Pauline Yenni, Robert Yenni and Dora Yoel.

Ermine Alter, Henri Alter, Joel Bron, Daisy Eskenazi, Chaja Falnsznajder, Renee Falnsznajder, Robert Glasman, Bernard Gonsiorek, Georges Gonsiorek, Henri Gonsiorek, Maurice Katz, Dora Kawa, Ginette Midowicz, Henri Midowicz, Ludovic Midowicz, Julien Pollack, Andre Rab, Isaac Rab, Maurice Rab, Georges Streicher, Alain Wolenberg, Anny Wolenberg, Lina Zandberg, Alain Zausnica, Anna Zausnica, Bruna Zausnica, Fajga Zausnica, Malka Zausnica, Salomon Zausnica, and Bernard Zilberberg.

Annie-Rose Erdelyi, Betty Erdelyi, Mesea Erdelyi, Michelle Erdelyi, Helen Alster, Malvine Alster, Paulette Amanentowicz, Albert Bereha, Michele Bereha, Monique Beraha, Esther Don, Albert Eskenazi, Allegra Eskenazi, Leon Eskenazi, Nissim Eskenazi, Raymond Eskenazi, Rose Eskenazi, Leib Kuzka, Claudine Malach, Celine Pinkus, Eliasz Pinkus, Fernande Pinkus, Colette Salmona, Elise Salmona, Charles Steinloff, Kitty Veffer, Leon Yahiel, Leon Zalma, Suzanne Zalma, Albert Zylberbergier and Jeanne Zylberbergier.

Jacques Abergil, Suzanne Aizic, Anna Chryzanowski, Berthe Chryzanowski, Louise Guterman, Ginette Lichtenstein, Myriam Lichtenstein, Phillippe Lichtenstein, Leon Nagelkop, Salomon Nagelkop, Odette Perper, Paul Perper, Rose Perper, Jean-Pierre Smolenski, Odette Starck, Edith Stern, Hugette Weil, Lily Weil, Claude Weill, Nicole Weill, Claude Wisniak, Jacques Wisniak, Robert Wisniak, Rose Wisniak, Gilbert Worms, Evelyne Yasterbelski, Anna Zipine and Fanny Zylberszporn.

Georges Akselrad, Anna Bannet, Dina Bannet, Jonny Bannet, Jacques Bialer, Marcelle Bialer, Sarah Bialer, Israel Cybulski, Rosette Cybulski, Adolphe Frydman, Berthe Frydman, Paul Frydman, Szyfra Frydman, Irene Gezerski, Adolphe Guigui, Andre Guigui, Djobar Guigui, Helene Guigui, Hugette Ben Guigui, Jacqueline Guigui, Marie Guigui,Yahia Guigui, Yvonne Guigui, Bernard Kornberg, Maurice Kornberg, Claire Orloff, Ethel Orloff, Youra Riskine, Jean Schlesinger, Rene Schlesinger, Berthe Sturm, Abraham Sztarkman, Berthe Sztarkman, Maurice Sztarkman, Daniel Vigderhau, Jacques Vigderhau, Jacqueline Wachs, Jeanine Wachs and Elizabeth Zeckendorf.

Claude Benichou, Colette Benichou, Menahem Benichou, Jeanine Benichou, Juliette Benichou, Lucienne Benichou, Simone Benichou, Yvette Benichou, Zavi Benichou, Nicole Bloch, Odette Bloch, Roger Bloch, Marcel Ber, Jeanine Drefuss, Chana Finkielsztajn, Francince Finkielsztajn, Anna Kaufman, Berthe Lando, Jean Levy, Raymond Levy, Betty Nahmias, Ernest Rausch, Julius Rausch, Francoise Sukno, Helene Sukno, Suzanne Sukno, Suzanne Ulman, Andre Wachtel, Jean-Rene Wachtel, Jacques Watman, Raymond Watman, Daniel Weber, Fanny Zonand, Celine Zylberberg and Sarah Zylberberg.

Esther Abosch, Lucy Albeck, Abram Adjibel, Hans Adler, Joseph Apel, David Atijas, Henri Ayzenberg.

Avraham Yosef Backenroth, Anny Baranczyk, Shloyme Bartenstein, Izak Baruch, Arnold Basch, Harry Bauer, Herbert Baum, Marianne Baum, Ignatz Baum, Max Becker, Maurice Behar, Helene Berger, Kurt Bernhard, Dr. Yisroel Biber, Liliane Birenbaum, Heinz Birnbaum, Grete Bloch, Renee Blum, Maxine Borenheim, Siegmund Bosel, Bernard Bounan, Francoise Brabanar, Jacques Brabanar, Lavoslav Buchsbaum, Herbert Budzislausky, Khayim Yankl Brzostowski.

Anna Checinski, Eluse Checinski, Simon Checinski, Wolf Checinski, Jeanine Cheress, Israil Chlebowski, Motus Chmura.

Berta Demner, Regina Demner, Ziwie Abosch Demner, Sara Selma Golda Spindel Joshua Dicker, Isidor Dolf, Ruth Dorfman, Justyna Davidson Draenger, Simon Dubnow, Yitzhak Dugin.

Henry Eckstein, Esther Edelman, Isaac Edelman, Joseph Edelman, Moshe Edelman, Etl Eisenstadt, Dr. Elchanan Elkes, Leon Eskenazi, Mordecai Ewzerow.

Sara Fermeinska, Gisi Fleischmann, Edith Fraenkel, Rosette Frankel, Miroslav Freiberger, Izak Freides, Adolfine Freud, Marie Freud, Pauline Freud, Rosa Freud, Paul Froelich.

Alla Gaertner, Inna Galay, Mordechai Gebirtig, Josip Gilman, Dr. Asscher Gitter, Jacqueline Gladkevizer, Adolf Gliot, Alice Gliot, Charles Gliot, Louise Gliot, Michelle Glowinski, Daniel Goldstein, Simon Goldstein, Lies Goossens, Simone Gotlib, Yakov Grojanowski, Mendel Grossman, Elia Gruenwald, Hinks Gruenwald, Jean Grumberger, Renee Grumberger, Rolande Grumberger, Gabi Gryn, Samy Gryn, Dr. Rudolf Guech, Isidor Guren, Hugette Gutmajnster.

Joseph Haber, Rabbi Ben-Zion Halberstam, Dr. M. Heisz, Izidor Hersmovic, Ludwig Hertz, Felix Heymann, Hardel Heymann, Fred Hirsch, Hella Hirsch, Marguerite Hirscher, Chaim Hirschman, David Holz, Emmanuel Holz, Jacques Holz, Joseph Holz, Marianne Holz, Paul Holz.

Chanoch Intreligator.

Samuel Jacob, Hilde Jadamowitz, Hans Joachim, Marianne Joachim, Ruth Joachimsman, Jeanette Jubiler, Margaritte Jukobovitch, Alain Jurkovitsch.

Czula Kafka, Elli Kafka, Valli Kafka, Lavislav Kahn, Max Karpensztrig, Leon Katan, Fyge Katz, Leopold Katz, Mine Katz, Tsevi Katznelson, Yitzhak Katznelson, Berthe Kerszbaum, Arno Klarsfeld, Gideon Klein, Jakov Klinkovstein, Martin Kochmann, Sola Kochmann, Denise Kohl, Gaston Kohn, Jacob Kohn, Dr. N. Kohn, Janusz Korczak, Rabbi Zevi Koretz, Hennette Korman, Jacqueline Korman, Mireille Korman, David Kostshevski, Dr. Ernst Koren, Genette Krieger, Nina Krieger, Odette Krieger, Elly Kulka.

Claire Leibel, Nelly Leibel, Pauline Leibel, Gaston Leibovicz, Marcel Leibovicz, Rudolf Levy, Paula Lewkowitz, Leon Lindenberger, Berthe Lipman, Erna Lipman, Georg Lipman, Hermann Lusmann, Chaim Litwak, Shaikele Litwak, Shammai Litwak, Yankele Litwak, M. Loewy, Hilde Lowy.

Eugen Mandel, Tchechia Mandel, Vyoslav Mandel, Franceska Mann, Cecile Mayer, Emanuel Mayer, Eva Mayer, Frieda Mayer, Johanna Mayer, Joseph Mayer, Julius Mayer, Julius Mayer, Julius Mayer, Laura Mayer, Lehman Maywr, Maier Mayer, Marie Mayer, Max Mayer, Meta Mayer, Michel Mayer, Mina Mayer, Rosalie Mayer, Salo Mayer, Selma Mayer, Jacqueline Meichel, David Meisel, Gerd Meyer, Hanni Meyer, Herbert Meyer, Serna Morgenstern, Ginette Moszkowicz.

Arnold Nadel, Leon Nadel, Allegra Nahmias, Betty Nahmias, Dolly Nahmias, Nina Nahmias, Jacques Nahmias, Abraham Naumann, Helmut Neumann.

Tovah 'Tokele' Olshak,

Shaine Olshak.

Micheline Perl, Milena Jesenka-Pollak, Freida Popelaner, Leister Popelaner, Nechama Popelaner, Sarah Popelaner, Albert Poznanski, Mijo Propper.

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