TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, September 19, 2017 13:12:17
"..Some people say it is too dangerous for me to go back there now. That I'll never be able to return. ..from time to time ..I go there in my mind. ..another family lives in that home ..another ..in my bedroom ..while I am 1,000's of miles away. ..reminders of ..life I loved ..girl I was." Malala Yousafzai.
Reading these words I was transported back nearly 80 years to when Jews were forced to give up their homes and their previous lives. I realise how fortunate it became for any Jew to be able to write the words which spelt loss. But also, in recognising their loss can be spelled out 6,000,000 tangible ways, and while each discourse will be different, it will be similarly unique. History has been assured we must learn, but continually we have learned that intolerance profits sooner than respect for our fellow human being. Had Gabby Sprenger, Halina Birenbaum, Inge Auerbacher, Natalie Mehlman Scharf or any Jewish Survivor penned these words, we would recognise the enormity of their loss and the magnitude of their grief.
Can it be acceptable that Jews who managed to Survive the most apocalyptic assault on Humanity, where 6,000,000 People were routinely, systematically and brutally Murdered in the most unprecedented and unparalleled assault upon the integrity of any human being, can they be allowed to fear returning to their former lives or homes. Can this be acceptable simply because of the collaborative efforts of those communities which dispelled them. Of course Hitler's demands were met by resistance, but in many cases collaboration paid rich dividends as is clearly evidenced to this day. Jews were made very aware that it was too dangerous for them to return, in places like Biala-Podlaska, Boleslawiec, Diosgyor, Kielce, Kunmadaras, Lublin, Mordy, Parczew, Piaski, Polaniec, Sokoly, Skarzysko-Kamienna and Turek.
With more than 1,000 Jewish Survivors being Murdered after Hitler’s defeat and with some 100,000 Jews forced to flee Poland, the landscape of collaboration takes on a differing complexion. The emphasis then became an effort for local communities to hold onto what had not been theirs in the first place. Here, and where such fear persisted for the Jewish Survivor, a gain was made by community's too busy confiscating what did not belong to them. In place of any Christian duty to their Jewish neighbours, greed overtook various communities. In each and every case that community knew what had happened to the Jews of Europe. Even if they did not know the detailed actions which had been led against 6,000,000 Jews in Death Camps, Ghetto’s and the Killing Sites throughout Hitler’s expanse into their Country’s, they knew the scale of the atrocity as it amplified itself in the failure on 6,000,000 Jews to return to their former homes, lives and freedoms.
So from 1,000's of miles away from their former homes, from their previous existence and without the lives the Jewish Survivor assumed remained theirs, they too can revisit in their minds ALL that has been taken from them. Surely such is the collaboration with Hitler's efforts that still today Jews are dispossessed and fearful of reclaiming ALL that is rightfully theirs. It would appear that any collaboration in the catastrophe that engulfed 6,000,000 Jews ensures a further Hitlerite demand is posthumously gained. Fear for the Jews has denied them their former lives and possessions. Clearly, and by definition, collaboration comes in many guises and there is a definite synergy between what is a hostile and aggressive effort and what remains the more muted response that is all too often recognised as resignation.
But, and this is the crucial element in all collaborating efforts, and in overseeing what is to be regarded as colluding with Hitler, his Nazi’s or especially in terms of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question especially, what we generally recognise as consorting, conspiring, co-operating, even fraternising or simply sympathising with those we should be working against, must be recognised as collaboration in its specific detail. So when it comes to the collaboration with Hitler’s efforts to destroy the Jews of Europe, and these efforts existed on the entire Continent of Europe and with every Country involved to some degree or another, we cannot disregard what some people or states might perceive and consider was their inability to act.
There are many occasions in which collaboration was quite fundamentally turned around and in the case of say an Oskar Schindler, he fully managed to recover from this collaborative effort to redeem his humanity and save more than 1,000 Jews. In contact with Polish students it has been pointed out to me that I am at odds with Polish Political efforts to sanitise Polish collaboration? The premise of my work is not simply Always to Remember, Never to Forget the 6,000,000 Jews, who are The Holocaust, but as an accusation which accounts for their loss. Without reservation I make the accusation, for all those who assisted in the Catastrophe, and this becomes a definitive assessment. My words should not offend any Jew. My statements must not cause derision to a Jew who Survived all attempts to destroy any x1 of the 6,000,000 of them.
What the Survivor must insist upon is nothing but the Truth, the entire veracity of that whole Truth and its factual status in the Fidelity of its telling. This means an acknowledgement must be given to the Survivor, by all those who assisted, by those of nations who either obliged or participated in the Catastrophe for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, to come to terms with their co-operative stance.
1) Belgium had its own ss legions, with more than 3,500 including a Waffen SS unit and various paramilitary groups.
2) Byelorussia participation with Hitler’s efforts are to be recognised, and in Minsk, a specific charge is made of their terrifying efforts to murder Minsk Jewry.
3) Denmark, lauded as a nation of Righteous, did serve the Hitler cause too with various Nazi idealised groups and a Waffen ss contingent.
4) Estonia marshalled many of its most ardent antisemitic legions to man the Death Camps and explore the deep recesses of the Killing Sites to deliver toward Hitler’s final aim.
5) France had the Milice and other organisations ranking among the 10’s of 1,000’s, all submitting to Hitlerite rule and the collaborative effort in removing Jews toward annihilation.
6) Holland serviced the Waffen SS need and many established Nazi affiliated groups existed to round up and disgorge Jews toward the Death Camps.
7) Hungary is synonymous with the Arrow Crosses endeavours on Hitler’s behalf and the near precision exercise to abandon the last remaining Jewish Community of substance toward Auschwitz, during the last stages of Hitler’s failed thousand year Reich.
8) Latvia’s Arajs kommando swept through this Baltic State doing Hitler’s bidding. If we are to accept that Araj kept his own particular collaboration localised, the tentacles of Latvian Collaboration spread far and wide. They manned the Gates at Treblinka, Maly-Trostenets. They were occupied in the Killing Sites along with der Einsatzgruppe and rampaged throughout Byelorussia, Russia and the Ukraine. Their status amongst the Waffen SS also show’s their collaborative nature! Latvian auxiliaries were on hand to crush the Jewish Rebellion in Warsaw.
9) Lithuania was instrumental in targeting their own Jewish communities at the behest of Hitler’s protagonist agenda. They also assisted alongside German forces against the Russians.
10) Norway formed a Waffen SS Division and nazi sympathisers abetted the efforts of the Quislings to control the power brokerage in their own Country.
11) Poland’s 'blue police' not only assisted the Nazi effort to consume 3,000,000 Jews but wilfully participated and perpetrated Crimes against Humanity. Their presence against the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was a clear collaboration against the Jewish People and Poland’s sovereignty.
12) Russia had its own anti-Russian allegiances and this, when coupled with Nazi sympathies, enlarged Hitler’s efforts into the wider Russian field. Entire Armies of dissident Russian forces colluded with Hitler’s efforts while Russian guards patrolled the Death Camps, guarded the Killing Sites and operated the Gas Chambers.
13) Slovakian collaboration and the Hlinka Guard oversaw the disintegration of the Czechoslovakian republic and were entirely active in the deportation of their Jewish People toward the Death Camps.
14) Ukrainian Collaboration took upon itself many distinctions and a Waffen SS unit was instrumental in every anti-Jewish action throughout Eastern Europe. The Ukraine supplied a militia which could field in excess of 18 divisional strength units of some 180,000 members.
15) Yugoslavia had the Croatian Ustasia to act for the Hitlerite influence in the region and they were systematically brutal against Jews, Serbs and Gypsies alike.
So the complexion of cooperation might be varied, wherever it was met, but it held a single accord when it was dealing with The Jewish Question. It is too simplistic to recognise in the actions of the Balts or the Ukrainian’s something which did not exist in Holland or Poland. But the simple fact of the matter is, collaboration which assisted Hitler in his efforts to devour as many Jews as was conceivably possible, was articulated in each and every one of these Country’s here mentioned.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, August 11, 2017 15:40:46
It is with all honesty, that I threw every emotion I could muster into ensuring, not only do we Remember that 6,000,000 innocent People were Murdered, because they were Jews, but that we lay claim to its memory and place the full ferocity of its conduct and implementation where it belongs. On a pyramid scale, Hitler stands atop of this pile of iniquity, of the human carnage which ensued and of the total disregard for any morality which was clearly on display. No one should argue other than this position which has been properly raised by Raul Hilberg to damn and even condemn those who aided and abetted Hitler’s endeavour. That is unless of course you are a denier!
"..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable." Raul Hilberg.
Underneath this single insignificant man who became a significant person in the dishevelling influence of civilisation, are the guilty, the complicit, the duplicitous, the perpetrator, the participator, the collaborator, the mealy mouthed, the haters and the bystander who chose to look the other way. Of course not all of these are equally as guilty here. I would strenuously argue that avoiding the atrocity is less reprehensible that participating in it, but just as morally bankrupt. For those who issued the laws and decrees, and for those who fulfilled them to the devastating degrees achieved, all share an enormous guilt.
"..Every day they keep issuing new laws against ..Jews. Today ..for example ..they took all our appliances away from us ..sewing machine ..radio ..telephone ..vacuum cleaner ..electric fryer and my camera. I don't care about ..camera any more ..even though they didn't leave a receipt for it ..like when they took ..bicycle." Eva Heyman.
What Eva Heyman did not, nor could not know was, that Hitler and his regime were in the process of taking away 6,000,000 Jewish lives so as to profit further from their demise. Under guise of carrying forth these laws from Hitler demands, would come an entire echelon of mass Murderer's, Himmler, Heydrich, Eichmann and the entire cadre of SS, Wehrmacht, Polizei, Collaborators from many nations and all other willing executioners. There were spectators to the growing and escalating hatred and those like Hugh Greene of the Daily Telegraph actually reported what he saw.
"..I was in Berlin at that time and saw some pretty revolting sights ..destruction of Jewish shops ..Jews being arrested and led away ..police standing by while ..gangs destroyed ..shops ..even groups of well dressed women cheering. Maybe those women had a hangover next morning ..as they were intoxicated all right when this was taking place. I found it ..utterly revolting. In fact to a German journalist who saw me on that day and asked me what I was doing there ..I remember I just said very coldly ..I'm studying German culture." Hugh Greene.
From here, an advantage point underneath the fuller deeds to segregate, emasculate and destroy the Jews, states of nations read these reports and chose to do nothing. These too are as guilty as any of those who stood idly by and watched as innocent Men, Women and Children were disregarded from life because they were Jews. Now these witnesses are never going to be as guilty as the bystander who so much as profited a bean in some way from the deepening Catastrophe that was rapidly unfolding for the Jewish People. The scale of the entire atrocity lasted some 12 to 13 years, from 1932 till 1945 and yet the full crescendo of The Holocaust enactment was during a period of some 4 to 6 years during that period, from 1939 till 1945.
"..Only one judgement is passed on ..executioner ..he ceases to be a human being. Though looking on his victim as Less Than Human ..he becomes his own executioner ..he executes ..human being inside himself. But ..victim ..no matter what ..executioner does to kill him ..remains a human being forever." Vasily Grossman.
Exactly what Vasily Grossman states as the degrading personality of a debased person, allows us to see through the obfuscation of facts and figures to identify those individuals responsible for their own actions. Still again, atop this myriad of those guilty of many facets of the same crime, The Holocaust, we cannot ever engineer all people into the blame for what some, even many from varying and possibly all states chose to do or decided not to do. So once again we stand away from the atrocity and seek to afford blame to those who were rightly guilty so as such acclaim cannot be rendered upon those who were innocent. We should never involve these innocent, and there were many, in what needs to be certain is guilt in the process of this Jewish Annihilation.
"..When I stand before you ..to lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment." Gideon Hausner.
The indictment of course is for Gideon Hausner to label all those would be accusers with the ability to reign over their accused. That he did so, with an integrity supported by truth and honesty is the worth of any man aspiring to deliver Justice to those previously denied it. Remember too, Gideon Hausner did not accuse all Germans. He accused Adolf Eichmann as the accused who railed against Jewish antecedence and delivered for Hitler, the 6,000,000 lost voices of those quelled in the culling of all civilisation. Believe me! I am one who feels the best voice to add to the missing voices from The Holocaust are those Jews who know, those Jews who saw and those Jewish People who witnessed what no Human Being should ever have been a witness to. So for me, what Chaim Aron Kaplan acknowledges is a clear knowledge of what we now seek to know of.
"..anyone ..attempting to write ..on ..nature of Nazism ..will not be able to express ..truth ..Nazism's cruelty and barbarism. ..no writer among ..gentiles is qualified for this task. ..a Jewish writer who lives ..life of his people ..who feels ..suffers their agony ..cannot find a true path here. Only one who feels ..taste of Nazi rule ..only one who ..bared his back to ..lashes ..only ..a writer ..if he is a man of sensitivity ..might be able to." Chaim Aron Kaplan.
It is above all my hope that you will best accredit my obvious intention with the emotive sensitivity I believe I deliver in what stands as a motto for me in that I seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget what happened and indeed what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 Jews. So I too am here to accuse those of their guilt! So please accuse, please blame and please ensure that for those who respectfully deserve our integrity to speak for them, that they are all Remembered in all honesty. We deliver them a posthumous memory with the surety we must accord to their murderer's, their executioner's and those willing to assist in this calamity for all Humanity an accurate indictment of their crimes.
"..I am happy to die amidst fighting Halutzim. We will take with us into our graves ..awareness that ..Jewish People will endure eternally." Yitzhak Katzenelson.
Yitzhak Katzenelson accords death with a certain victory that while Jews have been targeted for extinction, Jews will endure and Jews will certainly Survive. So while I am aware of the rawness of grief which the Survivor must feel, I share a sense of that grief giving way to optimism. The future is always bold. For me, while I am sure the Children of those who did not Survive, which is ably assisted by such grief, it remains too enormous for us ever to comprehend its manifest and compounding effects. But no one ever has the right to accuse anyone of a wrong that was not done by them. So if 6,000,000 accuser's look down on the German People, they will find many who are neither guilty nor attributable to these crimes for which they have paid the ultimate price.
"..misery ..SS inflicted on their victims defies description ..cool ..calculating manner in which it was inflicted is atrocious. ..to look back on this piece of human history fills us with horror." Elie A. Cohen.
As we continually look back we are, like Elie A. Cohen, all becoming more and more aware of what atrocity The Holocaust is for 6,000,000 Jewish People, and then on their behalf for World Jewry. We are becoming more aware to the atrocity, but believe me, we are not as yet awake to the mounting threat which has been led by the wrong lessons from The Holocaust period. Indeed, the Jewish People have been taught a savage and brutal lesson, both deeply wounding and even terminal in terms of how they relate to the rest of the World. I am torn here by two lessons which emanate from one of the finest writer's on The Holocaust theme, and while succinct in this passage, Primo Levi's message is blunt and to the point.
"..if ..world could become convinced ..Auschwitz never existed ..it would be easier to build ..second Auschwitz .. and ..no assurance it would devour only Jews". Primo Levi.
So we guard against the platforms of growing hatreds and must acknowledge our debt to those who delivered their experience to us. But we must never forget that such experience has been borne by all too many who should have been protected by any who would call themselves, moral, ethical or even 'christian'. But in all my efforts of concern, I am no less emotive, and I lend my own words and they are the words of this Irish, former 'catholic', who wishes so much more that should have been done and which could have been done was done. Hindsight is a wondrous option, but I am certain that I could not have stood back while lines of marching People were being progressed toward their final destruction, even if I had not gathered the reason for their removal from our midst.
"..I have always made it a point ..when I meet with Survivors ..to apologise to them on behalf of what an ostensibly 'christian' body of people has done. For ..whole of Humanity that Sin of Perpetration ..Intolerance or Indifference is a stain upon our own legitimacy as human beings. So just in case I do not get ..opportunity to greet you in person ..I apologise to You for ..inability of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust who cannot direct their appreciation and respect for what you have done and what you have achieved. In each of you ..World entire has been saved." Patrick Dempsey.
Here then, as we approach a rebuke of the total humiliation, the demoralisation of people, which indeed led all too many toward that spiritual shipwreck, these are not the 6,000,000 Jews demoralised though we allowed them to be humiliated. These rebukes however are for those who sought to forget the deeds they undertook to wreck such an amassed ship filled with the lives of 6,000,000 Murdered Jewish Souls. So to this day we now choose to Remember where once 6,000,000 lives have been taken to and while we will never know where all of them have been unceremoniously dumped, I have a wish to speak for them
".. A whole generation of Germans ..children and grandchildren of ..perpetrators of ..Nazi genocide ..have heard nothing from their parents and grandparents about what they saw ..and what they did ..in Auschwitz and ..other factories of death. It is time ..at long last ..to stop forgetting and suppressing." Irene Weiss.
It truly is time to stop forgetting and always remembering, which is all too easy for those in search of a comprehension as to why 6,000,000 Jews were systematically sought out for Destruction. For me though, we do not best serve this search with any bias or a wrongly placed anger and hatred for what was done and achieved against the Jewish People. Irene Weiss asks us, and we should accept our duty is to do whatever is required to add to 6,000,000 memories, but not at a cost to what identifies those who truly must be unmasked as the guilty. It appears to me that the Jewish mistrust of the World is well placed, and considering 2,000 years of anti-Jewish rhetoric, I too am appalled it has lasted too long. So when that fully vocalised hatred was converted into an annihilation process, an all too easily adapted and accepted programme by all too many, needs to be explored.
"..I have struggled hard to overcome ..hatred of those who cruelly destroyed my early life ..my family and almost succeeded in exterminating my people. ..I have come to realise ..there are no basically evil nations or racial groups. ..There are only evil people ..seekers after wealth or power." Maja Abramowitch.
But in accepting the reasoning of one such as Maja Abramowitch, how could I argue against all she knew and came to know, I would contend that not even she could forgave anyone for what was done to the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of The Holocaust. Forgiveness for these Destroyed Jews belongs to them solely, and they are no longer in a position to forgive. I accept that intrinsically there are only evil people who are individuals in amongst nations and racial groups. So before I get involved with even more work on Remembering why this is all a loss for us ALL, I will leave you with the knowledge that my words are mixed with those better presented to represent all that needs to be said, and believe me, Primo Levi has all I wish I could say.
"..I do not ..cannot know what I would be today if I had not been in ..Camp. No man knows his future. ..a man sets out ..almost never are our choices between ..two alternatives. ..every choice is followed by others. ..if I had not lived ..Auschwitz experience ..I probably would never have written. ..years have passed ..interposed ..artificial memory ..a defensive barrier ..between my ..normal present and ..dramatic past. ..I survived ..due ..to good luck. ..to survive with ..precise purpose of recounting. ..helped by ..determination ..to recognise always ..my companions ..myself ..men ..not things. ..to avoid ..total humiliation and demoralisation which led so many to spiritual shipwreck." Primo Levi.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, July 28, 2017 17:28:49
On this day in the History of The Holocaust July 31st. 1919 sees Germany adopt the Weimar constitution. On July 29th. 1921 Hitler becomes Chairman NSDAP, enroute toward becoming der Fuhrer. On July 14th. 1925 the Allies commence withdrawal from the Ruhr and on July 18th. Hitler's 1st. Volume of 'Mein Kampf', My Struggle, is published. On July 31st. 1932 the Nazi's secure 37.3% of the Election votes cast, winning 230 of the 608 seats in the Reichstag. They are now the Largest single Party in German Government. On July 1st. 1933 the German government reiterates that Hitler still belongs to the Catholic Church and has no intention of leaving it. On July 14th. The Nazi Party becomes Germany's only legally recognised political party. The Law Regarding Revocation of Naturalisation and the Annulment of German Citizenship removes German citizenship from Eastern European Jews and Gypsies resident in Germany.
The Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases is decreed and euthanasia, for those declared 'lebensunwertes Leben,' of a 'life unworthy of life', will be murdered. The law is endorsed by the American Eugenics Society and meanwhile, Jews will be refused entry into Law Schools under Hitler's personal wishes. On July 20th. Reich Concordat with Pope Pius XI and the Vatican, a treaty protecting Catholic rights in Germany for the church while this gives Hitler 'Political recognition'. On July 31st. approximately 30,000 people are by now interned in Hitler’s Nazi Concentration Camps. On July 4th. 1934 Theodor Eicke establishes the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps at Dachau. On July 10th. the Polish anti-Semitic organisation 'Oboz Narodowo-Radykalny' is banned by Polish leader Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, three months after its formation.
On July 20th. the SS is strengthened and becomes autonomous of the much weakened SA and the SS now overhauls the Camp system. On July 25th. a Nazi Putsch in Austria fails and the Austrian Prime Minister, Engelbert Dollfuss is murdered. On July 26th. Franz von Papen becomes special envoy to Austria. On July 1st. 1935 The Society for Research into the Teaching of Ancestral Heritage, 'Ahnenerbe Forschungs und Lehrgemeinschaft' founded. This will become an anti-Semitic undertaking, studying the racial history of the German people. On July 3rd. 1936 in the assembly room of the League of Nations in Geneva, Stefan Lux, a German Jew, kills himself in protest at Hitler’s, and Germany's ill treatment of the Jews. On July 11th. Hitler agrees Austrian Sovereignty and the following day, on July 12th. Prisoners and civilian workers begin to construct Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, at Oranienburg, 32 Kilometres from Berlin.
On July 1st. 1937 Pastor Martin Niemoeller is arrested over his opposition to Hitler and on July 8th. Werner Otto von Hentig of the German Foreign Office issues a memorandum to his superior, Ernst von Weizsaker, suggesting that poorer Jews should be expelled ahead of richer Jews in order to extort a greater levy from Germany's more prosperous Jews! On July 16th. Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens near Weimar and the first 300 prisoners arrive. On July 27th. the Trial of 5 Jews opens in Bamberg, Germany over alleged 'ritual murder'. On July 2nd. 1938 40,000 Austrian Jews are taken into 'protective custody'. On July 6th. Anti-Jewish limitations on their economic life are promulgated as a Refugee Conference is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France. The Evian Conference, of which 29 of the 33 Nations invited who turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for Jews under Hitler's yoke, sort out nothing for the Jewish People! As if the Jews don’t feel isolated enough, or abandoned completely,
Evian hands Hitler the confirmation that he has captured the mood of indifference that the World holds for the Jewish predicament and this is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends on July 15th.. On July 14th. Pope Pius XI is 'politically' displeased and shares a hope that the Italian leader Benito Mussolini would not be inadvertently influenced by Hitler. However, an Italian Manifesto of the Racial Scientists is issued which suggests otherwise and this is barely 5 months after Mussolini declared he did not envisage a Jewish Problem.
Thursday July 14th. 1938 "..Jews for Sale at a Bargain price. Who Wants Them? No One!" German Newspaper Reichswart.
On July 15th. The Evian Conference ends with none of those present unwilling or unable to resolve the major issue, and that is to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees who are facing an increasing weight of abuse and isolation. After 10 days of deliberation, the Jews under direct threat from Hitler must certainly feel abandoned. On July 21st. Jews in Germany are made to apply for identity cards and on July 25th. The Medical Certification of Jewish physicians is cancelled. On July 30th. Henry Ford receives the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from the Third Reich. On July 4th. 1939 Jews cannot be employed in Government positions and German Jewry is to be placed under the Reich Association of Jews, 'Reichsvereingung der Juden im Deutschland', authority. On July 26th. Adolf Eichmann takes charge of Prague Emigration Office.
Sunday July 30th. 1939 "..No doubt Jews are not ..loveable people ..do not care about them myself. ..not sufficient to explain ..pogrom." Neville Chamberlain.
On July 1st. in 1940’s Poland the Bedzin Ghetto is established and 30,000 Jews will be Enclosed. On July 2nd. Martin Franz Julius Luther of the German Foreign Ministry circulates a proposal on The Madagascar Plan. In theory, it was proposed to remove all of Europe’s Jews to this Island off the South East coast of Africa. It should also be noted here, that Mieczyslaw Lepecki headed a Polish Governmental Commission tasked, 3 years previously, in 1937, to investigate the likelihood of deporting their own Polish Jews to Madagaskar. On July 4th. the Ion Gigurtu Government takes over in Romania. On July 6th. Tadeusz Wiejowski, is the first successful escapee from Auschwitz.
"..local population is fanatically Polish and is ready to do anything against ..hated camp SS garrison. Every prisoner who manages to escape can count on all possible help as soon as he reaches ..first Polish homestead." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rudolf Hoess.
While this position is strictly true as it pertained to the position of the Poles detained in Labour Camp Auschwitz back in 1940, it would not hold out the same prospect for any of those escaping Jews when Hoess was given the directive to turn Auschwitz into a Death Camp with the structure of Birkenau ensuring the complete destruction of the Jews sent there. There was a two fold reason for this, as Poles would be automatically Murdered for their assistance of Jews, but it did not prevent some Poles from enriching themselves collaborating with Hitler’s attempts to destroy all of Polish Jewry. On July 10th. Collaborationist French Government is formed at Vichy as the Battle of Britain begin. On July 12th. Hans Frank declares that he has convinced Hitler to cease his deportation of Jews to General Government.
Here, with the mere suggestion that Frank spoke to Hitler about the Deportation of the Jews into his Generalgouvernment territory, it ensures our awareness of Hitler's resolve for his Final Solution. On July 16th. the expulsion of Alsace’s Jews begins and on July 18th. Warsaw Jews are barred from Public Parks and their Benches. On July 19th. the Zychlin Ghetto in Poland is established and 3,200 Jews will be Enclosed as German Jews have their phones confiscated and Britain rejects Hitler's peace overture in Reichstag speech. On July 21st. Hitler prepares for his attack on Russia, Operation Barbarossa. On July 23rd. Hitler visits Paris as the first Jewish mentally ill are murdered at the Brandenburg Institute and as Bishop Theophil Wurm objects to the 'euthanasia' project that is being conducted at Grafaneck also. On July 28th. Hitler meets the Slovakian leadership in Salzburg and urges a more radical solution to their own Jewish Question.
On July 1st. 1941 100's of Plunge’s Jews are murdered and 100 Lyakhovichi Jews are murdered and the Wehrmacht now enters Riga. On July 2nd. Heydrich gives carte blanche to his Higher SS and Police Fuhrer's, the HSSPF, to deal exclusively and systemically with the Jewish People. Meanwhile 800 of Novo-Selista’s Jews are Murdered as are 100's of Kamenka's Jews and 100's of Stryj’s Jews, also Murdered. In earnest SS Standartenfuhrer Alfred Filbert's Einsatzkommando '9' sets about the murders of Vilna's Jews as SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger's Einsatzkommando '3' has overall responsibility for murder duties in Lithuania. On July 3rd. 4,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered as are 3,500 of Zloczew’s Jews 100's of Drohobycz’s Jews 100 of Bialystok’s Jews and 100 of Novogroduk’s Jews, also murdered. Meanwhile, Josef Stalin issues a scorched Earth policy.
Friday July 4th. 1941 "..we are not ashamed of our badges. Let those be ashamed who have hung them on us." Yitzhak Rudashevski.
On July 4th. 5,000 of Tarnopol’s Jews are murdered and over 2,000 of Lutsk’s Jews are murdered at Lubard Fortress. 463 of Kovno’s Jewish Men and Women murdered at Fort VII and 100's of Riga's Jews are murdered, forced into the Great Choral Synagogue, Gogol Street, set alight with those rounded up still inside.5 of the 6 other Riga Synagogues are set alight with their congregations locked inside. Nly Peitavas Street Synagogue survives. The Jews of Schodnica are Murdered as the Jewish Badge decree was issued to the Jews of Vilna, who were ordered to wear it. This identifying process, a symbol meant to serve as a subjugating badge of dishonour, was a stage on the road to Ponary Woods and was a progressive approach which so confused and then engulfed the Jewish People. Led into believing that the Germans were actually an acculturated and enlightened people, these Jews of Riga, and wherever Hitler held sway, were soon convinced otherwise.
On July 5th. Rudolf Schmundt, Hitler's adjutant, reports to his Fuhrer that thousands of Russian Jews have already been murdered as Zalman Tannenberg, the Piotrkow-Trybunalski Ghetto Judenrate Chairman is arrested and sent to Auschwitz. Along with 10 other Judenrate members, all are to be Murdered there. The Einsatzkommando are in Lvov and SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau affords the World a Testimony.
Saturday July 5th. 1941. "..There were 100's of Jews walking along ..street with blood pouring down their faces ..holes in their heads ..hands broken ..eyes hanging out of their sockets. ..covered in blood. Some ..carrying others who had collapsed. We went to ..citadel ..saw things that few people have ever seen. At ..entrance ..were soldiers standing guard. .. holding clubs ..thick as a man's wrist ..lashing out and hitting anyone who crossed their path. ..Jews were pouring out of ..entrance. ..rows of Jews lying one on top of ..other ..whimpering horribly. ..Jews kept streaming out ..completely covered in blood. ..just being hit out of rage and hatred." SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau.
O July 6th. 3,000 of Chernovtsy’s Jews are murdered and 2,514 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered at the VII Fort. 600 of Skalat’s Jews are murdered and the Germans enter Czortkow where there are 8,000 Czortkow Jews to be resettled. The Lvov Jews are now ordered to wear the Yellow Star.
"..For ..past several months ..it has been reported that ..on instructions from Berlin ..patients who have been suffering for a long time from apparently incurable diseases have been forcibly removed from homes and clinics. Their relatives are later informed that ..patient has died ..that ..body has been cremated and that ..ashes may be claimed. There is little doubt that these numerous cases of unexpected death of ..insane are not natural but often deliberately caused ..and result from ..belief that it is right to take away life that is unworthy of being lived. This ghastly doctrine tries to justify ..murder of blameless men and would seek to give legal sanction to ..forcible killing of invalids ..cripples ..incurable and ..incapacitated. I have discovered that ..practice here in Westphalia is to compile lists of such patients who are to be removed elsewhere as unproductive citizens and ..after a period of time ..put to death. This very week ..first group of these patients has been taken from ..clinic of Marienthal near Munster." Bishop Clement August von Galen.
The Bishop of Munster, Clement August von Galen stated in his missal, which was protesting the actions of the T4 Euthanasia Programme. This was fully in line with the Fulda Pastoral letter and meanwhile, the Church is still silent over what is happening to the Jewish People. Remember also that the Euthanasia Programme, T4, was in operation ever since Hitler's Invasion of Poland. On July 7th. 2,000 of Khotin’s Jews are murdered, 32 of Marijampole’s Jews are also murdered with more than 8,794 of Marijampole’s Jews who will be eventually murdered. The Germans have entered Buczacz. On July 8th. 40 of Przemysl’s Jews are murdered, burned to Death in their Synagogue. 14 of Marijampole’s Jews are murdered as the Mass Murder of Jews begins in Ponary Woods while the German forces enter Lipkany and many Jews are immediately Murdered.
All Baltic Jews are forced to wear 'Star of David,' the Jewish Badge of Honour and Hitler declared that Goering's Luftwaffe would reduce Moscow and Leningrad to rubble. This added to Hitler's euphoria of the day, when he would be spared the necessary feeding of populations within 2 cities, so reduced to rubble, the Russian people would supposedly cease to exist. Elsewhere, Mihai Antonescu the Romanian President of the Council of Ministers makes plans for "ethnic purification' as the Jews of Bessarabia and Bucovina are ejected from Romania. On July 9th. 34 of Wendziogala’s Jewish Men and Women murdered and 24 Kovno Jewish Men and Women are murdered at the VII Fort. Meanwhile, British intelligence has broken the 'enigma' code. Now, before the Allied Nations lay the strategic values Hitler placed upon the advance 'East' and the 'resettlement' programme for the Jewish People he will have encountered there.
The Operational Situation Reports of der Einsatzgruppe in the East, these OSR's, are a clear indictment of the facts. However, as we read them today, they are cold and calculating and specify the relevance to Hitler of the Murder of every last Man, Woman and Child of the Jewish Faith. Also, and in depicting the Slaughter of the mainly Jewish People der Einsatzgruppe trawled the East for, all of what became known through the ‘intelligence’ led community, should have better prepared the West for all and any action to limit, decrease or even prevent the future terms of what The Holocaust would amount to. It is conceivably culpable, that given the knowledge which the Enigma cipher had presented, it is remarkable that any of the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, Men, Women and Their Children still managed to be Murdered?
On July 10th. 1,600 of Jedwabne’s Jews, the entire Jewish Population are burned to death by local Poles. 200 Jews of Czortkow are Murdered and over 123 of Vilna’s Jews are also murdered. Hitler's forces race toward Kiev, whose Jews are to receive, 'the worst blow.' HSSPF Obergruppenfuhrer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski issues an order that all Male Jews, 17 - 45 years of age, should be shot on the grounds of 'looting.'
Friday July 11th. 1941 "..all Male Jews between 17 and 45 convicted as plunderer’s are to be shot. ..shootings to take place away from Cities ..Villages ..thoroughfares. ..graves ..levelled in such a way ..no pilgrimage site can arise. ..I forbid photographing and ..spectators at ..executions. Executions and sites are not to be made know. Colonel Max Montua.
The order from Bach-Zalewski is reissued for the benefit of Montua’s his own killing force, and as if Hitler needed some arbitrary excuse to Murder all the Jews he so wished, looting and plundering are given as some form of reasoning. It is clear however, that Colonel Montua has been given a directive which will allow for no future presence of the Jews to remain. Murdered and concealed, it will be the forensic status of Historical Archaeology which will deliver forward any Jewish Presence from the Killing Sites. As to the photographing of any of these atrocity’s, though limited, History is fully able to observe what Montua sought to forbid. On July 11th. 7,800 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered. 5,000 of Ternopol’s Jews are murdered in a 7 day action. 100's of Vilna's Jews are murdered in Ponary Woods and the Vitebsk Ghetto in Byelorussia is established and 16,000 Jews will be Enclosed.
Friday July 11th. 1941 "..already know what was going on. ..3 pm ..large group of Jews ..taken ..300 people. ..hour later ..volleys began. Ten ..shot at a time." Kazimierz Sakowicz.
What the witness Kazimierz Sakowicz notes in his Diary is the procession of Vilna's Jews toward Ponary Woods and their destruction at the hands of the Einsatz, Lithuanian and Ukrainian Kommando's lined up to resolve the particular aspect of Vilna’s Jewish Question.
Saturday July 12th. 1941 "..At 6:00 in ..morning ..awoken from a deep sleep. Report for an execution. Fine ..so I'll just play executioner and then gravedigger ..why not? 23 had to be shot ..amongst them 2 women. ..We had to find a suitable spot to shoot and bury them. After a few minutes we found a place. ..death candidates assembled with shovels to dig their own graves. Two of them were weeping. ..others certainly have incredible courage. ..Strange ..I am completely unmoved. No pity ..nothing. That's ..way it is and then it's all over. ..Valuables ..watches ..money ..put into a pile. ..2 women are lined up at one end of ..grave ready to be shot first. ..As ..women walked to ..grave they were completely composed. They turned around. Six of us had to shoot them. ..job ..assigned thus ..three at ..heart ..three at ..head. I took ..heart. ..shots were fired and ..brains whizzed through ..air. Two in ..head is too much. They almost tear it off. ..a few bodies ..rearranged with a pickaxe. ..I came back dog tired." SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau.
On July 12th., the British Russian Mutual Aid Pact is signed in Moscow as the Einsatzkommando are in Drohobycz and Felix Landau affords the World a Testimony. On July 14th. 21 of Marijampole’s Jews are murdered as Adolf Hitler issues his War Directive, No. 32a, for the continuing conduct of operations in Russia. On July 16th. Hitler is now seen here, at the genesis of what must have been the early stages of what would intentionally become die Endlosung der Judenfrage, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.
Wednesday July 16th. 1941 "..essential ..we do not proclaim our views ..before ..world. ..no need for that ..main thing ..we ourselves know what we want. ..all necessary measures ..shooting ..resettlement ..we shall take them." Adolf Hitler.
Such was the disguise given over to Hitler's more fundamentally murderous solution that in this, Hitler was fully prepared to immerse all arms of the Reich in the very detail of the atrocity and that immersion then fully arose at forthcoming Wannsee Conference. It must be recognised also, that while Hitler pronounced a death sentence upon ALL the Jews of Europe, his functionaries where consolidating this total view. While der Einsatzgruppe were rampaging through Russia at this time, the Ghetto’s of Europe were adding to this collective assault, with thousand's upon thousand's of Jews left to starve to death throughout Poland and further beyond. Here, according to SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Hoeppner, the Jews of the Warthegau were being forced toward an eventual resolve with the full implications of the disguised tenets of The Final Solution. Hoeppner directed his own comments to none other than Eichmann, with a charge that suggested:-
Thursday July 17th. 1941 "..There is a danger this winter that it will not be possible to feed all ..Jews. It should be seriously considered whether ..most humane solution would not be to do away with ..Jews ..unless they are capable of working ..by means of some quick method. In any case ..this would be more convenient than letting them starve to death." Rolf Heinz Hoeppner.
While the contention of history remains that few knew fully what Hitler demanded, the world woke to a devastation unparalleled in all history, and the destruction of 6,000,000 Jewish People. A rubicon had been crossed and the civilising warrant towards humanity was tossed aside. Hitler fully articulated these ambiguous terms, and he himself set before time the methodology to disguise what hen himself intended for the Jews. For today’s understanding of what resettlement surely meant, and in these unambiguous terms, shooting, death and destruction for all of his enemies would follow. We know too that the Jews figured crucially in those terms of reference, where hatred was clearly uttered and countenanced and the intention can only ever have been that Hitler was intent upon the devastation and total destruction of the Jewish People. Hitler developed such a strategy along a line toward a final and destructive assault upon the integrity of the Jews, wherever Hitler found them.
While only Hitler knew all and every detail of a world view that encapsulated a discourse signalling the destruction of the Jews, few could then and now deny the truth of all that Hitler professed. On July 17th. 1,200 of Slonim’s Jews are Murdered and 6 Jews of Babtei are also murdered. Reinhard Heydrich once more escalates the search for Hitler’s final solution with an order to murder all captured Jewish Prisoner's of War and Alfred Rosenberg is now appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. On July 18th 4,000 of Lipkany’s Survivors are further expelled toward Transnistria and many were Murdered en-route, few ever returned. Elsewhere, 53 of Marijampole’s Jewish Men and Women murdered. On July 19th. 19 of Kovno’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered at the VII Fort. Hitler now issues War Directive No. 33 for the further conduct of operations in Russia and while Hitler's emphasis switches away from Moscow, after Army Group South takes Smolensk, there is the seeming certainty of victory in Southern Sector.
Sunday July 20th. 1941 "..we heard that for ..remaining Jews living in town ..a ghetto is being prepared on ..side of ..Grive." Paula Frankel-Zaltzman
On July 20th. the Minsk Ghetto is established and there will be over 60,000 Jews Enclosed. Minsk is one of the Nine Major Ghetto’s Established. The Daugavpils Ghetto was hereby established with 23,048 Jews contained. On July 21st. 70 of Panevezys’ Jewish Men and Women are murdered while 30 Russians and 45 Jews of Minsk are also murdered. It should be remembered that these Russians had refused to murder the Jews and paid the ultimate price for their humanitarian bravery. Heinrich Himmler now orders for the Majdanek Death Camp plans to be altered as Majdanek is operational as a Concentration Camp. Romania recovers Besserabia.
Tuesday July 22nd. 1941 "..About 8,000 Jewish people with ..present ..SS personnel would take about 1 year ..which is untenable for pacification of ..Liepaja." Naval Kommandant Hans Kawelmacher.
On July 22nd. 1 of Panevezys’ Jews is murdered and Vichy begins expropriation of Jewish businesses and property’s. Hitler proclaims to the Croatian leader, Marshal Sladko Kvaternik, that victory in Russia would be accomplished by September. Hitler also suggests to the Croatian leader for the need to exterminate its own internal enemies and also demands that rear-Army areas are suppressed ruthlessly and with the harshest methods. On July 23rd. 95 of Kedainiai’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered and Hitler issues his War Directive No. 33a for the further conduct of operations in Russia. On July 24th. 3,300 of Liepaja’s Jews are murdered at Skeden, over a three day period. Elsewhere the Kishinev Ghetto is established and Brest-Litovsk surrenders. On July 25th. 3,800 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered and with SS Brigadefuhrer Erwin Schukltz and his EK 5 here at Zhitomir, 2,500 of Zhitomir’s Jews are killed in those initial days.
An operation, the Petliura Days commences as 2,000 of Lvov's Jews are murdered and 2,000 are arrested on this 'Black Friday'. These Lvov Jews were taken to the Jewish Cemetery and to the Lunecki Prison and were systematically shot them. Many more 1,000’s were injured.
103 of Mariampole’s Jewish Men and Women are murdered. On July 26th. the Germans enter Stanislawow and a Jewish Council is immediately demanded in place as the Ghetto Judenrate Chairman is established to conduct matters ordered by the occupying forces. Israel Seibald has that dubious distinction.
Sunday July 27th. 1941 "..Jewish problem Liepaja largely solved by execution of about 1,100 male Jews by Riga SS commando on 24th., 25th., ..27th ..July 1941." Naval Kommandant Hans Kawelmacher.
July 27th. 'Action Petliura' ends with 2,000 of Lvov’s Jews murdered mainly in the Janow Forest and elsewhere over 100 of Belgrade’s Jews are murdered at the Tasmajdan Camp by Wehrmacht troops. Heinrich Lorenz Lohse, the Baltic Commissioner issues guidelines on the treatment of Jews under his jurisdiction in Ostland. On July 28th. 900 of Vilkavisks’ Jews are murdered and 350 Jews of Buczacz are Murdered on Fedor Hill. Mendel Reich now heads the Buczacz Ghetto Judenrate. 249 of Panevezys’ Jewish Men and Women are murdered as are 100's of Drogobych’s Jews, also Murdered. Meanwhile Jews of Kovno are excluded from Parks and Public conveyances, Jews of Kovno are not allowed to sit on benches and the Jews of Kovno are not allowed to walk on the pavements. The Murder of Russian POW's at Smolensk commences. On July 29th. 4,000 of Iasi’s Jews are murdered. 254 of Rasainiai’s Jews are murdered and 40 Lodz Jewish mental patients are murdered in a nearby forest. Wehrmacht troops are busy murdering Jews in Belgrade.
On July 30th. 1,000 of Daugavpils’ Jews, mostly Eldrly and over 60 years old, were Murdered in the Mezciems and Pogulanka Forests. 27 of Agriogala’s Jews are murdered as Hitler issues his War Directive No. 34 for the conduct of operations in Russia. On July 31st. 10,000 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered as are 10,000 Kishinev Jews, also murdered. Over 2,500 of Zhitomir’s Jews are murdered as are 251 of Utena’s Jewish Men and Women, all murdered and 13 of Wendziogala’s Jews are also murdered. Elsewhere the Dvinsk Ghetto is established as Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering instructs Reinhard Heydrich to 'resettle' all of European Jewry. This is to come about in a final resolve that is now meant to employ the physical destruction of all of the Jews of Europe, All Men, All Women and every single Jewish Child included. Meanwhile, Rudolf Hoess is duly informed by Heinrich Himmler that this ultimate programme that Hitler has ordered is in its eventual phase 'The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.'
Thursday July 31st. 1941 "..complete solution of ..Jewish question in ..German sphere of influence in Europe." Hermann Goering.
On July 2nd. 1942 Reinhard Heydrich expands upon the Einsatzgruppe role to his HigherSSPolizeiFuhrer’s. The New York Times reports upon the Killing operations at Chelmno with radical elements and Jewish Officials to be dealt a deadly blow. The entire Jewish Community of Ropczyce are murdered at Belzec as Berlin Jews are being deported to Theresienstadt.
"..I decided to visit ..Belzec ..where ..I assumed ..my sisters had been killed together with all ..girls of ..Ropczyce. I reached Belzec. ..camp was on a hill ..bordered ..by a forest ..and ..railroad tracks which ..Germans had built for transporting their victims. ..Poles had ..turned ..camp into a museum ..without any mention of ..fact that all ..victims were Jews. ..In ..basement there were many human bones. I took one bone with me back to Israel ..it is buried beneath ..memorial for our shtetl ..erected in ..cemetery in Holon." Yehoshua Gold.
On July 3rd. Sevastopol fell to the advancing Wehrmacht and the following day, July 4th. the Wehrmacht are at the Don. On July 7th. 14,000 of Rzeszow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec while 1,000 of Rzeszow’s Jews are murdered in the Rudna Forest. Dr. Irmfried Eberl, Treblinka's Commandant, notifies Dr. Heinz Auerswald, the Commissioner of the Warsaw Ghetto, of his readiness to receive the Jews of Warsaw as Himmler conducts a meeting on the forced Sterilisation of Women inmates at Auschwitz. On July 8th. 7,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered at the Janowska Camp. On July 10th. 100 Jewish Women are experimented upon at Auschwitz while 50 inmates escape from Birkenau. The Times of London reports about the liquidation of Polish citizens and the deplorable situation for the Jewish People. It is clearly addressed that the Jews of Poland are being systematically murdered, transported to unknown destinations, which History acknowledges is toward their Destruction.
This information is contained within the report received by the Polish Vice President Stanislaw Mikolajczyk from the Armeia Krakowa, the Polish Home Army. On July 11th. the Extermination Camp at Treblinka is ready for operations. 9,000 of Salonika’s Jews are detained with 2,000 of them forced to labour for Wehrmacht as nearly 44,000 of Salonika’s Jews are expelled to Auschwitz. On July 13th. the action against Rzeszow’s Jews is now complete with 22,000 of the Jewish Community from the Town and its environs, all murdered Belzec. The Action against Rowne’s Jews begins and on July 14th. Dutch Jews are deported to Westerbork. Westerbork becomes the gateway to Auschwitz for the Dutch Jews. The Przemysl Ghetto is now sealed. On July 15th. 5,000 of Rowne’s Jews are murdered in 2 day action and are murdered at Janowa Dolina and over 25,000 of Rowne’s Jews will be eventually murdered.
1,000 of Sasow’s Jews are murdered as the first deportation’s from the Westerbork Transit Camp to Auschwitz takes place. On July 16th. 13,000 German and Austrian Jews in Paris are rounded up and sent to the Drancy detention Camp. On July 17th. Himmler tours Auschwitz and he witnesses his first 'Gassings' as Heydrich escalates the role foreseen for his Einsatz Kommandos to include ALL Jews. On July 18th. the Entire Jewish Community of Szarkowszczyna is murdered as Himmler departs Auschwitz.
Sunday July 19th. 1942 "..elimination of all Jews in Generalgouvernment by end of 1942." Heinrich Himmler.
On July 19th. the Drancy detention Camp is expelling its Jews toward Auschwitz and Himmler issues orders for the final clearance of the Jews from the Generalgouvernment. On July 20th. 1,000 of Kleck’s Jews are murdered and Dr. Karl Gebhardt begins Sulfanilamide experiments at the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp for Women. On July 21st. Nieswiez Jews resist, with 600 of their number being killed. Elsewhere the entire Kleck Jewish Community is murdered.
Wednesday July 22nd. 1942 "..eve of Tisha be-Av ..Day of Mourning ..liquidation of ..Warsaw ghetto was begun. ..Public Committee was immediately summoned to find out what ..situation was and to take measures. Those attending ..meeting included:
Dr. Adolf Berman
Lipc Eliezer Bloch
Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum
Dr. Yitzhak Schiper.
..Opinions were divided. Representatives of ..left-wing Zionist parties and of He-Halutz ..and also some of ..men in public life called for active intervention in some way or other. ..majority wanted to wait. How long. Until ..situation became clearer. ..rumours ..circulating that no more than 50,000 to 70,000 Jews would be deported from Warsaw ..old people ..sick ..prisoners ..beggars ..after that ..Aktion would be finished." Adam Czerniakow.
July 22nd. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann ‘Hans’ Hoefle informs Adam Czerniakow of the Warsaw Jewish deportation. This is the First deportation of Warsaw's Jews toward Treblinka and begins with the Large Resettlement. On July 23rd. Adam Czerniakow commits suicide as the first arrival of Warsaw's Jews at Treblinka and the Mass gassing destruction of these Jews begins at Treblinka. The
Wehrmacht takes Rostov. On July 24th. the entire Dereczyn Jewish Community of 3,000 Jews is murdered while 120 escaped to help form a Partisan group under Dr. Jechiel Atlas. On July 26th. 24 Jews from Luxemburg are sent to Theresienstadt.
Tuesday July 28th. 1942 ..meeting was held of He-Halutz and its youth movement branches
..It was decided to set up ..Jewish Fighting Organization YKA (Yidishe Kamf Organizatsie). ..organization signed proclamations which it issued in ..Polish language with ..initials ZOB ..Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa ..Jewish Fighting Organization. ..members of ..Command were..
..delegation was sent to ..Aryan side ..Poles..
..in order to make contact with ..Polish Underground and to obtain weapons for ..ghetto." Jewish Fighting Organisation.
Elsewhere the French conclave of Cardinals and Archbishops protest the cruel treatment of the Jews to Marshal Petain. On July 28th. 156 Jews from Luxembourg are sent to Theresienstadt. The Jewish Fighting Organization, 'Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa,' ZOB is founded in Warsaw.
Tuesday July 28th. 1942. "..Since July 22nd. ..train carrying 5,000 Jews ..daily from Warsaw to Treblinka. ..In addition ..a bi-weekly train carrying 5,000 Jews from Przemysl to Belzec." Dr. Theodor Ganzenmueller.
In communicating the details of the resettlement operation to SS Obergruppenfuhrer Wolf, we have an acknowledgement, which Wolff was not too keen to admit to, that he was fully appraised of the killing operations conducted against the Jews. On July 29th. An extra food ration is offered as incentive for Warsaw Jewish 'resettlement' and starvation brings its dubious reward in Treblinka.
Wednesday July 29th. 1942 "..Nazi's will not succeed in exterminating their victims." Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
July 30th. Information is garnered by four German Business men,
1) Ernst Lemmer, a journalist, who spoke of the presence of mobile gassing vans and the establishment of static gassing chambers,
2) Edgar Salin, a professor at the University of Basel was privy to what Sommer had verified,
3) Eduard Schulte businessman reported what he had been informed of to where Gerhard Riegner ensured the World got to know of Hitler’s Final Solution and
4) Artur Sommer, was an economist and he stated that death camps were being prepared in the East for gassing of all sent there and this clearly added to a body of Evidence confirming Hitler’s clear cut intentions and his resolve was to Murder all of European Jewry.
All of this information converged upon Geneva and for Gerhart Riegner to wire Rabbi Wise of these facts. Rabbi Dr. Stephen Wise of The World Jewish Congress received Riegner’s message, as did the British MP Sidney Silverman. What was certain, and History has validated this truth was an apparent awareness already of Hitler's Final Solution as it was related to the Jewish People. This Hitler resolve would commence with the Deportation East, and as confirmed by The Wannsee Conference, the aggregate killing of 11,293,300 Jews would be involved. All of these Jews would be subsequently sought out for extermination and in a concerted effort realise the annihilation of 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. However, what Riegner had reported would remain conspicuous by its omission from World awareness till the coming November.
Friday July 31st. 1942 "..At present ..both of us ..ready to meet ..death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalit ..20 months ..today. ..I don't lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only ..so little ..nice ..talented girl. She deserves to be remembered." Israel Lichtenstein.
On July 31st. More than 65,000 of Warsaw’s Ghetto Jews are murdered in Treblinka in 9 day period of destruction and elsewhere, 30,000 of Minsk Jews are murdered in 4 day action. Meanwhile, Lodz Ghetto Jewish Deaths are escalating at an alarming Daily Rate. Israel Lichtenstein leaves to posterity his Last Will and Testament and as part of Emmanuel Ringelblum's Oneg Shabbat, the Joy of the Sabbath, he secures the Planned accumulation of all records to be secretly hidden. These records, Diaries and fragments of information will add to the memory of a vanquished Jewish People. The endeavour to remember and recall what happened to much of Warsaw Jewry will be retrieved but the body of Warsaw's Jewish existence will be devoured in Treblinka, and amongst the other Death Camps Hitler established in Poland.
On July 1st. 1943 all remaining German Jews are placed under Police jurisdiction and on July 4th. the Battle for Kursk begins. On July 5th. Himmler orders Sobibor, the Extermination Camp is be made into a Concentration Camp. On July 6th. over 2,400 more Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz and on July 8th. the Vilna Resistance Fighters blow up a Military Train. On July 10th. 5,000 Jews at Kamionka-Strumilowa are murdered and the Allies land in Sicily. On July 13th. over 1,900 Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On July 15th. The Wehrmacht offensive fails at the Kursk salient. On July 16th. the Gestapo take Yitzhak Wittenberg from the Vilna Ghetto Office as Wittenberg is credited with an assault upon a Nazi Train, 8 days before. However, Wittenberg was freed by his own men but was forced to hand himself over, or look on as the Nazi’s threatened to make Vilna’s Ghetto Jews collectively responsible. On July 18th. 1,000 of Paris’ Jews are deported from Drancy to Auschwitz.
Sunday, 18th. July 1943 "..How can I escape ..troubles of my people ..How can I avoid their anguish that is also mine." Moshe Flinker.
On July 19th. the Allies bomb Rome and on July 20th. over 2,200 more Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz. Elsewhere 500 of Czestochowa’s Jews are murdered. Meanwhile the Waldkommando at Sobibor Death Camp, composed of 20 Polish Jews and 20 Dutch Jews, established as a special work unit which supplied wood for the crematorium by cutting down trees and digging out the stumps. At various times there were between 200 and 400 Jews who were kept alive for the purpose of this slave labour at the Death Camp. On July 20, 1943, after two Jews from the Walkommando, namely Shlomo Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf attacked a Ukrainian who was guarding them. The knife, which Podchlebnik had in his boot allowed them to flee and they even encouraged others Jews in the Waldkommando to make their escape.
According to Stanislaw Szmajzner, the other group of Polish Jews decided to flee on foot while eight guards were eating lunch on this same day. Several of them Shlomo Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf included, Josef Freitag, Zindel Honigman, Chaim Korenfeld, Aaron Licht and Abraham Wang escaped though both Josef Kopf was Murdered in August 1944 by his Polish ‘friends’ and Aron Licht was murdered by Polish anti-Semites, though in separate incidents after their escapes. These others survived the duration of the war. On July 21st. the order to liquidate all Jewish Ghetto’s given and on July 22nd. the Americans take Palermo. On July 25th. Benito Mussolini is deposed as Duce, The Italian Leader. On July 31st. 1,000 of Paris’ Jews are deported from Drancy to Auschwitz as the Russians breach a gap, 500 miles into the Wehrmacht’s rear.
On July 1st. 1944 8,000 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered and on July 2nd. 3,000 Jews are murdered in Ponary Woods. More than 70,000 Jews will be murdered here in the pits at Ponary Woods. The Vilna Census showed 54,600 Jews living within its confines 1931 but few of Vilna's Jews will have Survived what awaits them at Ponary Woods, that is more than 60,000 of Lithuanian Jewry murdered there. As
Bishop Antonio Santin writes to SS Gruppenfuhrer Odilo Litario Globocnik, who is already wielding his authority removing Trieste's Jews toward destruction, Santin intervened for the release of a Jewish Woman, Mrs. Pia Rimini Rivalta. Franz Stangl and Artur Liebenschel, Christian Wirth, Dieter Allers and Georg Michalezyk were assembled as part of this Trieste team. On July 3rd. Minsk liberated but not before more than 62,000 of Minsk’s Jews had been murdered. Few survived. The French take Siena.
On July 4th. 2,800 of Papa’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On July 5th. over 1,200 of Sopron’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz. Meanwhile, there is an appeal by the International Red Cross President, Professor Karl Burckhardt, for Admiral Horthy to cease Jewish deportations as the German Foreign Ministry intercepts a British Embassy Telegram on the essential for Bombing Auschwitz.
Wednesday July 5th. 1944 "..Bomb ..railway lines from Hungary to Birkenau. Zero in on ..facilities of ..death camp." British Embassy Telegram Bern.
On July 6th. both Moshe Shertok and Chaim Weizmann, President of World Zionist Organisation meet with Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Minister to escalate the Allied response to the Jewish plight. On July 7th. the Hungarian government halts deportations with the reality that 438,000 Hungarian Jews have already been murdered at Birkenau. However, on July 8th. 50,000 more Hungarian Jews are transported to Auschwitz in week long action with more than 488,000 Hungarian Jews having already reached Auschwitz. 13,000 of Debrecen’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz in 5 day action and the Kovno ghetto is liquidated. Vilna is now approached by Russian forces as Russian Forces destroy German Army Group Centre.
"..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work ..so 100's were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing." Judith Magyar Isaacson.
On July 9th. Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish Diplomat and emissary of King Gustav V, arrives in Budapest where some 300,000 Hungarian Jews still remain alive. 170,000 of these Jews still survive in Budapest alone. The Allies now take Caen. On July 10th. the Russians are within 90 kilometres of Hitler's Rastenberg, Wolf's Lair Headquarters. On July 11th. Russians cross the Lithuanian border where more than 135,000 Lithuanian Jews have been murdered. The Russians also cross the Latvian border where more than 85,000 Latvian Jews have been murdered. Barely 1% of Latvian Jews Survived. On July 13th. Jewish partisans help liberate Vilna where more than 55,000 of Vilna’s Jews were Murdered. Some 2,500 of Vilna’s Jews Survive.
Saturday July 15th. 1944 "..In spite of everything I still believe ..people are really good at heart." Anne Frank.
On July 18th. The Americans are at St. Lo and on July 19th. Joel Brand's mission, Goods for Blood, is announced to the British Press. On July 20th. Reuters reports upon the murders of 500,000 Jews at Auschwitz and 400,000 of these are Hungarian Jews! The attempt to assassinate Hitler fails.
Thursday July 20th. 1944 "..German authorities would intensify all their efforts to blackmail deceive ..split ..Allies." The Times.
On July 21st. over 560 Belgian Jews are transported to Auschwitz as the Russians recapture Buczacz while 400 Jewish Survivors of Buczacz have been Murdered by these defeated German Forces. On July 22nd. Lvov is liberated where more than 123,000 of Lvov’s Jews have been Murdered. On the eve of Liberation, 1,000 Jews of Majdanek are force marched out of the Camp. 800 of these reached Auschwitz. 435 of Corfu’s Jews are resettled in Birkenau after they refused to work on the Sonderkommando. On July 23rd. 1,700 of Rhodes’ Jews are sent to Auschwitz as the Russians now liberate Majdanek Death Camp. Meanwhile the Red Cross visit Theresienstadt. On July 24th. the Warsaw Jewish Camp in the Ghetto is evacuated. On July 25th. The remaining Jews of the Kovno Ghetto are evacuated where more than 34,700 Jews of Kovno were eventually murdered.
On July 26th. 3,000 of Radom’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz and on July 28th. On a march from Warsaw to Kutno is the First Major Death March. On July 29th. 1,300 Jews from Paris are sent to Auschwitz. On July 30th. over 160 Jews from Toulouse are sent to Auschwitz. Hitler has not given up his stranglehold over Jewish existence and persists while all around him crumbles, to deliver his only achievement in History, the Destruction of The Jewish People. On July 7th. 1945 Robert Jackson visits Nuremberg, a City that was 91% destroyed by Allied bombs. He inspects the Palace of Justice and decides to recommend it as a site for the upcoming War Crimes trials. The Soviets prefer that the trials take place in Berlin however, within their zone of occupation.
"..major operation of unit '1005' is to destroy ..traces of mass murder ..so that it would not be possible afterwards to determine ..overall number of murdered people." Nuremberg Trials Document.
On July 16th. The Potsdam Conference is held and on July 21st. Robert Jackson returns to Nuremberg with British and French representatives as they inspect the possible housing accommodations for the gathering legal teams. On July 31st. half of Belgium's Jewish Population had been murdered at Birkenau and this represents 24,387 Belgian Jews murdered. Russian forces are now at Warsaw. On July 4th. 1946 42 Kielce Jews are murdered by local Poles, post Holocaust to add to the more than 18,042 Jews of Kielce who were murdered in total. Elsewhere, Defence summations begin in the Major War Criminals Trial at Nuremberg and on July 26th. the prosecution begins its own summation in these Trials. On July 30th. the defence of the seven indicted Nazi organizations begins. On July 3rd. 1947 the indictment is filed in der Einsatzgruppe Case. On July 11th. the ship Exodus is forced to return 4,550 Jewish refugees from Palestine to the detention Camps.
On July 15th. Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 7, The Hostage Case, begins. Twelve defendants, officers in the German Armed Forces are charged with the murders of 1,000's of Albanian, Greek and Yugoslavian civilians. They are equally charged with the committal of acts of devastation in Norway and other countries. They are likewise charged with the drafting of orders which seek to deny POW's their human rights and for the ordering of the slaughter of surrendered troops. Franz Boehme had committed suicide between the indictment and the arraignment, and the case of Maximilian von Weichs was dismissed due to ill health.
1) Lt. General Franz Boehme, Commander XVIII Mountain Army Corps. Before his arraignment, Committed suicide. May 30th. 1947.
2) Major General Ernst Dehner, Korps Commander. Sentenced to 7 years in prison. Released 1951.
3) General Hellmuth Felmy, Commander of Army Group Southern Greece. Sentenced to 15 years in prison, Reduced to 10 years in 1951.
4) Major General Hermann Foertsch, Chief of Staff of the 12th Army. Acquitted.
5) General Kurt Ritter von Geitner, Chief of Staff Military Commanders, Serbia and Greece. Acquitted.
6) General of Engineers Walter Kuntze, Commander 12th Army. Sentenced to Life in prison. Released 1953.
7) Major General Hubert Lanz, Commander XXII Mountain Army Corps. Sentenced to 12 years in prison. Released 1951.
8) Lt. General Ernst von Leyser, Korps Commander. Sentenced to 10 years in prison. Released 1951.
9) Field Marshal Wilhelm List , Commander in Chief South-East. Sentenced to Life in prison. Released December 1952.
10) Colonel General Dr. Lothar Rendulic, Commander 2nd Panzer Army, Yugoslavia. Sentenced to 20 years in prison. Reduced to 10 years. Released 1951.
11) Major General Wilhelm Speidel, Military Commander Greece. Sentenced to 20 years in prison. Released 1951, and
12) Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs, Commander of the German 2nd Army, Balkans Campaign. Released on grounds of ill health.
July 30th. 1948 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 6 ends with 13 defendants being found guilty. On July 31st. Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 10, The Krupp Trial with 11 defendants found guilty and 1 defendant acquitted. On July 2nd. 1952 SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop is hanged for his Crimes Against Humanity.
Thursday July 13th. 1961. "..Your Honour ..to give a clear answer here ..I must state that I regard this murder ..this extermination of ..Jews ..to be one of ..most heinous worst crimes in ..history of humankind." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
July 23rd. 1965 The Chelmno Trial takes place of former Camp personnel in Bonn, West Germany.
1) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Gustav Laabs, Sentenced to 15 years in prison,
2) SS Scharfuhrer Heinrich Bock, Acquitted,
3) Ernst Burmeister. Sentenced to 40 months in prison,
4) SS Unterscharfuhrer Walter Burmeister, 2 Sentenced to 13 years in prison,
5) SS Oberscharfuhrer Gustaw Fiedler, Sentenced to 1 year in prison,
6) SS Untersturmfuhrer SS Alois Haefele, Sentenced to 15 years in prison,
7) SS Unterscharfuhrer Karl Heinl, Sentenced to 7 years in prison,
8) SS Oberscharfuhrer Wilhelm Heukelbach, Acquitted,
9) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Friedrich Maderholz, Acquitted,
10) SS Unterscharfuhrer Anton Mehring, Acquitted,
11) SS Scharfuhrer Kurt Moebius, Sentenced to 8 years in prison,
12) SS Hauptscharfuhrer Wilhelm Schulte, Acquitted, and
13) Polizei Oberwachmeister Aleksander Steinke, Acquitted.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, July 04, 2017 16:17:03
"..Statistics are remote ..they are unfeeling and they are never accurate in The Holocaust ..especially when it relies upon ..overtly secretive nature of Nazi collation." Patrick Dempsey. (der Einsatzgruppe and The Destruction of European Jewry)
We simply cannot promote the vagaries of any consensus related to the statistical analysis covering The Holocaust of the Jewish People. First and Foremost! We are making statements which might ensure the sweeping away of Human lives from the tenets of an Historical event we are here to present, represent and recall. The basis for accepting the 6,000,000 Jewish losses is in itself flawed and given that barely 3,500,000 Jews remain from what The Wannsee Conference assessed where available to Hitler for Slaughter, a highly marginal difference is presented. That difference is clearly expressed in 1950, but merely 5 years after The Holocaust would cease to claim more Jewish Victims, 7,793,300 Jewish lives would appear to have been lost from Europe.
Also, given the status of post War atrocity against the Surviving Jewish People, we establish a further precedent which for many a nation, which is prepared to admit to such losses as cannot be contemplated? I myself cannot imagine what an erroneous exercise we are involved in which would not encounter the emotional turmoil such a proposition as an estimate of Survivors must ensure. Surely what we have lost will never come to terms with what we seek to establish in that loss in terms of an assessment which can never be completely accurate?
"..Sonderkommando 4a in collaboration with Einsatzgruppe HQ and 2 Kommandos of police regiment South ..executed 33,771 Jews in Kiev on September 29th. and September 30th. 1941." OSR 101.
We take BabiYar as a prime example of this, and knowing that SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobels’ SK4a must have physically counted those 33,771 Jews of Kiev as they marched toward the ravine. However, we cannot then account for the fact that some Jewish Mother’s, hiding their Children on their Person were counted singularly and not as a Parent with Child. So Operation Situation Report Number 101 might well present the 33,771 Jews as they were counted, but might surely have missed those Jewish Children as they were concealed? As we look to the actual People who know the statistics of The Holocaust, and these are those Jews and their Community's who were swallowed up by Hitler's resolve to deliver them to his Final Solution, can we ever know truly what they experienced.
For me, there are those Survivor's, who will best attest to the losses and afford their personalised assessment as to what they have truly lost. These are Jews generally, who have had 6,000,000 of their own People ravaged and torn from their midst. These Survivoral Jews will also offer us an emotional discourse which we must follow. True, there are Historians of The Holocaust who have been offering us the objective view point of their own struggle, as Jews. That this is mixed with an emotional immediacy, and that of an endurance we cannot begin to imagine, commends them further in their effort to deliver to us, their Truth. Then, what some depict, like Richard Korherr, the SS’s Statistical Inspector in his own analysis, reckons that his figures made available a reservoir of over 10,000,000 Jews for the final push to resolve Hitler’s Final Solution.
"..total Jewish population of ..world ..estimated at 17,000,000 in 1937. Of these ..over 10,000,000 were in Europe." Richard Korherr.
This figure does somewhat differ from The Wannsee Conference total of 11,293,300 Jews which Heydrich and Eichmann asserted would be added to what History knows is The Holocaust. So when I speak, and I praise highly here those like Yitzhak Arad, Yehuda Bauer, Lucy S. Dawidowicz and Yisrael Gutman, I know of their emotional attachment and their Historical perspective is both ground breaking and objectively delivered. There are indeed so many Writer’s and even Historians, and so many more that I have had the pleasure to communicate with, that I commend. I willingly make use of all those whose extensive knowledge has been placed before us.
Then there are those, like myself, who seek to trawl past the inordinate catalogue of grief and atrocity to find that balance which affords a testimony to the Memory of those 6,000,000 Jews whose discourse is fast fading from what is such a recent History. I do not only speak here of the loss for those who Survived, which is an unaccountable travesty beyond compare, but I remonstrate with the negligence of History which so seeks to displace 6,000,000 Jews from the narrative which is, Their Holocaust. I have no wish either to join the largely ineffective debate over the final analysis which is a numerical exercise and both Statistical in staing the relationship of figures and on the margins of isolating the very humanity that has been lost.
"..Jewish Question ..Ukraine ..more difficult ..in ..cities ..Jews ..major part ..population. ..more than 50%. ..elimination ..profound ..consequences ..military economy. ..systematic shooting ..Jews ..by ..Order Police. ..in public ..assistance ..Ukrainian militia ..members ..Wehrmacht. ..Aktionen ..men ..women ..children ..all ages ..manner ..carried out ..appalling. ..executions involved. ..150,000 to 200,000 Jews ..executed in ..Ukraine." Peter Heinz Seraphim.
All too many Historians, both Jewish and otherwise, have derived differing views as to the accuracy of what has been delivered up in terms of the numbers lost. There are countless reports and evidences which will give us an idea that systematically, 6,000,000 Jews have been lost to us. But perhaps there are are far more lost than we have been able to calculate, those Jews who were caught up in the debris of the evidence, the Jews of testimony and those Jews who have delivered their first hand assessments. With the likes of Richard Korherr, Professor Peter Heinz Seraphim and SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle, all of whom offer us their view which is consistent with being arbitrary, we have no means to corroborate any final assessment with impunity.
Conversely, we require the statistics as they were produced to give us the means to examine what Hitler and his entourage not only attempted in this Final Solution but wholly managed in the final resolve which is The Holocaust. Allied intelligence too had formulated its own knowledge with the interceptions of wireless communications between der Einsatzgruppe in the field and those like Hoefle who operated in and amongst the Death Camp system at Aktion Reinhard. Hoefle, who would become Kommissioner for Jewish Resettlement Warsaw Ghetto, was ideally placed to afford us the snapshot we have so far gained. Hoefle’s commitment is certain and as he was also part of Stroop’s force tasked with quashing Jewish efforts during The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, his was not purely a bureaucratic effort.
Of course Hoefle was ideally placed to deliver an assessment which was factually based, though possibly distorted by the accounting system which was so hastily shelved and then destroyed upon the realisation that their goal would remain unachieved in its totality. But no amount of Statistical analysis, and again we are drawn toward Seraphim and Korherr who both gave Hitler the accounts he demanded, to find a way through this statistical maze. For these also could not acknowledge the fuller extent of the Annihilation, given the bridge between the killing space and the reception area of the final receipt of that Destruction at Hitler’s desk. But Hoefle did at least leave us a specimen of Hitler’s clear intention and it was bureaucratically liaised across the airwaves.
"..Einsatz Reinhardt. SS und Polizeifuhrer Lublin sends the Befehlshaber der Sipo Cracow a report on Einsatz Reinhardt for the 14 days up to January 31st. 1942. Increase to December 31st. 1942 for
i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 12,761,
ii) Belzec 0,
iii) Sobibor 515, and
iv) Treblinka 10,335,
Final Totals for the year ending on December 31st. 1942 are:
i) Lublin (read Majdanek) 24,735,
ii) Belzec 434,508,
iii) Sobibor 101,370, and
iv) Treblinka 71,355,
totalling 1,274,166." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Julius 'Hans' Hoefle.
So, while we are given a clear insight into the destructive capacity, with this telegram from SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hoefle, the eventual assessment cannot be as definitive as it has been proposed. This Hoefle Telegram which was as we know, intercepted by British ‘intelligence’ and contains a final figure of 1,274,166 Murdered Jews for The Aktion Reinhard Camps alone. Given the lowest of the x3 estimates I will present, this is way below anything we might come to accept by some margin. Between 1,500,000 and 1,700,000 Jews were Murdered in the x3 Death Camps of Aktion Reinhard and this is closer to the truth of that devastating effect these x3 Death Camps impacted upon final catastrophe of The Holocaust. For my own Book, Hitler’s Belzec, I have assessed that some 884,700 Jews were Destroyed there.
Given the assessment which relates to each community consumed on a Monthly basis, 434,508 for Belzec, and as of December 31st. 1942 is speculatively way too low. There are some formative figures too which I would give and these have the most credence to their overall assessment of the tragedy. Especially placed before you are those assessments that would deliver to us The Aktion Reinhard Camp details as the have been presented to History. Those assessments, for which we will assess what Hoefle knew, and by dint of the interception of his Telegram to his immediate superior SS Standartenfuhrer Franz Heim, what the Allied nations also knew, will carry a burden of knowledge few can comprehend.
Heim, the deputy commander of the Security Police and SD for the General Government in Cracow is handed notice of what is the Final Death Toll from these x3 Death Camps, and including Majdanek also. But we know also that in excess of 1,700,000 Jews had their lives taken from them in the midst of The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps alone. But as we are fully aware, strenuous attempts to decipher correct figures from any documentation has been impossible to establish. Given that the Nazi attempts to destroy as many of their actual records as possible was successful, and so as not to the betray the truth of their efforts to the coming scrutiny of History, we must sift through the debris of ash that remained. However, that very scrutiny has been understood and undertaken by many and I will offer up the assessments made by a further x3.
1) Raul Hilberg has been the formative authority on the entire Destructive process in The Holocaust from early on. He assesses the murderous toll of Destruction at 1,500,000 Murdered Jews at:
a) Belzec 550,000 Murdered Jews,
b) Sobibor 200,000 Murdered Jews, and
c) Treblinka with 750,000 Murdered Jews.
2) Yitzhak Arad, the Authority on The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, assesses at 1,700,000 Murdered Jews as a closer value to our overall loss than has been presented so far with an assessment for:
a) Belzec with 600,000 to 700,000 Murdered, and these are at lease best estimates tabulating Ghetto and Community Census with Judenrate records and alongside Train manifests. All of which conclude with what is an estimate that cannot be fully quantified as all records remain incomplete and hidden to History.
b) Sobibor with 250,000 Jews Murdered, and
c) Treblinka with 763,000 Jews Murdered.
3) Martin Gilbert has extensively trawled all these resolutions and assesses the Final Total to be 1,690,000 Murdered Jews at:
a) Belzec with 600,000 Murdered Jews,
b) Sobibor with 250,000 Murdered Jews, and
c) Treblinka with 840,000 Murdered Jews,
and of course no assessment has proved definitive. As records and assessments have been made where People once resided and where they were brutally Murdered, they cannot portray the fuller evidence of what was actually achieved. The correlation of both assessment and consensus, which leaves both the Community stripped of its People, and the Destructive process open to a failing in the overall need to be accurately evaluated, leaves a Jewish loss without certainty as to Their Total Losses.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, June 28, 2017 20:30:30
On this day in the History of The Holocaust June 28th. 1919 Germany signs Treaty of Versailles. Only truth has immortality, while distortion is as mortal as the lie it attempts to promote! Ever since Anne Frank wrote her diary, the denial of all that affected her People during the period of The Holocaust has been scurrilously treated. That 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were Murdered has not prevented the rancid nature of a hate filled antisemitism to seek to alter the truth, diffuse the integrity of History and blur the Facts of what happened to Anne and 6,000,000 Jewish People. Many in History will see in Germany’s defeat in WWI the beginnings of Hitler’s use of anger and hatred to destabilise civilising humanity. On June 12th. 1929 Anne Frank is Born in Frankfurt, Germany. On June 6th. 1933 and in conference with senior officials, Hitler declares his ambitions and aims to rearm.
On June 11th. Conference of Silesian Jewish organizations discusses safeguarding rights of German Jews. On June 26th. The Academy for German Law, 'Akademie fur Deutsches Recht' is founded with it's task is to rewrite German Law, in its entirety, in accordance with the specifications of the NSDAP. On June 27th. Jews in London hold an anti-Nazi rally and the following day on June 28th. in a speech to German newspaper publishers, Hitler describes the government's new journalistic regulations. On June 9th. 1934 Security and Intelligence Service 'Sicherheitsdienst' or SD of the SS is the sole arbiter of intelligence in service for the SS and Nazi Party. That sole responsibility for NSDAP Political and Counter Intelligence will emulate all wrongs History could ever estimate. Poland, Romania and Russia agree to the integrity of their mutual borders.
On June 30th. a supposed coup by the SA Leader Ernst Roehm is purged on the 'Night of the Long Knives.' Hundreds of SA are murdered and other's of Hitler's opponents are eliminated. Victims include Ernst Roehm chief of the SA, and Gregor Strasser, former Reich organisation leader of the Nazi Party.
The SS is now established as the hierarchical policing power as Nazi persecution of homosexuals begins in earnest. On June 9th. 1935 anti-Jewish riots occur in Grodno, Poland and on June 11th. 'Jews not welcome' signs are removed, though temporarily. On June 18th. Anglo-German Naval Agreement allows for the expansion of the German Navy so that expansion only allows a German Navy up to 35% of British strength. On June 26th. the Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases is amended to provide for compulsory abortion of 'unfit' foetuses of 6 month gestation. On June 17th. 1936 Himmler is appointed Chief of the German Police.
On June 26th. Reinhard Heydrich is appointed to head SS Security Service branch, 'Sicherhietsdienst,' SD. On June 30th. Polish Jews strike in protest against anti-Semitism and on June 12th. 1937 Heydrich issues detention order for Race Violators, after due process. On June 9th. 1938 the Munich Synagogue is burnt down. On June 14th. Registration and Identification of Jewish industrial enterprises, their 'aryanisation' expropriation is decreed. Marked down, all enterprises are stolen, and any financial transactions placed into blocked accounts. The wealth list of Jews to be officially held and on June 15th. In an Asocial Action, 1,500 Jews are re-arrested and confined to Camps.
Monday June 20th. 1938 "..Twenty years ago we tried to save ..world ..now look at it. If we tried to save ..world again ..it would be just as bad. ..we have nothing to gain by entering a European conflict ..and ..everything to lose." Hugh R Wilson.
On June 22nd. Pope Pius XI’s Encyclical on 'The Unity of the Human Race' which clearly denounced racism and antisemitism was not published. On June 25th. Jewish Doctors are only allowed to treat Jews. On June 2nd. 1939 St. Louis reaches Cuba with 937 passengers, mostly Jews, had departed from Hamburg are fleeing Hitler’s persecution. On June 17th. the St. Louis docks in Antwerp with its human cargo after Cuba refused to take them. Britain takes 287 Jewish passengers, France takes 224 Jewish passengers, Belgium takes 214 Jewish passengers, Holland takes 181 Jewish passengers with only 6 managed to disembark in Cuba. On June 1st. 1940 the Tomaszow-Mazowiecki Ghetto in Poland is established and 14,100 Jews will be Enclosed.
On June 4th. with the Completion of the Dunkirk evacuation sees more than 338,000 BEF troops rescued over a 11 day period as the Germans now fully occupy the Town. This is perceived as both a disaster for the British Expeditionary Force, which was forced to retreat but also as a Military blunder by Hitler’s intervention. As Hitler sought to ameliorate British sensibilities, so that any future approach might be more positive for German demands, a halt order was issued to German Forces on the outskirts of the Town as the complete destruction of this mainly British contingent was beaten. The stark reality of Hitler’s interference is judged by Halder, Chief of the Army High Command at the time, OberKommando der Heeres, OKH.
"..Brauchitsch is angry. ..pocket would have been closed at ..coast if ..armour had not been held back. ..bad weather has grounded ..Luftwaffe and ..must now stand and watch countless 1,000's of ..enemy get away to England ..under our noses." General Franz Halder.
On June 5th. Battle for France begins and on June 6th. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Herbert Lange completes his action at Soldau with over 1,550 mental patients from the asylum 'specially treated', murdered in a euthanasia exercise. Lange would complete his murderous training at Chelmno and Sobibor. On June 8th. the Allied Evacuation of Dunkirk is completed. On June 10th. both Denmark and Norway are defeated by Hitler’s forces as Italy declares war on Britain and France. On June 11th. the Bolimow Ghetto in Poland is established and 4,000 Jews will be Enclosed. On June 14th. as Paris falls the first transports arrive at Auschwitz from Tarnow. On June 15th. the Russians occupy Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
On June 16th. the Kutno Ghetto in Poland is established and 7,500 Jews will be Enclosed. France now seeks terms of surrender with Germany and Marshal Henri Philippe Petain becomes French Premier. On June 17th. Marshal Petain, as France's Head of State seeks peace and on June 18th. Hitler discusses the 'Madagascar Plan' with Mussolini. On June 22nd. the French Army surrenders as Petain signs the armistice at Compiegne. On June 26th. the American Secretary of State seeks to prevent Jewish refugees entering the US.
Wednesday June 26th. 1940 "..delay ..effectively stop. ..put every obstacle in ..way ..postpone ..postpone ..postpone ..granting of visas." Breckinridge Long.
On June 28th. Romania cedes Besserabia and Bukovina to Russia and on June 30th. Wehrmacht troops occupy the Channel Islands.
"..from June 1941 till January 1942 I was commander of SK4a." Paul Blobel.
On June 2nd. 1941 the Second 'Statut des Juifs' is passed in France and on June 6th. The notorious Kommissar Order, 'Kommissarbefehl,' is issued by Hitler’s Wehrmacht. On June 11th. Hitler issues War Directive No. 32 for the conduct of operations in Russia. On June 12th. Anne Frank is 12 years old. On June 14th. the Hay Action, 'Heu Aktion' decree is issued by Alfred Rosenberg, demanding 40,000 to 50,000 Ten to Fourteen year olds for Forced Labour be brought to Germany from the Eastern Territories.
"..each execution. ..mainly directed against ..Jewish Race ..called 'Sonderbehandlung.' ..order ..issued by ..RSHA ..had been verbally transmitted to us members of ..Political Department." SS Untersturmfuhrer Hans Stark.
Much has been made about the many suggested solutions to the Jewish Question, but ultimately, Hitler’s demand for their destruction was delivered. Those, like Rolf Hoeppner would ruminate while observing what would be appropriate for the Jews of Europe. Clearly, as he reflects with Eichmann what has already been well established, as The Final Solution will be delivered across the length and breadth of Europe.
Monday June 16th. 1941 "..It must be seriously considered whether ..most humane solution is not to finish off ..Jews who are unable to work by means of a quickly working agent. In any event ..this would be more appropriate than to let them starve." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Rolf Heinz Hoeppner.
On June 17th. Heydrich briefs his Einsatzgruppe Commanders in Berlin, on The Final Solution of the Jewish Question, 'die Endlosung der Judenfrage,' and clearly this brief is what British and US 'intelligence’ identified as the massed killing operations der Einsatzgruppe became engaged in. Then, with the Jews to be trodden under foot, and with a skilled and exercised murderous squad unleashed, the disguise and the weight of a World War provided ample cover for Hitler's expressed wish. Also, the
Slovakian Governments offers all its Jews over for Deportation.
Tuesday June 17th. 1941 "..To take ..place of emigration ..and with ..prior approval of ..Fuhrer ..evacuation of ..Jews to ..East has become another possible solution. Although both courses of action ..must ..be considered as nothing more than ..temporary expedients ..they do help to provide practical experience which should be of great importance in view of coming Endlosung ..of ..Jewish question." SS Oberstgruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich.
On June 18th. Germany signs a friendship treaty with Turkey and the hope to spread his influence into more of Britain’s sphere of influence.
Sunday June 22nd. 1941 "..New Lithuania will not give any Jew civil rights nor possibility of existence." Lithuania Activist Front.
On June 22nd. Germany invades Russia in 'Operation Barbarossa'. With the Invasion of Russia, Hitler had betrayed his word and his Worldview of the World, a World which should have exerted its own will and drove across Europe and attacked Germany from the West, will deplete the World by some 50/70 Million souls, with 6,000,000 Jews of those systematically Destroyed. Leningrad is fundamental to Hitler's aspirations with Moscow and Ukraine remaining secondary targets. The Baltic States annexed to 'Reichkommissariat Ostland.' Romania is also involved as an Axis partner with 20,000 to 30,000 Romanian Jews confined to the Jiu and Craiova Camps. A newer period of Murderous terror against Romanias Jews begins. Immediately, Four 'Einsatzgruppe' battalions begin their mass murder campaign against the Jews, Soviet politicals and others deemed necessary for destruction.
Einsatzgruppen 'A' SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Walter Stahlecker.
SonderKommando 1a SS Standartenfuhrer Martin Sandberger.
SonderKommando 1b SS Brigadefuhrer Franz Ehrlinger.
EinsatzKommandos 1c SS Obersturmbannfuhrere Eduard Strauch.
EinsatzKommandos 2 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Rudolf Lange.
EinsatzKommandos 3 SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.
Personnel was interchangeable and on a regular basis, switched to command differing units and even requested removal from the field of operations. Under orders from Stahlecker, the Tilzsit 'Staatspolizeistelle' commenced the murders of Jews in the border areas.
Einsatzgruppen 'B' Artur Nebe
SonderKommando 7a SS Untersturmfuhrer Albert Rapp.
SonderKommando 7b SS Sturmbannfuhrer Waldemar Klingelhoeffer.
SonderKommando 7c SS Untersturmfuhrer Wilhelm Bock.
Einsatzkommandos 7e SS Sturmbannfuhrer Waldemar Klingelhoeffer.
EinsatzKommandos 8 SS Standartenfuhrer Otto Bradfisch.
EinsatzKommandos 9 SS Standartenfuhrer Alfred Filbert.
Einsatzgruppen 'C' Emil Otto Rasch
SonderKommando 4a SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel.
SonderKommando 4b SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Walter Felix Braune.
EinsatzKommandos 5 SS Brigadefuhrer Erwin Schultz.
EinsatzKommandos 6 SS Obersturmbannfuhrere Ernst Bieberstein.
"..order kill came from ..Hitler ..and not only Aktion Kommandos but Army ..also had to carry it out." Otto Ohlendorf.
Einsatzgruppen 'D' Otto Ohlendorf
SonderKommando 10a SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Kurt Kristmann.
SonderKommando10b SS Standartenfuhrer Alois Persterer.
EinsatzKommandos 11a SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Zapp.
EinsatzKommandos 11b SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Werner Braune.
EinsatzKommandos 12 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Emil Haussmann.
These Einsatz kommandos are assisted by all elements of the Reich, Police, Wehrmacht, Waffen SS and local militias. On June 23rd. Lithuanian convicts are photographed murdering Kovno's Jews while elsewhere, 5 Drushkopol Jews are murdered. der Einsatzgruppe 'aktionen' has begun, with daily operational situation reports. Hitler leaves Berlin for the Wolfsschanze at Rastenburg, East Prussia. On
June 24th. the Wehrmacht occupies Kovno, Marcinkonys with 370 Jews and Vilna with 57,000 Jews. Einsatz begin aktionen in Kovno. On June 25th. the 'steel crow bar' murders of Kovno's Jews are photographed. After murdering his 45 or 50 Jews, the murderer sits atop his victims to play his accordion. All Einsatz units are now fully mobilised.
Thursday June 26th. 1941 "..According to Catholic doctrine ..there are doubtless commandments which are not binding when obedience to them requires too great a sacrifice ..but there are sacred obligations of conscience from which no one can release us and which we must fulfil even at ..price of
death itself. At no time ..and under no circumstances whatsoever ..may a man ..except in war and in legitimate defence ..take ..life of an innocent person." The Fulda Address.
On June 26th. 1,500 of Kovno’s Jews are murdered at Ninth Fort. The Fulda Pastoral letter is prepared by the German Bishops Congress. No word is mentioned of the Jewish People who were increasingly subjected to abuse, attack and the taking of their innocent lives. Hitler was forced by these uttering’s to cease the T4 Euthanasia programme, though he moved them out into the murderous field of der Einsatzgruppe operations. On June 27th. 800 of Szulhof’s Jews are burned to death in their Synagogue by Wehrmacht troops as Wehrmacht troops photograph the 'wooden club' murders of Kovno's Jews.
What Stahlecker knows of these 'aktionen' is more widely dispersed than has ever been acknowledged.
Dieter von Bischoffhausen, Staff Officer of Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb's Army Group North, informs his immediate superiors and both von Leeb and Commanding General of 16th. Army Ernst Busch are well informed of all these Kovno actions. Hungary now enters the war as an Axis partner. On June 28th. 5,000 of Brest-Litovsk’s Jews are murdered as are 1,500's of Iasi’s Jews, also murdered with more than 8,000 Jews of Iasi being eventually murdered in the coming days. The Germans entered Daugavpils (Dvinsk, Dunaburg)
Saturday June 28th. 1941"..10 dead. all Jews." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich.
We know that from here, there is no going back and the Jews would pay the ultimate penalty for their existence. Here, Heydrich demonstrates the intention to deal with the Jews, exclusively, and this must be considered, in light of the escalating destruction that had moved gradually from Jewish Men, Jewish POW's and onto Jewish Women and Children. In the context of what Hitler had clearly intended, the Jews would be met with a destructive force that would not allow any of their number to survive. For those who do Survive, it is an unimaginable pressure which we finally seek for them to recount the horror of Hitler's systematic resolve to destroy all Jews. On June 29th. Einsatzgruppe 'A' acknowledges the murder of 2,300 of Kovno’s Jews by now and a Massacre of Kovno’s Jews is filmed. The Iasi pogrom begins and will leave 8,000 Murdered within a week.
On June 30th. 11,000 of Dvinsk’s Jews are Murdered as are 300 of Lutsk’s Jews, 90 of Dobromil’s Jews as 300 of Amsterdam’s Jews are deported to Mauthausen.
"..June 1942 ..entrusted by Gruppenfuhrer Mueller ..task of obliterating ..traces of executions carried out by ..Einsatzgruppe in the East." Paul Blobel.
On June 1st. 1942 2,000 of Cracow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec and Jews must now wear 'The Jewish Star' in France and Holland. What some might consider a label, many Jews wear their badge with pride and honour.
Monday 1st. June 1942 "..two Jewish women ..mother and ..daughter ..gone ..from Rudki to Bodzentyn. ..Germans ..went into ..woods ..then shot them." David Rubinowicz.
On June 2nd. 3,000 of Kobrin’s Jews are murdered at Bronna Gora as First deportations of German Jews is made toward Theresienstadt while Viennese Jews are deported to the Minsk Ghetto for possible ‘resettlement’ at Maly-Trostinets.
Tuesday June 2nd. 1942 "..700,000 Jews killed in Poland." BBC.
On June 3rd. a transport of 2,000 of Cracow's Jews are murdered at Belzec and elsewhere, Breslau Jews fight back. On June 4th. a transport of 2,000 of Cracow's Jews are murdered at Belzec and Heydrich dies as America declares war on Romania.
Friday June 5th. 1942 Rauff Report. "..normal capacity of ..gassing vans 9 ..10 persons per square metre." SS Oberstrumbannfuhrer Walter Rauff.
On June 5th. 97,000 Jews are murdered in mobile gassing vans, Rauff’s SS report declares. As Breslau Jews end their resistance, 3,000 of their Jews are Murdered. The Wehrmacht besieges Sevastopol. On June 6th. the Cracow Ghetto is liquidated and 6,000 of Cracow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec over these past 3 days. Elsewhere 3,000 of Biala-Podlaska’s Jews are murdered while Eichmann insists residents of a Coblenz mental institution join a deportation to Lublin. On June 7th. All Jews in Occupied France must now wear The Jewish Yellow Star as the Deportation of 4,000 of Cernowitz’s Jews to Transnistria begins.
On June 8th. a further 7,000 of Cracow’s Jews have been 'resettled' Belzec in week as the Pilica Jewish Council urges escape and Pilica Jews resist. However, 3,000 of Pilica’s Jews are murdered at Belzec. On June 9th. the Germans begin the murders at Lidice with some remnants of Lidice’s Jewry ending up at Belzec as a reprisal for Heydrich's assassination. On June 10th. 1,000 of Prague’s Jews are murdered in the East as the Germans completely destroy Lidice. Meanwhile the Wehrmacht commences its Don Front Offensive. On June 11th. Eichmann plans for the deportations of Belgian, French and Dutch Jews. On June 12th. 10,000 of Tarnow’s Ghetto Jews are murdered Belzec in a 2 day period and Anne Frank is 13 years old.
On June 13th. 3,000 of Theresienstadt’s Jews are 'murdered’ and on June 14th. the entire Dzisna Jewish Community is murdered at Piaskowe-Gora. That is 4,000 Jews over a 2 day period. Elsewhere, the deportation of 450 of Dorohoi’s Jews to Transnistria begins and 4,000 Jews from the Old Kingdom and Southern Transylvania are also deported to Transnistria. On June 15th. 1,800 of Borki’s Jews are murdered and Riga requires a 2nd. gassing van while Eichmann is forced to accede to Russian offensive transport demands. Harold Tittmann, America’s chargé d'affaires to the Vatican,, reports back to the US State Department on Pope Pius XII’s seeming willingness not to see Hitler’s mounting atrocity toward the Jews.
Wednesday June 17th. 1942 "..German Government has decreed ..within 6 months all ..Jews ..Croatia ..transferred to Germany ..where ..2,000,000 Jews ..killed. ..same fate awaits ..Croatian Jews." Gieuseppe Marcone.
On June 18th. the German offensive in Russia fully impinges upon the ‘resettlement’ transports for Hitler’s Final Solution. Both Jozef Gabcik and Jan Kubis who had earlier assassinated Reinhard Heydrich were discovered in Saints Cyril and Methodius Church Prague and are killed alongside others of the Czechoslovakian’s partisan groups.
Thursday June 18th. 1942 "..Well ..this whole scribbling doesn’t make any sense. It is a fact we are not going to survive. ..world will know about everything without my wise notes." Elsa Binder.
In the midst of the disaster unfolding in the Stanislawow Ghetto, Elsa, who had already lost her Sister Dora, possibly in Belzec, was busy smuggling and scribbling these notes for us. Stanislawow is tragically written into the fabric of Hitler’s Belzec, where the remains of a community adds a testimony to the Jewish struggle to persist.
June 19th. 1942. "..News is filtering through of recent ghastly massacres of Jews in Nazi Europe. Some 85,000 Men, Women, Children are mentioned in reports to hand." The Jewish Chronicle.
June 19th. By now, 11,500 Jews from the Tarnow Ghetto have reached Belzec and are Murdered there while 100's of her Jews are taken to nearby Zbylitowska-Gora and are Murdered there. As Glebokie’s Jews resist, they are crushed and 2,500 of them are murdered in the Borek Forest.
Saturday June 20th. 1942. "..Germany ..no longer persecuting ..Jews. It is systematically exterminating them." OSS Report. (US Intelligence)
June 20th. A Report from Lisbon reaches The United States Office of Strategic Services and it clearly states Hitler’s Final Solution of The Jewish Question is an exterminatory one.
Sunday June 21st. 1942 "..there is only ..small ..rapidly dwindling percentage left of ..24,000 Jews originally living in Kamenets-Podolsky." Fritz Jacob.
As a member of a Police killing squad, Fritz Jacob would be only too aware of the role played by his own Police force in the murder operations against the Jews. Working alongside the Einsatzgruppe, Fritz Jacob, and fellow high ranking Police Fuhrer, Rudolf Querner, built upon their task which was not limited to mere policing operations. On June 22nd. the First transports from Drancy are ‘resettled to Auschwitz and the following day June 23rd. French Jews are selected for gassing at Birkenau. On June 24th. 1,000's of Lvov Jews are murdered at Janowska and Piaski Camps, both of which were feeder camps for Hitler’s Belzec. On June 25th. The London Daily Telegraph reported having received information from the exiled Polish government that the Germans were planning to murder all Polish Jews. The newspaper will carry details of the murders committed in eastern Poland with 50,000 Jews having been slaughtered in Vilnius and as terror ruled the Warsaw Ghetto, the real truth cannot be disguised. Knowledge too of the mobile Gassing Operations that were in use is clearly known. At the same time, the Jewish Chronicle was more forthright about the same information.
Thursday June 25th. 1942 "..hideous details ..read like tales from ..imagination of ..maddened creature seeking to portray a nightmare of hell. ..average mind simply cannot believe ..reality of such sickening revelations ..or that men ..even ..vilest and most bestial ..could be found to perpetrate such disgusting orgies of sadistic mania." The Jewish Chronicle.
On June 26th. the Czech deportation Conference confirms that 52,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children are to be deported. On June 28th. 5,000 Jews from Przemyzsl are transported toward Belzec and the following day, June 29th. the Jews of Slonim resist and Hitler’s Reich realises it cannot realise the final resolve without a Jewish expression of contempt.
Tuesday June 30th. 1942 "..More than 1,000,000 Jews Killed in Europe." Daily Telegraph.
On June 30th. 15,000 of Slonim’s Jews are killed and a 2nd. gas chamber is now functioning at Birkenau. Elsewhere all Jewish schools in Germany are closed as Emanuel Ringelblum was fully fashioning his Oneg Shabbat! The extent of the Slaughter has been made increasingly obvious to those who wish to observe. Emanuel Ringelblum will rally those who see their demise approach and will record in great detail all that Hitler did not wish to be known.
Tuesday June 30th. 1942 "..Jewish population ..living under ..impact of news from London. ..world has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. For many ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does ..world know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was ..world not outraged 10's of 1,000's of Jews ..shot ..at Ponary. ..10's of 1,000's of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100's of 1,000's of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia (AUSCHWITZ). ..slaughter in Vilna ..180,000 ..in Rostov ..Jews ..murdered ..in Kiev (BABI YAR). ..blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious. ..Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station .knew nothing about it. ..if London knew ..next day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100's of 1,000's murdered Jews. ..a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!" Emanuel Ringelblum.
As 1943 approaches, the month of June will see the escalation of destruction, liquidation and annihilation gather speed with the Berezhany Ghetto Liquidated. The Dabrowa-Gornicza Ghetto Liquidated. The Tarnopol Ghetto Liquidated and with Jewish Armed Resistance begins in the Bedzin Ghetto, continues in the Bialystok Ghetto, the Czestochowa Ghetto, the Lvov Ghetto and again in the Tarnow Ghetto as the Warsaw Ghetto revolt continues.
"..All ..members ..Jewish Fighting Organisation who have survived ..all Jewish youths capable of fighting ..called on to continue ..struggle." Isaac 'Antek' Zuckerman.
On June 1st. 1943 over 3,000 Dutch Jews are murdered at Sobibor as Jewish Resistance mounts to the Lvov Ghetto liquidation, where 3,000 are killed and more than 20,000 of Lvov’s Jews have already been murdered. Here HSSPF Brigadefuhrer Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Katzmann reported on Lvov's Jewish attempt to resist.
"..Jews tried every means to evade evacuation. ..We were compelled ..to act brutally. ..We had to blast and burn many houses." Friedrich Katzmann.
On June 3rd. Himmler issues instructions for schooling of such expertise as might be demanded for the Sonderkommando '1005' action to be taken at Janowska Camp. On June 5th. over 1,200 Dutch Jews are murdered at Sobibor and on June 6th. 1,000 of Tluste’s Jews and 1,000 of Rohatyn’s Jews are murdered. On June 8th. over 5,000 Dutch Jews murdered at Sobibor while over 800 of Salonika’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz. On June 11th. Himmler orders the liquidation of all the Ghetto’s in Poland. On June 12th. Anne Frank is 14 years old and on June 20th. 2,000 of Tarnopol’s Jews are murdered. There will be more than 10,815 of Tarnopol’s Jews eventually murdered. On June 21st. Himmler orders the liquidation of any Ghetto’s in all occupied lands.
Monday June 21st. 1943 "..All ..Jews still ..in .ghetto’s ..Ostland ..to be shut in concentration camps. ..Inmates of ..Jewish ghetto’s ..not required are to be evacuated ..East." Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler.
The euphemism of mass murder permeates the entire verbal construction of terms and means to define the destruction of The Jews of Europe. Himmler of course pronounces such a declaration as a script that will not be written, as a course of events that must not be recorded but with a message which Hitler will receive and approve of. On June 25th. the Czestochowa Ghetto is liquidated with a further 1,000 of her Jews transported to Auschwitz. On June 26th. 2,000 of Dabrowa-Gornicza’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz. On June 27th. 13,000 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered in a week long aktionen. On June 28th. four new crematoria are completed at Auschwitz-Birkenau. On June 30th. Katzmann, the Higher SS and Police Fuhrer for Galicia sought to praise those who had undertaken the slaughter of innocent Jews as a manner of stress alleviation:
"..Despite ..extreme stress ..mood ..morale ..exceptionally good ..praiseworthy. ..by a personal sense of duty ..every officer ..man ..able to overcome this pestilence." Friedrich Katzmann.
On June 1st. 1944 Joel Brand's mission reaches Syria and on June 4th. American troops now occupy Rome. On June 5th. Joel Brand is in Aleppo and on June 6th. With the D-day landings and this Allied invasion of Normandy, Allied troops are waging War against Hitler on three Fronts. Joel Brand is arrested on British authority and on June 7th. Joel Brand meets with Moshe Shertok, head of the Palestine Jewish Agency’s Political Department. These Jewish officials in Palestine are now appraised of the threat toward Hungary's Jews. On June 8th. Joel Brand is moved to Haifa as, on the following day, June 9th. Hannah Szenes is arrested in Hungary. On June 10th. 642 inhabitants of Oradour-sur-Glane, Men, Women and Children, were Murdered by a Waffen SS unit from 2nd. SS Panzer Division (Das Reich).
The Community was forced into the local Church and incendiary devices were placed around the building! The Church was set alight and Those who sought to escape were machine gunned. In total, 190 Men, 247 Women and 205 of Their Children, all Innocent Civilians, were Murdered. On June 12th. Germany launches first V-1 rockets at England and Anne Frank is 15 years old. On June 14th. the Jewish population of Corfu, some 1,800 Jews are transported to Auschwitz. On June 16th. Chelmno resumes its killing operations and a further 3,000 of Lodz’s Jews are 'resettled' to Chelmno. On June 18th. Russians break through Mannerheim Line as the Allies take Assisi. On June 22nd. there are the 1st. gassings at Ravensbrueck where 2,000 will be murdered by 'Zyklon B.' 700 of Boryslaw’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz.
On June 23rd. there are more of Lodz’s Ghetto Jews murdered at Chelmno as a newer Russian Offensive starts. On June 26th. over 480 of Fossoli’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz as US Reconnaissance Aircraft photograph the Auschwitz and Birkenau Murder operation. On June 27th. and with over 380,000 of Hungary's Jews who are already sent to Auschwitz, more than 250,000 of these Hungarian Jews have already been murdered at Auschwitz. Elsewhere the Americans take Cherbourg and on June 29th. some 20,000 Jewish Women are force marched from Auschwitz to the Stutthof Camp. Meanwhile the Koldyczewo Camp is liquidated. As 2,000 of the Jewish Survivors are shot into a pit. Hitler now sacks 2 of his most competent Generals, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in a fit of pique.
On June 30th. over 1,100 Jews from Paris are transported to Auschwitz as more than 600 Italian Jews are deported toward Fossoli, a transit Camp en-route to Auschwitz. Almost 2,500 Italian Jews reached Auschwitz from Fossoli. An appeal is now made to the British War Cabinet for the release of Joel Brand. On June 5th. 1945 the Allies section Germany and partition Berlin as the Allies now Govern Germany. On June 12th. Anne Frank would have been 16 years old. And on June 14th. Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler’s Foreign Minister is captured in Hamburg.
On June 26th. The United Nations Charter is Signed in San Francisco by 50 Nations. Robert Jackson departs Washington to meet with his Allied counterparts in London to discuss legal proceedings against Nazi officials. Numerous disagreements are discussed, including whether to use the adversarial system favoured by the Americans and British, or the inquisitive system favoured by the French and Soviets. For over 800 years, a declaration has been signed by various Countries on the need to punish those who commit atrocities in War as 23 Signatories agree to go forward with an International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. These are:
15) New Zealand,
The Allies agree to prohibit the use of the defence of superior orders, although they agree to allow its consideration in mitigation of sentence. Perhaps the underlying concern with Nuremberg will be the comparative relationship some wish to place before the Tribunal, world events with acts committed against Cities and its peoples. Hiroshima, Nagasaki and even Dresden were used as some sort of equation that would somehow tip the scale of justice? In truth, the murders of 6,000,000 Jews is not comparative on any scale, is a separate issue of Crimes Against Humanity, where Laws of Governments and International States are supplanted by immoral codes and acts of murderous contempt for that rule of Law.
On June 3rd. 1946 General Alfred Jodl testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. A week later on June 10th. Arthur Seyss-Inquart testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On June 12th. Anne Frank would have been 17 years old. On June 14th. Franz von Papen testifies at his Nuremberg Trial and a week later on June 21st. Albert Speer testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On June 7th. 1951 Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Naumann, Otto Ohlendorf, Georg Schallermair and Hans Schmidt are all executed. On June 23rd. 1952 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Willi Rudolf Haase Hanged for his Crimes Against the Jews of Poland.
On June 1st. 1962 Adolf Eichmann is Hanged for his Crimes Against the Jews of Humanity, in a Ramla Prison! His ashes are scattered in the Mediterranean.
June 7th. 1979 Pope John Paul II visits Auschwitz and delivers a speech which should have emanated from the Vatican during many a Pontiff’s reign:
"..concentration camp. ..this place ..built for ..negation of faith ..in God and ..man ..to trample radically not only on love but on all signs of human dignity ..of humanity. A place built on hatred and on contempt for man in ..name of a crazed ideology. A place built on cruelty. On ..entrance gate ..is placed ..inscription
'Arbeit macht frei'
..a sardonic sound ..its meaning ..radically contradicted by what took place within. ..In this site of ..terrible slaughter that brought death to 4,000,000 people. ..in ..gas chamber of ..camp. ..In ..place of terrible devastation of humanity and human dignity there is victory of humanity. ..Can it still be a surprise to anyone that the Pope born and brought up in this land ..Pope who came ..from ..diocese in whose territory is situated ..Auschwitz ..should have begun his first Encyclical with ..words ..should have dedicated it as a whole to ..cause of man ..to ..dignity of man ..to ..threats to him ..and finally to his inalienable rights that can so easily be trampled on and annihilated by his fellowmen. Is it enough to put man in a different uniform ..arm him with ..apparatus of violence. Is it enough to impose on him an ideology in which human rights are subjected to ..demands of ..system ..completely subjected to them ..so as in practice not to exist at all. ..I have gone down to Maximilian Kolbe's death cell and kneeled in front of ..execution wall and passed among ..ruins of ..cremation furnaces of Birkenau. It was impossible for me not to come here as Pope. ..I kneel before all the inscriptions that come one after another bearing ..memory of ..victims of Birkenau in languages ..Polish ..English ..Bulgarian ..Romany ..Czech ..Danish ..French ..Greek ..Hebrew ..Yiddish ..Spanish ..Flemish ..Serbo Croat ..German ..Norwegian ..Russian ..Romanian ..Hungarian ..Italian. In particular I pause with you ..before ..inscription in Hebrew. This inscription awakens ..memory of ..People whose sons and daughters were intended for total extermination. ..I speak not only because of ..4,000,000 victims of this vast field." Pope John Paul II.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Tue, June 13, 2017 21:24:59
"..Under these skies ..I can actually touch and feel their presence that no longer exists." Halina Birenbaum.
By definition alone, the term for The Death Camps cannot sustain alone the Camps which administered Death to those sent toward them. The Death Camps were a series of establishments where the systematic nature of the destructive capacity was driven by Hitler’s sheer demand for a Final Solution of The Jewish Question. On an industrial scale, these x6 Death Camps Hitler had established in Poland, for specific reasons and these dealt with the mechanised nature of the Slaughter. Untold numbers of Jews, and others, were dispatched from this life within their confines, or more than 3,600,000 Jews of The Holocaust.
I have now walked under those same skies Halina mentions and I too have felt the presence of all that 'no longer exists'. So wherever I go in terms of my own references with regard to The Holocaust, there are those who have given their lives so that we can learn. That learning should choose to ignore the terms of intolerance which were allowed to consume 'their presence'. I am constantly reminded by so many, who experienced these inhuman and atrocious events, and even by those who did not Survive, what humanity has lost. There is with a certainty from those Survivors, all of whom we seek out to this day for an understanding of what is our demand on them.
However, in all of History there is no choice I would sooner make than to reference from those Jews whose message compels us to learn. As we attempt to understand and seek out the comprehension of such events which always continue to escape us, we ask so much of those who seek to leave the awful nature of their tribulations behind. I am here to commend Halina Birenbaum, and I am indebted to her for her dedication to those messages I have been in search of for the past 20 years. Her clear acknowledgement that 'Hope is the Last to Die' has driven an element of my appreciation of that very need to comprehend. Halina Birenbaum knows all too well what she, along with all those Jews who managed to Survive all that Hitler threw at them, KNOW!
But there are 6,000,000 of Halina’s fellow Jews whose message has been somewhat blunted by events and are lost in the confines of those spaces assigned to their destruction. Those, whose terse reply to the atrocity inflicted upon them, and whose annihilation has not been allowed any form of justice, which we should demand on their behalf, seek a space in our History which many would deny them. I cannot share other than these Jews’ own 'personal evidence' as the reflections of their direst situation. And it is that systematic assault which swallowed 6,000,000 of these Jews whole. But, with those who Survived to add to the testimony of mounting evidence, we have a factual truth which measures the distance from the loss we should now feel belongs to all of humanity.
"..number tatooed on my left arm ..personal evidence from Auschwitz ..attracts ..attention of many people. ..an incomprehensible ..strange mark ....a painful souvenir of ..cruel times of Nazism ..for me ..a kind of certificate of maturity." Halina Birenbaum.
But I sincerely wish to tackle what it is I feel I have clearly stated, but that some feel I have become entrenched in. For me, there is a distinction between Concentration Camp's, Labour Camp’s, POW Camp’s and Death Camp's. While all of these Camps dealt in the Death and even Destruction of those Jews, or others, sent or detained there, it is these x6 Death Camps alone which were clearly elected as other than a containment facility. Now while the vast majority of those Jews who were Killed or were Murdered within the Camp system, where they were expelled from life, it is the Death Camp that was designed solely for the mechanised and industrialised scale of mass murder they can attest to. This fully brings me to a conundrum which Maly-Trostinets presents.
"..carried out ..execution ..70 ..80 people ..executed in ..Minsk ..trench ..dug ..persons ..to die ..placed in front of it ..shot with carbines. ..10 people ..shot ..by an execution force of 30 ..40 men. SS Standartenfuhrer Walter Blume.
Maly-Trostinets was at once a Russian POW Camp some 8 miles from Minsk, and it was clearly established as such and a Labour Camp for the procurement of personnel for military demands. But here, and I have no authority either way to decide or even declare the appropriate status of a Death Camp, though I recognise their form, and this is where I suggest Maly-Trostinets does not conform to the recognised nature of those x6 Death Camps Hitler had established in Poland. I postulate an opinion merely as a choice made to differentiate between the x6 of these Death Camps that are in Poland, and the Concentration Camp's, of which there were many 1,000's, that were spread far and wide and wherever Hitler's forces reigned, including Maly-Trostinets. Over the duration, two Einsatzgruppe's, both B, under SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann and Einsatzgruppe C under SS Brigadefuhrer Otto Rasch were located at varying times in and around Minsk.
"..Einsatzgruppe B reported regularly ..to ..Reich Main Security Office. Written reports ..every three weeks ..small matters ..by radio. ..reports ..submitted to me." SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann.
With units of SK1b, EK 7a, EK 7b, EK7e (Vorkommando Moscau) and EK8 heavily involved in and around Minsk and its environs, it was these detachments which singled out the Jews foir Slaughter at Maly-Trostinets. By Sunday 13th. July 1941 Einsatzgruppe B had established a camp in Minsk at the civilian prison, and Jews are murdered in those first days of German occupation. Here is where SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler came to witness for himself what Hitler had ordained as he was present at a Minsk ‘Aktionen’ in August 1941.
Monday September 29th. 1941 "..large scale anti Jewish action ..carried out in ..Lachoisk .. Minsk ..920 Jews ..executed 'entsprechend behandelt' ..with ..a kommando of ..SS Division Das 'Reich'. ..village may now be described as 'free of Jews'." OSR 92.
The arrival of the first Jews from Hamburg signalled an altering in the status of Minsk as merely a local Ghetto and this, on November 10th. 1941, was but part of the Reich transports toward Minsk. As we approach May 8th. 1942, the use of the Gassing Vans were put into temporary service at the Killing Site that is Maly-Trostinets. As has been witnessed along the full axis of Einsatz efforts, when the bullet and the shooter became too close for their own comfort, it was decided that the killing apparatus should be removed from the immediacy of the sensitivity of the personnel. Let us not forget it was this exact same personnel which shot 1,250,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children.
"..received ..Fuhrer Order concerning ..killing ..Jews ..Gypsies ..Soviets." SS Brigadefuhrer Erich Naumann.
What I have always sought to suggest, as in those x6 particular Death Camps, which I have seen defined as such, was their capacity to destroy all those Jews, and others, detailed to them for Destruction. This does not diminish in any way the capacity for Murder seen at Dachau, Gross-Rosen, or in fact Maly-Trostinets. At Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, the mechanised manner and industrialised scale of the Slaughter has been clearly recognised. Their Gassing capabilities have become witness to a mass Slaughter beyond our comprehension and their status, with a Murderous consequence for all those Jews sent toward them, was immense. The Catastrophic effects were felt by more than half of the 6,000,000 People of the Jewish who have become recognised as the Jews of The Holocaust.
"..I am in Warsaw ..I am here. ..hard to grasp who I actually am. But it is actually here that I understand and know everything most precisely." Halina Birenbaum.
With Hitler's Final Solution gaining momentum, Belzec nor any of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camps was capable of an influx of any of Minsk's Jews. der Einsatzgruppe 'B', operational throughout Byelorussia was systematically slaughtering the Jewish population there. At will, and with the containment in any of the East's holding pens, which were being cleared of those POW's now dead from Disease or mistreatment and even Murder, all was being prepared for a newer Jewish intake. But these Labour Camps and the POW Camps all now made way for the further containment of those Jews who are being steadily forced East. Of those Jews now detained in and around Minsk, Minsk's Jews too were shot or otherwise Murdered as soon as appropriate measures could be exacted. Killing operations against the Jews in the wider Byelorussian, Russian and Ukrainian arena's continued with Einsatz aktionen and at a pace unprecedented in all of History.
"..Nebe ..turned ..to ..Werner ..ordered him to have ..me ..to Minsk. ..blow up a bunker ..mentally ill patients inside ..at Mogilev. ..Nebe had ..window bricked in ..gas hose. ..fixed ..exhaust ..touring car. ..five minutes ..nothing ..happened. ..eight minutes ..unable to detect any result. ..second hose fitted onto a transport vehicle belonging to ..regular police. ..another few minutes ..people ..unconscious. ..vehicles ..running ..ten minutes." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Albert Widmann.
So what do we do about the status of Maly-Trostinets, as a Russian POW Camp and as a formative Labour Camp under Einsatzgruppe 'B's jurisdiction. I guess we have to draw a line in spaces where The Holocaust connects with each of us. We surely must decide on when The Holocaust commenced and when Hitler’s Final Solution was ground to a halt. Otherwise we might be forced to accept the detail of Kielce with 42 Surviving Jews who were Murdered in 1946 by Polish bigots. This, even after so much had become known of what 3,000,000 Polish Jews had been forced to endure and had succumbed to Hitler’s designs for them. More than 1,000 Jewish Survivors were Murdered in Poland, immediately after liberation had freed them from Hitler's hold.
Or do we include the Jews murdered in the pogroms prior to World War I, in a period between 1903 and 1906 when more than 700 Jews were Murdered for being Jews? At Odessa in 1905 over 400 Jews were killed, at Bialystok in 1906 where as many as 200 Jews were killed, at Kalarash in 1905 where 60 Jews were killed, at Kishinev in 1903 where 49 Jews were killed or at Siedlce in 1906 where 39 Jews were killed, and all of these were prior to Hitler's rise to power. Of course, these pogroms and anti-Jewish hatreds cannot be allowed to cloud the certainty of what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Given Hitler's rampant hatred for the Jews and the repugnance of an antisemitism which proliferated these areas of the East, we recognise and identify with the labels we have attached to the places of execution, death and destruction. There should be not confusion, no ambiguity over this certainty with what we wish to add to History. Which is where I arrive now to add to an impression which a POW Camp and Labour Camp’s status also wishes to add to our knowledge and appreciation as to why intolerance must never win again.
The villages of Maly-Trostinets and Bolshoi-Trostinets, situated some 8 miles from Minsk were the centre of Einsatzgruppe operations against the Jews of Minsk. The Killing Site at the Blagoveshchena Forest, which was itself about 3 miles from Maly-Trostinets, took those killed in Gassing vans and those Murdered at the edges of the pits dug there. There was a direct and continuing line of transports from Theresienstadt to Maly-Trostinets and while we Remember the 140,000 Jews sent to Theresienstadt, 33,000 of whom Died there, more than 86,000 of these Jews found their way to Auschwitz, Riga and then Minsk. Of those who entrained for Minsk, many died in the Ghetto there, or were Murdered by Einsatz aktionen in and around Maly-Trostinets or in the Blagoveshchena Forest. This was accomplished in both shooting operations and Gassing Vans, not as a systematic operation as we might witness in a Death Camp. Even though the Einsatz aktionen was a systematic sweep of local areas, this cannot constitute the significant differences affords to the x6 Death Camps.
"..SS Brigadefuhrer Zenner and ..SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr ..Strauch ..we ..liquidated ..55,000 Jews ..White Ruthenia. ..Minsk ..Jewry ..completely exterminated." Generalkommisar Wilhelm Kube.
As transports were directed toward Minsk and Maly-Trostinets, these resettlement efforts were interrupted at varying stages. Gassing Vans of der Einsatzgruppe took away 1,000's from these transports as did EinsatzKommando and SonderKommando units. These aktion groups, who shot many more 1,000's as part of their overall remit for Hitler's Final Solution, were a subsidiary force to The Death Camps detail and order. Maly-Trostinets, as a designated destination for Minsk's Jews, and Jews from the Reich, was both interrupted and inconsistent in that specific detail which designated all Death Camps. The fact that none of the x6 Death Camps came under Einsatzgruppe jurisdiction, whereas Maly-Trostinets did, is another pointer to the obvious difference. Maly-Trostinets similarity's with any of those Camp's designated as Death Camp's were either vague or too dissimilar as to present a non-coherent position of design.
If we look at Lodz Jews who were taken to Chelmno and systematically destroyed in Gassing vans, no whole scale shooting operations were employed. Many Jews of Minsk did make their way to Maly-Trostinets and were killed either en-route, by use of Gassing Vans or more likely shooting operations at Blagoveshchena Forest conducted by Einsatz kommandos. I have no wish to redraw the parameters of what has clearly designated all routes toward eradicating and annihilating the Jews of Europe. However, Maly-Trostinets had more in common with the operations at BabiYar, a Killing Site, than with Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or Treblinka, all x6 of Hitler's Death Camps he had established within Poland.
"..in Treblinka. ..How many answers will I find there. ..I will not run away from ..memories ..from ..stories ..from reading them ..writing about them. I will not flee to god who in this inferno revealed once and for all his nonexistence in such a decisive and unequivocal way." Halina Birenbaum.
So with a little overview of Maly-Trostinets, I hope I have expressed a valid purpose in that, while All Jews were the Victims, all Jewish Victims were not all Victims in Death Camps or at the hands of der Einsatzgruppe. As of Tuesday May 12th. 1942 and on consecutive Friday's and Tuesday's till August, a transport from the Reich made its way toward Minsk. There were some 14 transports of 19,000 Jews from Theresienstadt alone. Many of these were subsequently shot or Gassed into pits in the Blagoveshchena Forest and interred by a special kommando formed there. Some of these burial kommandos where formed to replenish that exhausted kommando or even selected for labour at Maly-Trostinets. On August 4th. 1942 1,000 Jews from Theresienstadt were transported to the Minsk Ghetto and on August 10th. 1942 960 of those Jews were detrained at the Blagoveshchena Forest, Gassed in Gas Vans while been driven to a clearing and interred in the already prepared pits.
On August 25th. 1942 1,000 more of Theresienstadt's Jews were directed toward the Minsk Ghetto and on August 31st. 1942 978 of those Jews met with the same fate as those Jews who had been Gassed at the Blagoveshchena Forest days before. On September 23rd. 1942 more than 2,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and murdered at Maly-Trostinets and again on September 26th. 1942 more than 2,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and murdered at Maly-Trostinets. All told, from September 19th. to September 29th. 1942 more than 11,000 Jews were transported toward Minsk and were murdered en-route to Maly-Trostinets. On October 21st. 1943 2,000 Jews of Minsk and some from Maly-Trostinets were Murdered in reprisal for the Sobibor Rising, which had had a large contingent of Jews from Minsk.
On June 30th. 1944 Hitler's acolytes had been removed from Maly-Trostinets and an SS contingent set about destroying the remaining detainees. Russian POW's, Minsk Civilians, Jews and those Jews of the Reich still alive, were grouped together into the wooden structures and burned to death or shot as they attempted to flee the flames. As they torched the whole fabric of the Camp, in line with Blobel's SK1005, no trace was to remain of this particular Camp. More than 86,000 Jews of Minsk had already been Murdered, but at Maly-Trostinets with 35,000 Jews who had been murdered under Einsatzgruppe 'B's authority, Minsk Jewry’s last days were not confined within Maly-Trostinets. But here the similarity begins and ends in the Destruction of the Jewish People. The Death Camps could not be considered other than Death Camps whereas Maly-Trostinets constituted both a POW Camp and a Labour Camp.
Maly-Trostinets was a place of Murder for Jew and non-Jew alike but was not specifically designed to cater for the Jews only, as the initial scale of Operation Barbarossa’s lightening speed of victory would prove for all captured Russian POW’s. Within the x6 Death Camps, others too of course were Murdered, as defined by Hitler's want or local peculiarity's, but their design and construct was for a Jewish resolve to the Final Solution. Also, Einsatzgruppe aktionen against Minsk's Jews was separated out from the Death Camps specific detail, so as to lessen the demands placed upon Einsatz killing operations. This did not become a part of Maly-Trostinets account for more than 35,000 Jews and as many as 65,000 Jews. Not for one moment do I suggest that Jews, and or others, were not Killed, Murdered Gassed, Shot or Exterminated to Death at May-Trostinets. Either on route to Maly-Trostinets or somewhere between Maly-Trostinets and Minsk. the evidence is unequivocal that the Jews were Murdered
"..Only now do I understand how much a person is attached to those places where there is a trace of ..past ..some remnant ..ashes of ..relatives ..echoes of their footsteps ..their customs ..their now silent voices." Halina Birenbaum.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Sat, May 20, 2017 11:46:28
On May 4th. 1924 the Nazi's secure 6.4% of the votes in the 'Reichstag' Elections and 4 years later, on May 20th. 1928 Nazi's secure a reduction to 2.5% of the votes in the Reichstag Elections. Hitler has a return of 12 Deputies. On May 6th. 1933 The Institute of Sexual Studies in Berlin is destroyed by pro-Nazi students over academic curiosity in the area of 'homosexual behaviour.' On May 10th. Ten's of thousands of Books are burned on the Unter den Linden, Berlin. More than 20,000 Books are burned opposite the University of Berlin and these are books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the state. Meanwhile, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise addressed 100,000 people in Battery Park, Manhattan, New York, to protest Nazi persecution of the Jews as we remind ourselves of what Heinrich Heine had to say:
"..Those who begin by burning Books end by burning People." Heinrich Heine.
On May 15th. The Jews of Paris protest for two days over the campaign of anti-Jewish measures within Germany.
Wednesday May 17th. 1933 "..Our boundless love for and loyalty to our own national traditions make us respect ..national claims of others." Adolf Hitler.
On May 17th. however, when it came to the Jewish People in Hitler’s mindset, no sovereignty would exist for them and no place would be found for them to live their lives. As a petition is handed to the League of Nations by a Jewish Delegation protesting Germany's anti-Jewish legislation, Hitler presses on with his resolve to end all Jewish existence. On May 23rd. the American Consul General, George S. Messerschmith reported back to the Secretary of State that Hitler's antisemitism had permeated German society to such a degree, that it would destroy Jewish private and business life for years to come, even if the persecution ceased immediately! On May 1st. 1934 Der Sturmer becomes one of Germany's most popular periodicals with the virulently antisemitic Julius Streicher as its editor. Streicher regurgitates the 'blood libel' lie on his front cover.
With its charge, The Blood Libel, or Ritual Murder Charge, manages to stir the antisemitic hatred of Der Sturmer's readers, regurgitating the Middle Ages accusation of Jewish guilt in the ritual murder of Christian's, especially their Children. With the absurd claim of Jewish usage of the blood of Christians for Religious ritual purposes, even in 1930’s enlightened times, such ignorance manifestly persisted. This libel all dates back to the Middle Ages, and even with the Catholic Church's later repudiation of the charge, this still had not stemmed the flow of antisemitic hatred. Adding this to Hitler’s growing anti-Jewish rhetoric, the assault upon the body of the Jewish People grew steadily more savage and prolonged. The Jewish People in all antiquity, who have been violated in assaults, pogroms and with the widespread destruction of entire Jewish Communities, it is little wonder that the Blood Libel lie festers and persists!
Also, and when we consider any aspect of this so called Blood Libel, we must regard it in light of Jewish Law, contained in Leviticus, that does not allow the consumption of any blood. This precipitates Der Sturmer becoming one of Hitler's favourite reads. Rudolf Hess now creates the Racial Policy Office of the National Socialist German Workers Party, or 'Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP.' On May 2nd. Congressman Louis T. McFadden delivers an antisemitic speech on the floor of the United States House of Representatives. On May 17th. German Jews are no longer entitled to health insurance and at New York's Madison Square Garden, thousands attend a pro-Nazi rally sponsored by the German-American Bund. On May 3rd. 1935 Hjalmar Schacht, Hitler’s Finance Minister subordinates all other tasks to that of Rearmament:
"..fulfilment of ..programme for rearmament on a mass scale is ..basis of German policy ..everything else must be subordinate to this task." Hjalmar Schacht.
On May 12th. the Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski dies and anti-Jewish measures now escalate within Poland. The government and most Polish political parties will call for discrimination, economic boycott, expulsion, and physical violence against Jews. The Polish Catholic Church, most priests, the Catholic press, and schools will also sanction discrimination and/or violence against the Jews. On May 14th. German edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion declared a forgery by Swiss Court in Bern and on May 21st. Hitler gives his Reichstag speech on peace. Also, with the Army Defence Law, it sees 'Aryan heritage' as a clear demand for military service as 'Jews Not Wanted' posters and signs spring up on restaurants, shops and at the entry point to villages throughout Germany. Schacht now becomes Plenipotentiary General for a War Economy.
The fullest exploitation of Lands, Goods, Valuables and possessions of all those declared alien to the Reich commences. This will lead to the depreciating wealth of the Jews, a move in direct contrast with the accumulation of further Reich wealth. The policy of persecuting the Jews, and the larceny thus gained was a matter of principle in Economic circles. Plunder of all Jewish assets was a matter of decree. On May 31st. Jews are banned from serving in the German Armed Forces. On May 28th. 1937 Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister in Britain. The following year on May 3rd. 1938 the Flossenburg Concentration Camp is established and on May 20th. Sudeten Germans seek German rule as a partial mobilisation in Czechoslovakia commences along the German border.
On May 28th. there is a boycott of Jewish businesses in Frankfurt and on May 29th. Hungary restricts the rights of its Jewish Citizens. The following day, May 30th. Hitler tells his Generals he is set to invade Czechoslovakia. On May 3rd. 1939 Viacheslav Molotov replaces Maksim Litvinov as Russian Foreign Minister and on May 15th. 900 women prisoners are transferred from Lichtenburg Concentration Camp to the newly established Ravensbrueck Camp. Meanwhile, the St. Louis leaves Hamburg for Cuba, with 734 Jewish refugees on board. On May 17th. in Britain, the MacDonald White Paper sets the seal on Jewish immigration to 50,000 Jews being allowed into Palestine over the coming 5 years. On May 22nd. Germany and Italy sign their 'Pact of Steel' as on May 23rd. Hitler is prepared to attack Poland.
During May 1940 Rudolf Hoess becomes Auschwitz Kommandant and as the Ciezanow Ghetto in Poland becomes established, we are aware that 5,000 Jews are Enclosed. The
Jasinovka Ghetto in Poland is also established and 3,000 Jews here are Enclosed and as the Zamosc Ghetto in Poland is established, 13,000 Jews here too are Enclosed. On May 1st. Norway surrenders. On May 6th. with the Siedlice Ghetto in Poland established a further 15,000 Jews are to be Enclosed. On May 10th. Hitler invades Belgium, France, Holland and Luxembourg with his forces. Martin Luther is appointed to Foreign Office Department, Deutschland and as Neville Chamberlain resigns as Britain's Prime Minister, Winston Churchill takes charge.
Friday May 10th. 1940 "..I felt as if I were walking with destiny ..that all my past life had been but a preparation for this hour and for this trial." Winston Churchill.
On May 14th. the Dutch Army surrenders and the following day May 15th. 1,000's of Jewish refugee’s are caught out by the sheer speed of the German assault as Holland is overrun and surrenders. On May 16th. Hitler’s plan to eradicate Polish intellectuals is assessed and following on from that, on May 17th. Germans occupy Brussels and the following day May 18th. they take Antwerp. On May 19th. Arthur Seyss Inquart is appointed Reich Commissioner over Holland. On May 20th. Auschwitz is now functioning as a containment centre and a deportation train with Romany Gypsies from Hamburg was sent straight to Belzec. Meanwhile, on May 21st. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Herbert Lange's Sonderkommando begins its operations in Soldau.
"..special command being under my command for particular tasks was sent to Soldau during ..time from May 21st. to June 8th. 1940 in accord with ..RSHA and has evacuated 1,588 insane persons from ..transition camp during that time." SS Gruppenfuhrer Jakob Sporrenberg.
On May 25th. Hitler receives a memo from Himmler on the Jewish treatment 'East' and the following day May 26th. the commencement of the evacuation of 338,000 British and French troops from Dunkirk begins. On May 27th. 1940. the Le Paradis Massacre against British Prisoner's of War was conducted by 14th Company, 3rd. ss Totenkopf Panzer Division. British Forces were in retreat toward Dunkirk at the time and troops from the 2nd Battalion, of the Royal Norfolk Regiment were defending a farmhouse surrounded by the waffen ss task force. Without ammunition, the British Troops surrendered. Of those 100 British Prisoner's of War, they were Machine Gunned against a wall and Murdered! On May 28th. Belgium capitulates.
The following day May 29th. the Slovak Government agrees to deport 120,000 of its Jewish People to Germany as Slave Labourers. On May 30th. Belzec, approximately 10,000 Jews from Lublin, Radom and the Warsaw district arrived at Belzec village and were distributed on toward several local labour camps. During May 1941 120 of Bucharest’s Jews are murdered and the Lachva Ghetto in Poland is established and 2,000 Jews are Enclosed. The Jewish Homes, Businesses, Cemeteries and Synagogues in Zagreb are destroyed. On May 1st. the Natzweiler Concentration Camp is established as the Gross-Rosen Concentration Camp an independent camp. On May 2nd. at a meeting of Reich Secretaries, it was concluded that any territorial solution 'East' would not be feasible given the requirement for all produce and supplies for German growth.
Thursday May 8th. 1941 "..General Komissar ..Estonia ..Latvia ..Lithuania will take measures to establish ..German Protectorate ..possible in ..future to annex these territories to ..German Reich. ..suitable elements among ..population must be assimilated ..undesirable elements exterminated." Alfred Rosenberg.
On May 10th. Hitler’s deputy Rudolf Hess lands in Scotland. On May 13th. Hitler issues Barbarossa Jurisdiction Order to all Military Commanders and the following day May 14th. 4,000 Jews from Paris are interned at Pithiviers. Meanwhile Romanian Jews are forced into labour and Martin Bormann succeeds Hess. On May 15th. some 12 or so Jewish Prisoner’s of War at the Biala-Podlaska detention camp are murdered at Konskowola. Meanwhile Marshal Petain pledges French cooperation with Germany. On May 16th. the Danica Concentration Camp is in operation as others in Croatia, Dakovo, Jadovno, Jasenovac where 4,000 Jewish Men are murdered, and Loborgrad where 4,000 Jewish Women are murdered seal the fate of their Jewish Citizens and Petain further approves collaboration with Hitler.
On May 20th. the Jews in France are prohibited from trading, from the ownership of banks, hotels or restaurants. These are all denied them. A regulation, signed by SS Gruppenfuhrer Walther Schellenberg, prevents all future Jewish emigration from Belgium or France in line with Goering's decree to ban all future Jewish emigration. This is of course in line with Hitler’s derailed plan, his final solution, to resolve the presence of the Jewish People on the European Continent. As difficult as it becomes to accept, and we cannot ever know the full extent of the Catastrophe, 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe represents a fraction of Hitler’s intended target as outlines at The Wannsee Conference, 11,293,300 Murdered Jews.
Tuesday May 20th. 1941 "..doubtless and imminent final solution." Hermann Goering.
On May 22nd Croatian Jews are forced to wear yellow badges and on May 29th. Father Maximilian Rajmund Kolbe arrives at Auschwitz and will establish a recognition of what Christian Charity must mean. On May 31st. Heydrich and General Eduard Wagner, the Wehrmacht’s Quartermaster, agrees upon respective roles and logistics for der Einsatzgruppe actions to be articulated and progressed in Russia. During May of 1942 the first mass gassings in Sobibor Death Camp took place. By now, more than 50,000 Jews will have been murdered in Sobibor since initial operations commenced. Sobibor was one of the x3 sister Camps of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camp system, the other’s being Belzec and Treblinka. The designation for the mass murder of those Jews sent to these Aktion Reinhard Death Camps was to memorialise in some way SS Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich role in Hitler’s Final Solution.
There is no ambiguity in this statement as to whose name adorns the most evident device in the slaughter of Jewish existence! As it would appear that some had sought to accredit a member of the finance ministry with the dubious honour of the title, which is now attributed to in excess of 2,000,000 Jews of Europe, Heydrich is not only the instigator of Hitler’s personal resolve to destroy all of European Jewry, his forename is the given in relation to all these x3 Aktion ‘Reinhard’ Death Camps. During the month of May alo, Dereczyn Ghetto in Poland was established and would see to 3,500 Jews being Enclosed. Also, the Kovel Ghetto in the Ukraine was established which would harness the ability to destroy 14,000 Jews soon to be Enclosed. The Gorlice Ghetto in Poland was also established in Dszelnice Dworszeska as the West is being gradually woken to the facts of the Jewish Destruction.
"..From ..day ..Russo German war broke out, ..Germans undertook ..physical extermination of ..Jewish Population on Polish territory." The German Bund.
Active in Poland, the Bund was the first organisation to notify the West, through the Polish Government in Exile of what the Germans were undertaking with regards to the Jewish Population. This was already recognised as the silently declared intention for the physical destruction of all Jews within Poland gathered pace. As accurate an analysis of the account raged against the Jews is made, we have the established details of the mass murder of so many Jews from so many Community’s. For all too many Jews, this is given in cold relief as sums, totals and figures which must never misrepresent the human presence they seek to define. Here we have 30,000 of Lvov's Jews, Murdered and 15,000 of Stanislawow's Jews, also Murdered! There are 5,000 of Tarnopol's Jews, Murdered and 4,000 of Brzezany's Jews, who are also Murdered!
Of Brzezany's Jewish population, which existed prior to Hitler's Invasion, of these 18,000 Jews, 16,300 had already been Murdered. The pace of the Slaughter does not waver as 2,000 of Zloczow's Jews are Murdered. The length and breadth of Poland, Jewish Community’s are removed from the former homes, in full view of those former neighbours who failed to save so many of their Jewish Cousins. In Brody, Drohobycz, Kolomyja, Kuty, Przemysl, Przemslany, Rawa Ruska, Sambor, Sniatyn, Stryj, Zaleszczyki, Zbaraz and Zborow, the fate of their Jewish Population was being sealed, devastated in pogroms which had no measure other than with Hitler’s clear intention to eradicate them fully. The Bund document also included the fate of the Jews of Galicia and alongside those Jews of The Baltic Regions, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
On May 1st. Artur Greiser, the Wartheland Gauleiter, sends a letter to Himmler which recognises the destruction of 100,000 Jews in the Lodz region alone. Meanwhile, 1,000 of Dvinsk’s Jews are murdered, where some 12,200 Jews have already been murdered. There are 245 Jewish Men, 242 Jewish Women and 22 Jewish Children in Daugavpils who were also Murdered. Elsewhere, all Slovak Jews are expelled toward Poland and will see a fee of 500 Reichmarcs being paid to the Reich for them to undertake each resettlement. On May 3rd. more than 20,000 of Prague's Jews have been 'resettled' and on May 4th. The selction for Gassing operations begins at Birkenau and by completion, more than 1,100,000 Jews would be Murdered there. Added to this assessment for the Jewish People, there is an untold ferocity also meted out to Gypsies, Poles, Homosexuals, Jehovahy’s Witnesses and so many others.
Tuesday May 5th. 1942 "..there's a good deal of mopping up taking place ..particularly amongst ..Jews. ..we just get on with it. That way we'll all be home quicker." Fritz Jacob.
Though not explicit, the comments which Jacob here addressed to a close acquaintance, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Rudolf Querner, cannot disguise what both knew was an annihilation of the Jews in Kamenets Podolsky. Secrecy, it seems, did not stretch to the odd hand written communication between consenting officials in the slaughter of the Jews they were both involved in. On May 8th. 5,670 of Lida’s Jews are murdered. On May 9th. Dachau Concentration Camp is to have a Large Crematorium and Gassing chamber and this will be located at Barracks 'X'. Meanwhile the Jews of Markuszow resist their captors and escape to the Wola Forest. On May 10th. 1,000 of Wolozyn’s Jews are murdered.
Tuesday May 12th. 1942. "..struggle against ..Jews ..implacable ..intensifying ..deportations ..mass executions. ..massacres of ..Jews in Ukraine ..nearly complete. In Poland and Germany they want to complete it ..with a system of mass murders." Abbot Pirro Scavizzi.
On May 12th. 1,000's of Gabin’s Jews are murdered at Chelmno while elsewhere, 2,500 of Ivye’s Jews are also murdered. On May 15th. 10,000 of Lodz’s Ghetto Jews are murdered at Chelmno and Hitler’s Belzec reopens for mass murder. More of Izbica Lubelska's Jews expelled to Belzec as Jewish Family Transports to Lublin from Slovakia commence. Meanwhile there is a Russian counter offensive at Kharkov. On May 16th. 4,500 of Pabiance’s Jews are murdered at Chelmno. On May 18th. The New York Times carries the facts of Jewish slaughter so far, 100,000 Jews murdered in The Baltic States, 100,000 Jews murdered in Poland and 200,000 Jews murdered in Russia. This is the bare assessment of an on-going assault against the entire Jewish Population of Europe which was in evidence for almost an entire year now.
On May 21st. 3,000 of Brzeziny’s Jews are murdered in a 3 day operation at Chelmno as the I.G. Farben industrial enterprise establishes a factory at Auschwitz. This is Monowitz, or Auschwitz III and is now in operation. On May 23rd. 4,000 of Chelm’s Jews are murdered at Sobibor in a 3 day operation. Also, 2,000 of Ozorkow Jews are murdered at Chelmno in a 3 day operation. The entire Jewish Community of Dolginovo is murdered in a 2 day operation as 100's of Wlodawa’s Jews are also murdered. On May 26th. both Britain and Russia sign a mutual assistance treaty. On May 27th. 2,000 of Zamosc’s Jews are murdered at Belzec as Heydrich becomes the target of an assassination. Elsewhere Belgian Jews are ordered to wear the Yellow Star as Hitler’s Wehrmacht beat’s back a Russian advance at Kharkov. On May 28th. 6,000 of Cracow’s Jews are murdered at Belzec and on May 29th. 3,000 of Radziwillow’s Jews resist with 1,500 of their community being killed. The Vichy Government of France bans ALL Jews from all Public places.
On May 31st. 1,000 Jews of Tyszowce are deported to Majdanek as an aktion takes place in Stryj and more than 600 of Parafianow’s Jews are also Murdered. All Jewish patients are Murdered in the Jewish hospital at Przemyslany as more than 600 of Luszki’s Jews are also Murdered. During May 1943 the Cluz Ghetto in Hungary established and as 16,000 Jews are Enclosed the approach of Hitler’s Final Solution has settled on Hungartian Jewry. The Drohobych Ghetto is Liquidated as ais the Ghetto of Stryj. On May 1st. 2,500 of Brody’s Jews are Murdered in the Liquidation of the Ghetto there. On May 4th. over 1,100 Dutch Jews are transported to Auschwitz and Sobibor.
Wednesday May 5th. 1943 "..In Poland there were ..about 4,500,000 Jews ..there remain ..only 100,000. ..Warsaw Ghetto containing ..650,000 ..only 20,000 ..25,000 Jews there. ..majority killed. ..Special death camps at Lublin (Majdanek) ..Treblinka near Brst-Litovsk. ..several hundred ..jammed into large rooms ..where they die by gassing." Vatican Memo.
May 5th. The Vatican produces a Memo which clearly acknowledges what it declares it knows of the fate of more than 4,500,000 Jews of Poland. It is a matter of fact that with such knowledge, the Church could not see fit to protest in more vigorous terms. There were Catholics back then who would have obeyed each and every instruction administered by the Church and would no doubt have confronted even Hitler. The legacy however stands to accuse all and everyone who stood aside and witnessed the parade of Jewish People toward certain destruction.
Friday May 7th.1943 "..raiding parties shoot 30 ..50 Jews each night. ..a considerable number of Jews are still underground. ..best and only method for destroying ..Jews ..remains ..setting of fires." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.
On May 7th. 1,000 of Zagreb’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz as elsewhere, the last 370 of Nowogrodek’s Jews are murdered. On On May 8th. and in the Warsaw Ghetto, the Headquarters of Jewish Resistance at 18 Mila Street, is surrounded and liquidated. Along with Mordechai Anielewicz, a further 97 Jewish Resistance Fighters Died that Day. Their refusal to succumb to the Nazi brutality will point the way toward all future Jewish Persistence and Resistance! 2 Jewish Fighters managed to Survive the onslaught while more than 50,000 of Warsaw's Jews have been murdered in recent months. On May 9th. over 600 of Skalat’s Jews as murdered as the German Afrika Korps surrenders in Tunisia.
Tuesday May 11th. 1943 "..responsibility for ..crime of ..murder of ..whole Jewish nationality in Poland rests first of all on those who are carrying it out ..but indirectly it falls also upon ..whole of humanity ..peoples of ..Allied nations and on their governments ..who up to this day have not taken any real steps to halt this crime. By looking on passively upon this murder of defenceless millions tortured children ..women and men they have become partners to ..responsibility...My friends in ..Warsaw ghetto fell. ..I did not succeed in dying ..same way or ..with them. ..I belong to them and ..mass graves there." Shmuel Zygielbojm.
On May 11th. as over 1,400 Dutch Jews are transported to Auschwitz and Sobibor,
Shmuel Zygielbojm sees no other way out of his dilemma to at least save some of the Jews of Poland and commits suicide. The legacy of such an act is recognised as a resistance of the Jewish spirit to stand so much taller thyan those who could have helped the Jews of Poland and could have at least assisted the Jews of The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
"..Thus far ..in that forsaken land ..more than 3,000,000 have been killed." Rabbi Michael Dov Weissmandel.
Rabbi Weissmandel was acting on behalf of the remnant of All European Jewry when he sought to persuade the West to negotiate through the 'Europa Plan.' With such a plan for the saving of what could amount to a further 1,000,000 Jewish People from destruction, this strong willed Jew went into the lions den. Weissmandel dealt with the Nazi cohorts, with Dieter Wisliceny, Eichmann's Deputy and who was the representative in Slovakia at the time, but could not persuade the West to act in one accord. On May 13th. 1,000 of Zagreb’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz as elsewhere Hitler’s Army and all Axis Forces in North Africa surrender.
Monday May 17th. 1943 "..Warsaw Ghetto is free of Jews." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.
On May 17th. 395 Berlin Jews are transported to Auschwitz as the Ruhr Dams are attacked by the RAF. On May 18th. over 2,500 Dutch Jews are transported to Auschwitz and Sobibor and on May 19th. Berlin is declared 'Judenrein,' Free of Its Jews. On May 21st. 1,000 of Busk’s Jews are murdered and the following day May 22nd. 1,000 of Stryj’s Jews are also murdered.
Monday May 24th. 1943 "..of ..56,065 caught ..7,000 were destroyed in ..former ghetto. ..6,929 were destroyed by transporting them to TII (Treblinka)." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.
On May 24th. there is a further rebellion which strikes at the Bialystok Ghetto, where 15,000 Jews have already been removed to Treblinka. Meanwhile, a protest by Sofia Jews saves over 19,000 of their number as the Bulgarian Government scatters its Jews to avoid German resettlement. Himmler transpers SS Oberfuhrer von Sammern-Frankenegg to Croatia over his inability to crush Jewish Resistance in Warsaw.
Tuesday, 25th. May 1943 "..holiest thing in ..world ..faith explains and defines all we ought to be ..how we ought to conduct ourselves and what we ought to believe." Moshe Flinker.
On May 25th. over 2,800 Dutch Jews are transported to Auschwitz and Sobibor and on May 27th. 3,000 of Tluste’s Jews are murdered and 2,500 of Sokal’s Jews are also murdered. During May 1944 the Des Ghetto in Hungary is established and 8,000 Jews will be Enclosed as the Kaposvar Ghetto in Hungary is also established and will have 5,000 Jews Enclosed. Elsewhere, the Lodz and Kosice Ghetto’s are Liquidated. On May 9th. the Russians retake Sevastopol and on May 11th. Allied forces mount a major offensive in central Italy. On May 15th. over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt are transported to Auschwitz and more than 870 Jews from Drancy are deported to Kovno and Reval. Meanwhile, Eichmann begins the deportation of Hungary's Jews to Birkenau with the assistance of the Hungarian Gendarmerie.
On May 16th. 2,500 Jews are transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz and over 500 of Fossoli’s Jews are also transported to Auschwitz as the full Hungarian action in Birkenau begins. On May 18th. 2,500 Jews are transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz as Polish Forces take Monte Cassino. On May 19th. over 680 Dutch Jews are deported to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. The SK 1005 Exhumation and obliteration of the evidence at the Killing Site at Ponary Woods has ended. On May 22nd. The Auschwitz Protocol, compiled by Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler is given to Giuseppe Burzio, the Vatican's Charge d'affaires to Bratislava, for it to be handed to the Pope. On May 24th. Oswald Pohl's detailed report on the Hungarian 'resettlement' exercise reaches Himmler and on May 27th. two Jews, Arnost Rosin and Czezlaw Mardowicz escape from Auschwitz.
Monday May 29th. 1944 "..Do you know where ..Jews of Austria ..and of Germany ..Holland ..Czechoslovakia and France. ..in Poland ..taken in cattle cars ..70 into each car. What happened to them I do not know ..I can only guess." Eva Heyman.
On May 31st. Hungarian Jews are being Gassed in Birkenau at an ever increasing rate as US Aerial Reconnaissance captures the progress of a 'resettlement' toward Death Camp Birkenau. Are these the Hungarian Jews? Allied insistence that the Death Camp at Auschwitz/Birkenau is out of their reach has been laid to waste here. There has been an historical debate as to the reasoning for the inability to see Auschwitz/Birkenau as a legitimate target and a widespread insistence has been aired that no one requested nor demanded that such an attack should be mounted. Elsewhere, 3,500 of Nyiregyhaza’s Jews are deported to Auschwitz.
Wednesday May 31st. 1944 "..The destruction of all roads leading from Hungary to Poland." Rabbi Michael Dov Weissmandel.
On May 1st. Admiral Karl Doenitz now heads the German Government and on May 2nd. The Russians occupy Berlin and is surrendered. President Truman now appoints Robert Jackson as chief U. S. counsel for the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. On May 3rd. 17,247 Theresienstadt Jewish inmates are handed over to the Red Cross. Adolf Eichmann’s commando is last seen at Alt Ausee, Salzkammergut. On May 5th. Mauthausen Concentration Camp is liberatedas the Wehrmacht surrenders in Denmark. Of the 5,600 Danish Jews under German threat, most escaped though 116 Danish Jews were murdered. The Wehrmacht now surrenders in Holland where some 106,000 Dutch Jews were murdered and the Wehrmacht also surrenders North Germany.
Saturday May 5th. 1945. "..word we indulged ourselves with in ..most secret corner of our being and feared to pronounce aloud. That sacred word ..contains so many beautiful ..unbelievable things ..liberty ..freedom...end of tyranny ..misery ..slavery..hunger. ..it has come true. ..Peace." Helga Weiss.
On May 6th. Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering surrenders to the Allies and is at first toasted with champagne, but later is transferred to Bad Mondorf in Luxembourg. On May 7th. Colonel General Alfred Jodl signs Germany's unconditional surrender at Reims and Hitler’s dream of a 1,000 year Reich ends. It barely lasted 12 years as World War II in Europe ends. On May 8th. as the Russians liberate Theresienstadt we come to realise that more than 140,000 Jews have passed through the Camp and 90,000 of these Jews perished during, in and or enroute to The Death Camps. With more than 33,500 Jews from Theresienstadt having also been murdered, the insistence of this as a model Camp is exposed. 30,000 Jews were liberated. It is Victory in Europe, VE Day and meanwhile, there are still some 700,000 inmates, Jews and other's in Concentration Camps at War's end still awaiting repatriation!
The question is being asked by those Jews who managed to Survive, to where should they return. To lands defaced with their previous existence? To lands which do not wish them to return? To Country's which abandoned them to their enormous losses. We are still attempting to get to grips with the full assessment of the Jewish Catastrophe when we realise that more than 3,000,000 Polish Jews have been Murdered and 1,100,000 Russian Jews alone were murdered. On May 9th. Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel signs Unconditional German surrender and reality makes us all too aware that some 171,000 Jews of Germany were murdered. On May 10th. 1945 Peter van Pels, who had shared the Secret Annexe with Anne Frank and her Family died. Peter was forced marched from Auschwitz on January 25th. 1945. These 'death marches' and there were many, this one from Auschwitz to Mauthausen in Austria, all were designed for the eventual destruction of those Jews who had Survived thus far. Peter died at the Mauthausen Concentration Camp, no doubt as a result of the debillitating effects of his abuse.
On May 21st. Odilo Globocnik commits suicide in detention centre, Weissensee, Austria and on May 23rd. Himmler is captured and commits suicide as British tanks enter Flensburg, Germany. In Flensburg, the British Army take several of the highest ranking Nazis into custody. These will be tried in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of the Major Nazi’s, including Donitz, Jodl, Keitel, Rosenberg and Speer. On May 3rd. 1946 Walther Funk testifies at his Nuremberg Trial and on May 8th. Grand Admiral Karl Donitz testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On May 20th. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder testifies at his Nuremberg Trial. On May 23rd. Baldur von Schirach testifies at his Nuremberg Trial and on May 28th. Fritz Sauckel testifies at his Nuremberg Trial.
On May 8th. 1947 the Nuremberg Tribunal on 'IG Farben' commences. On May 14th. 1948 with the establishment of the State of Israel heralds forth a commemorative which seeks to comprehend the loss to the state of Israel that is measured in the 6,000,000 Jews murdered in The Holocaust. On May 18th. 1953 YadVashem, The Holocaust Martyr's and Hero's Remembrance Authority is established.
"..I will give in my house and within my walls a monument and a name better than sons and daughters ..I will give them an everlasting name which shall not be cut off." Isaiah 56:5.
On May 11th. 1960 Adolf Eichmann, the Architect of The Holocaust slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, Men, Women and Their Children, is captured in Buenos Aires and is flown to Israel. On May 29th. 1962, with Eichmann's appeal against his Death sentence rejected, on May 31st. Adolf Eichmann is marched toward his execution. His scheduled Hanging, Midnight is only slightly delayed. On May 10th. 1964 The Treblinka Monument is unveiled.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Mon, April 24, 2017 20:25:35
On April 20th. 1889 Adolf Hitler was born and as such, the genesis of The Holocaust has also been conceived. On April 21st. 1904 Odilo Globocnik is born.
Wednesday April 12th. 1922 "..there can be no compromise ..either victory of the Aryan or annihilation of ..Aryan and ..victory of ..Jew." Adolf Hitler
On April 12th. 1922 we begin to recognise, and if the tenor of the rhetoric does not quite suggest the tenure of his hatred, Hitler used the example of the Jews in this maiden speech to effect. With such vehemence that he spewed forth, there is a divisiveness not only latent, and was not the least bit dormant, what Hitler here urged was hugely employed in assailing, assaulting and then finally destroying the Jewish 6,000,000 Jewish People of Europe, Men, Women and Their Children in The Holocaust. Of course, once actions replaced words to such a catastrophic effect against these Jews of Europe, a term for such actions would need to be born and that became Genocide. On April 1st. 1924 Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in jail for incitement to riot.
On April 4th. 1925 'Schutzstaffel,' Hitler's personal Bodyguard, known to infamy as the SS is borne. On April 14th. 1932 both the SA and the SS are banned and the following year on April 1st. 1933 there is a one Day Boycott of all Jewish shops and businesses within Germany. This has been ordered by Hitler as he acts with foolish abandon. Subsequently, Jewish lawyers, doctor's and Pharmacists are restricted within their practices, under terms of 'Berufbeschrankung', and are senselessly boycotted. Even Jewish merchants are to be boycotted and as World opinion is incensed, and the German public shows little desire to accommodate him, Hitler orders the boycott be restricted to this one day. But, and as if this was not enough for such errant intolerance’s, Hitler also forbade Jewish students to attend their classes in Schools, Colleges and University's.
On April 4th. The Yellow Badge, Wear it with Pride, Tragt ihn mit Stolz, den Gelben Fleck by Robert Weltsch is published. Excerpts of this call to Jewish unity and common good appear in the German Jewish Review. This is meant to affirm Jewish worth amongst all People. On April 7th. Hitler decrees the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service 'Berufsbeamtengesetz' in which All Jews are barred from the practice of law, All Jews are barred from holding civil service jobs, All Jews barred from university positions. All Jews are barred from all other state institutions, All Jews are barred from membership in associations and All Jews are barred from membership of societies. Some exceptions are to be made for Jews who were World War I veterans and those Jews previously classed as German War Heroes.
On April 11th. the German government begins racially based employment and economic sanctions against the Jews. The non-Aryan decree describes those who descend from Jewish Parents or Grandparents as non-Aryan. One Jewish Parent or Grandparent is enough to classify a person as non-Aryan. A descendant of a practising Jew is a non-Aryan and while the Lutheran Church is the only Faith based Church to openly oppose this decree, they do not go far enough to prevent the escalation of such unchristian intolerance’s against People. It is perhaps a matter which I should point you toward the likes of Dietrich Bonhoeffer and his stance was to secure all considerations for all Mankind. Today, we look to the example Lutheran retreats that the Lutheran Church makes to Dachau. It is their intention to confront their own past in terms that delivered The Holocaust to posterity.
Sometimes, my responses to what is seemingly a veiled attempt to wash over the huge humanitarian failings of our past can be rather terse affairs. They are however meant not as an overriding principle of everything that was wrong, but a sample of some things that were done right but could have been more elaborately correct! I would also remark that no Country acted like Denmark in saving its Jews from Hitler’s grasp. This does not mean that no other Country acted with similar positive assertiveness. When we consider the lack of any punitive approach we have to recognise that it was only Poland that was under direct threat of execution for assisting its Jews. But all other Country's could be singled out for reprisal it any assistance given to The Jewish People. However, and if I took the time to relate everything that I wished to state on all inroads into The Holocaust, I would barely make time to inform!
On April 14th. The National Political Educational Institute, 'der Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalten' was established as the Nazi Party’s cadet training schools. On April 21st. Jewish ritual slaughter is to be banned as Rudolf Hess is created deputy Fuhrer of the NSDAP. On April 25th. The Law for the Prevention of Overcrowding in German Schools and Schools of Higher Education is established. This law fully restricts the enrolment of Jews into the Educational system. On April 26th. Hermann Goering establishes the Geheime Staatspolizei, or Gestapo as the Secret State Police. Elsewhere, the Vaad,' the National Committee of Palestinian Jews, 'Va'ad Le'umi, establishes a method for the absorption of Jewish immigrants from Germany into their Biblical lands.
As Hitler meets with the Bishop of Osnabruck, Wilhelm Berning and Monsignor Steinmann of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany, Hitler explains that his actions against the Jews was only the continuance of what the Church's own 1,900 year policy toward the Jewish People had been. Hitler also reminds the Church that it was they who regarded the Jews as dangerous and forced them into ghetto’s and away from Christian areas in the first place. The Church, in a somewhat misguided assessment, describes this meeting with Hitler as 'cordial and to the point.' On April 27th. German government finally prohibits the practice of Jewish ritual slaughter of animals for meat. During April 1934 Germany now constitutes the People’s Court, die Volksgericht, and bypasses the Laws intended for judicial jurisprudence any recognises that any such enemy of Hitler will now be tried without the right to appeal before a closed Court and without a jury being present.
April 1st. 1934 Heinrich Himmler is appointed head of the SS and on April 14th. a strong anti-Semitic group is formed in Poland called The Radical Nationalist Organization, the 'Oboze Narodovo Radzykalny,' or ONR. On April 20th. Himmler is now the acting Chief of the Prussian Gestapo. The following year on April 1st. 1935 anti-Jewish legislation in the Saar region is passed and The Jehovah’s Witness organisation is banned because they refuse to swear allegiance to the state. On April 30th. Jews cannot display German flag. During April 1936 French conservatives condemn the French Socialist leader Leon Blum, because of his Jewish ancestry and his strongly anti-Nazi orientation. A popular slogan at the time condemns the future French premier with the slogan 'Better Hitler than Blum.'
On April 15th. x2 Jews are murdered during an Arab general strike. This is supposedly in protest against Jewish immigration to Palestine followed x4 days later on April 19th. Arab murderers kill 9 Jews in Jaffa, Palestine. On April 21st. The unrest in Palestine grows more acute and Arabs in the Palestine cities of Tel Aviv and Jaffa riot. This is to further their protest to any Jewish immigration to Palestine. On April 24th. 1937 Pastor Martin Niemoeller preaches that Jesus being born a Jew was God's mistake and on April 27th. Hitler unleashes his Stukas on Guernica. On April 5th. 1938, in the wake of Poland's threat to revoke Polish Citizens living in Germany of their Citizenship, anti-Jewish riots spread across Poland. Just x10 days later on April 15th., in Dabrowa Tarnowska, Poland, there is a pogrom which sees many Jews killed.
On April 21st. a Hitler decree eliminates Jews from national economy and allows for the seizure of all Jewish assets and x2 days later on April 23rd. Jews in Vienna, rounded up on the Sabbath and some are killed. On April 24th. German autonomy in Sudetenland is called for and registration of all Jewish property is made mandatory within Reich and on April 26th. There is the registration of all Jewish real estate. Other assets exceeding 5,000 marks, owned by Jews in Germany is also to be registered and meanwhile Jewish property is expropriated in Austria. On April 29th. Vilna, Poland a pogrom sees many Jews killed. On April 3rd. 1939 Hitler directive for seizure of Danzig, Poland and the following day April 4th. The Institute for the Study of Jewish Influence on the life of the German Church is founded as der Institut zur Erforschung des jüdischen Einflusses auf das deutsche kirchliche Leben. On April 7th. Germany, Italy, Spain and Japan enter anti-Comintern Pact as Italy occupies Albania and
Britain brings in conscription.
On April 10th. Germany approves the 1938 Anschluss with Austria in a Greater Reich referendum. On April 15th. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt presses Hitler to guarantee integrity of all national borders. On April 18th. Slovakia passes its own anti-Jewish legislation. Jews are to be defined by their Judaism religion. On April 20th. Economy and Administration Main Office, 'Wirtschafts und Verwaltungshauptamt', WVHA is to concern itself in all matters economic, especially financial management of Camp system. On April 27th. the Nonaggression pact with Poland is revoked by Hitler. On April 28th. The Anglo German Naval Agreement of 1935 is withdrawn by Hitler and he ridicules Roosevelt's earlier guarantee demands over National Sovereingty's. On April 30th. Jewish tenancy rights are no longer protected.
During April. 1940, the beginnings of the Deblin-Irena Ghetto in Poland is being established under Lazer Teichman and then Wolf Solomon, as Chairs of the Judenrate. There are to be 3,000 Jews Enclosed. The Institute for German Work in the East, die Institut fur deutsche Ostarbeit, is formed for the study of Polish Jewry. On April 1st. China admits 1,000's of Jewish Refugees to Shanghai.
Thursday April. 4th. Thursday 1940. "..I learned ..Jews from various streets are being deported." David Rubinowicz.
On April 8th. in the Katyn Forest (near Smolensk) the massacre of 26,000 Polish Officers by Russian soldiers begins. This will continue for a x4 day period. On April 9th. the Czestochowa Ghetto in Poland is established and 48,000 Jews will become Enclosed. Hitler orders the invasion of Denmark and Norway. Denmark capitulates after four hours which belies Denmark’s future position with regard to the saving of practically its entire Jewish Community from Hitler. On April 12th. Hans Frank demands Cracow be made Free of its Jews, 'Judenfrei' and by November. On April 20th. Hitler orders Armed Forces High Command, OKW, to discharge Jews of mixed blood and Husbands of Jewish women from their ranks.
SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Herbert Lange became the 1st. Kommandant of the Chelmno Death Camp. Lange had already practised his bloody scourge in Poland and with the Soldau massacre of 1,550 Mental patients, with the use of 'Gassing Vans'. On April 22nd. Odilo Globocnik, the Higher SS Police Fuhrer for Lublin plans to use more Jewish forced labor as he creates more Camps for Jewish Men and Women. On April 23rd. Jews in Stutthof Camp are murdered as they are forced to leap into the pits defining the open latrines they had built and where the weak and the frail are drowned.
Saturday April 27th. 1940 "..Jews are enemies just as ..Germans are ..but in a more insidious way ..and ..are linked together by secret and evil bonds." H. F. Downie.
On April 27th. a Himmler directive initially establishes Auschwitz as a Concentration Camp as a British Foreign Office official, H.F. Downie argues that the Jewish People are to be treated just as the Germans should; as enemies. On April 30th. the Lodz Ghetto is sealed and with over 205,000 Jews who are now trapped inside. The first crematorium at Sachsenhausen is built. During April. 1941 over 72,000 Jews have been deported to the Warsaw Ghetto since February. Meanwhile, an annex for Men of the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp is established at the Stara Gradiska Camp, in Croatia. More than 6,000 Jewish Children are murdered in the Stara Gradiska Camp. On April 1st. Cracow Jews are barred from Public and Private Busses and Taxi's and the following day, April 2nd. Pal Telecki, Hungary's Premier, commits suicide rather than collaborate with Germany.
On April 6th. the Radom Ghetto is established and will see more than 30,000 Jews Enclosed.
Elsewhere, Germany and her Axis allies invade Greece and Yugoslavia and their Jews are driven from their homes. Yugoslavia as a sovereign nation no longer exists. On April 8th. the Kielce Ghetto established and 27,000 Jews will be Enclosed. On April 9th. Hitler’s forces occupies Salonika and the following day, April 10th. Croatia declares itself an independent State. On April 12th. Hitler’s Wehrmacht Troops enter Belgrade and Jewish shops and homes are looted. On April 14th. Hungarian troops enter Yugoslavia to share in the spoils and Jews are randomly shot. Croatia is now recognised as a Fascist state by Germany and Italy. On April 15th. 15,000 of Lublin's Jews are 'resettled', Murdered in the euphemistic parlance of Hitler’s Reich.
On April 16th. The main Synagogue in Sarajevo destroyed as Himmler, Heydrich, Daluege, Juttner and Wolff meet with General Wagner to lay the foundations for Wehrmacht and SS cooperation in Russia. On April 18th. Yugoslavia surrenders and on April 24th. The Lublin Ghetto is sealed and Bulgaria occupies Thrace. On April 27th. Hitler’s Wehrmacht enters Athens and on April 28th. Field Marshal Walter von Brauchitsch, German Army Commander in Chief, issues directive for Wehrmacht cooperation with Heydrich's Killing units 'East'. On April 29th. Hans Frank issues a Decree on Jewish Limitations on Residence and on April 30th. Croatia enacts its own anti-Jewish legislation seeing to the removal of all Croatian Jews from public office. Also, the Head of the Polish Government in Exile, General Sikorski issues a stark warning about the treatment of the Jewish population in Polish Ghetto’s.
Wednesday 30th. April 1941 "..Jewish population in ..Ghettos is condemned to death by starvation." General Wladyslaw Sikorski.
During April. 1942 the Chortkov Ghetto in the Ukraine is established and will see 6,000 Jews Enclosed. The Ciezanow Ghetto and the Wloclawek Ghetto are both Liquidated. Himmler stresses to Hans Frank that the Jews of the Generalgouvernment are not being 'resettled' fast enough for Hitler. On April 1st. over 900 Slovakian Jews deported to Auschwitz. On April 2nd. the first deportation of Kolomyja Jews are taken from the Ghetto for Hitler’s Belzec and these 1,000 Kolomyia Jews are murdered immediately upon arrival at Hitler’s Belzec. Fritz Sauckel cuts across Auschwitz Labour Plans for its Jews. On April 3rd. 1,200 of Tlumacz’s Jews are murdered while the last Jews of Augsburg are murdered at Hitler’s Belzec. On April 4th. 1,500 of Gorodenka’s Jews are murdered and in a x2 day period more than 5,000 of Kolomyja’s Jews are Murdered in Hitler’s Belzec.
On April 8th. a sweep of the Crimea ensures it is cleared of all Jews while Izbica-Lubelska, becomes a transit Ghetto as deportation action continues. On April 10th. 950 of Kuty’s Jews are murdered and 1,200 Jews in Mauthausen are Murdered by 'poison gas' and this information is relayed and published in The Jewish Chronicle. On April 11th. 3,000 of Zamosc’s Jews are murdered at Hitler’s Belzec.
Saturday April 11th. 1942 "..rural population must be cut off ..separated from ..Jews ..once and for all ..weaned from ..extremely antisocial habit of assisting ..Jews." Gazeta Lwowska.
SS Gruppenfuhrer Harald Turner, the Military Administrator for Serbia, wrote to his erstwhile colleague, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Karl Wolff, and Himmler's Deputy and liaison officer with Hitler, of the very specific detail of The Final Solution in Serbia. Directing this insightful analysis:
Saturday April 11th. 1942 "..I had all ..available Jews shot and all Jewish Women and Children concentrated in a camp." SS Gruppenfuhrer Harald Turner.
Clearly, and soon after the 'resettlement' of Belgrade's Jews, Wolff would have informed Hitler of how expedient the entire Serbian operation had been? The opportune presence of 'gassing vans' in the locality would impact even more severely upon any Jewish presence that remained in the Balkan Region.
Saturday April 11th. 1942 "..with ..help of ..SD ..procured a 'delousing truck' that will finally clear ..camp in some 14 days to 4 weeks." SS Gruppenfuhrer Harald Turner.
In the less than ambiguous terms employed by Nazi official euphemism, The Gassing Van had become the ‘delousing truck’ in order to camouflage the intention to slaughter the Jews of Europe. Here, such a wide ranging euphemism could not and did not fully disguise what was meant for the Jewish People. On Hitler’s say so, the total extinction of any Jewish presence in the Area of Europe had been signalled and was being carried out. What Wolff has now been equipped with, for further gestation by Hitler and Himmler, was the total removal of all those Jewish Women and Jewish Children SS Gruppenfuhrer Harald Turner had had confined to the Semlin/Sajmiste Camp.
"..On April 13th. ..1942 ..our group of 1,000 men was loaded onto railroad cars at ..assembly camp ..Sered." The Auschwitz Protocols.
On April 13th. x2 Slovakia Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler were en-route toward Auschwitz. Together, they would escape 2 years later on and acknowledge what the World had largely known, of Auschwitz’s x2 year capacity to compete in the mass Murder of the Jewish People. On April 14th. SS and Police Battalions have killed 30,000 Lublin Jews and 15,000 Lvov Jews. On April 16th. and over the past 4 weeks, Lublin Ghetto is cleared toward the Death Camp Hitler’s Belzec with some 40,000 of Lublin’s Jews having been murdered, in situ or in Hitler’s Belzec. A further 8,000 Jews from Lublin’s outlying districts are also murdered at Hitler’s Belzec and overall, some 36,000 Jews from Galicia are being murdered here, at Hitler’s Belzec.
"..pits had overflowed. ..they had too many corpses in it ..putrefaction had progressed too fast ..corpses had rolled down ..hill." SS Obersturmfuhrer Paul Franz Stangl.
What SS Obersturmfuhrer Paul Franz Stangl, a graduate of the 'euthanasia' institutes Hartheim and Bernburg, describes here is what he witnessed at Hitler’s Belzec. Stangl had moved on to learn much about the killing process and that learned experience was taken on and into commanding both Sobibor and Treblinka. On April 18th. 1,000 of Theresienstadt’s Jews are despatched to Sobibor as SS Haupsturmfuhrer Paul Franz Stangl is made Kommandant there. That day saw 52 Warsaw Ghetto Jews murdered and on April 24th. all German Jews are not allowed on Public Transport. On April 26th. the Reichstag grants Hitler dictatorial powers and on April 27th. 1,000 of Theresienstadt’s Jews are deported to Izbica Lubelska. On April 28th. 1,000's of Radom's Jews are murdered in a 10 day Killing operation and the following day, on April 29th. 100's of Lodz’s Jews are murdered at Chelmno and the evidence of this Lodz 'resettlement' at Chelmno gets back to Lodz.
Wednesday April 29th. 1942 "..Short shrift is made of ..Jews in all eastern occupied areas. Tens of thousands of them are liquidated." Joseph Goebbels.
On April 30th. 1,200 of Diatlovo’s Jews are murdered as the Pinsk Ghetto is established with 20,000 Jews to be Enclosed. All regions are required to, and must report the whereabouts of those Killing sites of mass execution and burial under Code '1005'. This is to go straight to the Reich for analysis and future action. By April 1943, more than 340,000 Jews, along with 20,000 Poles, Gypsies and Czechs are murdered at the Chelmno Death Camp with Gas vans used for their destruction. Some estimates, as low as 152,000 Jews were Murdered here. But estimates though, as high as 360,000 Jews having been murdered here have also been made. Estimates however, cannot form the basis of any relevant account and the Humanity of that Jewish presence destroyed here at Chelmno, elsewhere in The Death Camp System or at The Killing Sites, cannot ever give way to what cannot be forgotten.
Any loss which might fail to identify all of those Jews, and other’s, Murdered during Hitler’s rampage through their existence cannot set a further precedent beyond the annihilation process Hitler sought. Hans Frank visits Treblinka. On April 4th. over 4,000 Jews of Mikhailishki, Oszmiany and Soly are murdered in Ponary Woods.
Sunday April 4th. 1943 "..in less than 4 hours ..2,500 people were murdered ..even more." Kazimierz Sakowicz.
Where Kazimierz Sakowicz observed the murders of the Jews, and other people's in the pits at Ponary Woods, his Diary has provided much of The Holocaust with a rare glimpse of witness testimony that belonged to a non-Jewish observer.
On April 5th. 5,000 of Zloczew’s Jews are murdered and astonishingly, over 10,586 of Zloczew’s Jews will eventually be murdered. There are 4,000 of Swieciany’s Jews murdered in Ponary Woods. On April 6th. over 2,000 Dutch Jews from the Westerbork Detention Camp are murdered in Sobibor and of the more than 34,000 Jews 'resettled' from Westerbork to Sobibor, barely 19 Survived. On April 7th. 700 of Skalat’s Jews are murdered and Chelmno Castle is blown up. Now 'Sonderkommando 1005' has commenced with its onerous duty here at Chelmno, to destroy the evidence of Hitler's very Final Solution of his Jewish Question. SS Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel's Sonderkommando then moves on to Hitler’s Belzec, and spends three months there. However, it has to be borne in mind that all operations to obliterate all traces of the Crimes committed here, as they are within all 3 of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, are conducted in house. Blobel's Sonderkommando are merely an advisory team with the specialised expertise for the task.
On April 9th. 1,700 of Rudki’s Jews are murdered as are 500 of Komarno’s Jews, also murdered. On April 10th. the Plans to resettle the remaining Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto are undertaken. On April 11th. Globocnik writes to Himmler confirming that the Aktion Reinhard detail is being resolved. On April 13th. 2,000 of Buczacz’s Jews are murdered and over 1,200 Dutch Jews expelled from Westerbork Camp and are murdered in Sobibor and the Katyn Massacre is discovered. On April 14th. 1,000 of Sambor’s Jews are murdered and the Siedlice Ghetto is finally Liquidated. On April 16th. Hitler fully briefs the Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklos von Nagybania Horthy, on the full terms of what The Final Solution means.
"..I myself arrived in Warsaw ..April 17th. 1943 ..and took over command of ..Grossaktion at 8 o'clock." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.
On April 17th. The Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins with the remnants of Warsaw's Jews, 70,000 Jews who are still alive. SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop arrives in the Warsaw Ghetto and the eventual destruction of all Jewish Resistance here is underway! On April 18th. over 3,400 of Jaworow’s Jews are murdered. On April 19th. 1,400 of Brussels Jews are transported to Auschwitz. Over 900 of Berlin’s Jews are murdered at Sobibor and elsewhere, 800 of Borszczow’s Jews are murdered. The Warsaw Ghetto's final liquidation has begun and Stroop, who replaces SS Oberfuhrer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg as HSSPF representative for the Warsaw District, will see not only the Jews of Warsaw fighting to the death for many, but will see Stroop denying the very tenacious and committed involvement of Jews, and Jews alone in the Resistance here. Odilo Globocnik is on hand to assist in crushing remnants of Jewish Warsaw supplying forces directly from his own Aktion Reinhard experts. Mark Lichtenbaum is the Chair of Warsaw Ghetto Judenrate before Final Liquidation. On April 20th. over 1,100 Dutch Jews from Westerbork are murdered at Sobibor.
Thursday 22nd. April 1943 "..considerable number of Jews emerge ..forced ..by flames and ..smoke. ..Jews try to escape even through burning buildings. ..Innumerable Jews ..perished in ..flames." SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.
On April 22nd. Stroop sees the only resolve for the Warsaw Ghetto Resistance would be to burn them out and with that, burn the whole Ghetto down. The first Transport of Dutch Jews arrives at Theresienstadt.
Friday April 23rd. 1943 "..Great things are happening ..this action ..we have dared to take is of enormous value. ..Jewish self defense has become a fact." Mordechai Anielewicz.
On April 23rd. Himmler issues orders for the most severe action to be committed against those Jews still resisting in the Warsaw Ghetto. Marek Lichtenbojm, Judenrat Chairman and his Deputies of the Warsaw Ghetto are executed. On April 27th. over 2,000 Dutch Jews from Westerbork are murdered at Sobibor. Any total solution for Amsterdam's Jews is now abandoned. On April 28th. Izbica-Lubelska is made Free of its Jews, it is 'Judenrein' and on April 29th. The Polish Underground Newspaper ‘Polska’ reports the struggle for the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Thursday April 29th. 1943 "..strength of ..German military and police machine ..being weakened daily. This strength broke near Stalingrad ..had to retreat from Tunis now stands powerless before a group of Jews who defend themselves in ..ghetto." Polska.
On April 30th. 1,200 of Wlodawa’s Jews are murdered at Sobibor while some in the transport attacked the SS upon arrival at Sobibor. Goebbels publishes the details of Katyn Massacre and Martin Luther is dispatched to Sachsenhausen.
Friday April 30th 1943 "..if by free choice he wishes to remain a Jew ..then he is a Jew." Zelig Kalmanovich.
From the midst of the turmoil, in the middle of the Vilna Ghetto, as liquidation faced every Jew within the Ghetto, what Zelig Kalmanovich had decided, which no amount of legislative enactment nor Nuremberg decree could affix to a human being, here was a Jew who had decided his own fate. The designation of who was, and who did not wish to be a Jew was a free and personal choice to be made even while the Jews faced oblivion. During April 1944 the Debrecen Ghetto in Hungary is established and 9,000 Jews will be Enclosed. The Kosice Ghetto in Czechoslovakia is established and 12,000 Jews will be Enclosed. The Jews of Besserabia are now in Russian hands. The Jews of Bukovina are now in Russian hands and the Jews of Transnistria are also in Russian hands.
On April 1st. the Majdanek Death Camp is being evacuated were estimates as high as some 360,000 Jews and other people having been Murdered here. With certainty, most are Jews and the use of Zyklon 'B' and CO Gas are used to resolve Hitler’s Final Solution. There is a contention with the figure for barely 60,000 Jews having been gassed at Majdanek and though the suggestion still remains that ALL Jews Murdered here were done away with in a myriad of ways, we can never know how accurate our assessments might be. On April 2nd. 1,500 of Athens Jews are transported to Auschwitz and meanwhile, the Russians are on the Romanian border. On April 3rd. there is the Krummhuebel Conference of experts on Jewish Question and the following day, April 4th. 103 of the 132 of Triest’s Jews are Gassed in Auschwitz as US Reconnaissance Aircraft photograph the Auschwitz and Birkenau site and are possibly of these Jews of Triest making their way toward their Destruction.
On April 5th. over 650 Dutch Jews are deported to Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen and Theresienstadt and over 550 of Fossoli’s Jews are transported to Auschwitz. Today,
Siegfried Lederer escapes from Auschwitz/Birkenau and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia where he warns the Judenrate of Theresienstadt what ‘resettlement’ to Auschwitz/Birkenau means for the Jews. Joel Brand, accompanied by Rudolf Kasztner, meet with Eichmann to discuss ways of saving Hungary's Jews and The Blood for Goods deal is sought! It is disturbing to me that any single Jew can be so accused of his part in securing the safety of any Jew, no matter their relationship or credentials, when the World which knew so much stands unaccused. Remember also, that during height of Brand's mission, 84,000 Hungarian Jews are 'resettled' to Auschwitz on a weekly basis.
While there is this wide-scale controversy which surrounds this period, and will dog this particular attempt by some Jews to deal with Eichmann, the effort is cowered in suspicion. Tragically, Kasztner will eventually pay with his life for the accusation of collaborating with 'satan'. Previously, we know that in September 1941, Joel Brands Wife's Family had been deported to Kamanetz Podolsk and would have been murdered there except for Brand's move to bribe a Hungarian official to bring them back. The rescue attempt, from the jaws of death formed the genesis of this newer attempt which wrongly denied Kasztner of a life worthy of having saved nearly 1,700 World entire’s. Also, and in applying the status of Survivor to those Jews who emerged from the midst of The Holocaust, it is essential we appreciate what the term means. It cannot apply to the 4,000 Jews of Ireland, though under threat, they were not forced into hiding, forced in Ghetto's, driven toward The Killing Sites or were otherwise transported to be resettled in The Death Camps or removed to the many Concentration Camps under Hitler's gaze. But what Reszo Kasztner managed to achieve allowed for the figures of those who can be called Survivors, to swell by 1,685 Jewish Persons.
Friday April 7th. 1944 "..Cautious estimate of ..number of ..Jews gassed ..Birkenau ..April 1942 ..April 1944 by Country of origin
..Poland ..transported by truck 300,000 Jews
..transported by train 600,000 Jews
Holland 100,000 Jews
Greece 45,000 Jews
France 150,000 Jews
Belgium 50,000 Jews
Germany 60,000 Jews
Norway } 50,000 Jews
Lithuania 50,000 Jews
Austria } 30,000 Jews
Solvakia 30,000 Jews
Camps for foreign Jews in Poland 300,000 Jews
Total 1,765,000 Jews." The Auschwitz Protocols.
On April 7th. two Czechoslovakian Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escaped from Auschwitz and are about to inform the public of nations what governments of those nations already know. These 'The Auschwitz Protocols,' become a detailed overview of operations at Auschwitz, by both Vrba and Wetzler and is delivered to Jewish Leaders and subsequently, to the knowledgeable Allied Powers. What is reprehensible, but I suppose forms a somewhat uninspiring deflective shield of guilt for all those who either knew, participated in and perpetrated these crimes, Rudolf Vrba adjudged the German Army and its General Staff correctly as complicit in all crimes connected to Hitler’s Final Solution. Perhaps he should have gone further and denounced the World’s inability to acknowledge what it too knew and had known for quite some time!
"..attempts by members ..German General Staff to whitewash their complicity in these atrocities ..or by German historians to exculpate ..regular German Army ..should not be allowed to cover up ..fact of ..vital ..significant economic ..strategic advantages ..Nazi establishment together with ..German Army and its General Staff derived from this unprecedented ..unparalleled mass murder and robbery." Rudolf Vrba.
While the figures of those Murdered in The Auschwitz Protocols themselves are somewhat altered by subsequent checks, counter balances and newer research, I fully acknowledge that both Vrba and Wetzler are better placed to state more accurately what the World seems to trip over to this day. With the fact that the annihilation process leaked out to Civilised Humanity way before now, to heap the blame upon anyone Jew is wrongly reprehensible and though History seeks to accept that 1,100,000 Jews were Murdered within the confines of the Auschwitz/Birkenau complex, we cannot ever know. For me personally, it is safer to accept the higher figure so that NO Jew can ever be denied their presence in this Catastrophe for ALL the Jews of Europe.
"..Americans ..British ..fly in these regions. ..Why did they not drop ..bombs on ..horrible tomb ..sixty kilometres from their Northern Frontier. They could have wrecked SS barracks ..ramps ..crematoriums ..roads ..rail track. Why didn't they." Alfred Wetzler.
While acknowledging here the events these Jewish Survivors brought to a wider audience, it is unacceptable that little and nothing was done to alleviate what was known, and not just of Auschwitz/Birkenau but of the entire infrastructure of Hitler’s Final Solution. If, and at the time it was not considered a priority how can that assuage such a massive guilt for what had commenced with strongly worded assurances of his intention to Murder the Jews and this resulting catalogue of shameful detail. Let me spell it out this way. While the continuation of the War might ensure the deaths of even more Civilians and troops, what the failure to intervene in the midst of The Holocaust could guarantee, increasing numbers of Jews would be Slaughtered.
Of course, there are those like Hoess who might have sought to exaggerate his accomplishment, or Eichmann who sought to immerse himself most accurately in the assessment, but no one can deny the potential for mass murder that existed here at Auschwitz and Birkenau. On a given average of 10,000 Jews Murdered on a Daily basis, during the period of Vrba and Wetzler’s incarceration alone, 10,000 over a 700 day period could compute to something approaching 7,000,000 of those Jews, to treated to ‘Sonderbehandlung’ with that capacity in mind.
Friday 7th. April 1944 "..millions of Jews ..captured ..who knows where they are. ..We have come ..from place where your brothers are. ..Two thousand years have we brought into this world children ..doomed to suffer." Moshe Flinker.
On April 10th. the Russians retake Besserabia where some 148,000 Jews had been murdered and the Russians retake Bukovina where some 62,000 Jews had been murdered. The Russians also retake Odessa where over 91,678 of Odessa’s Jews had been murdered. On April 11th. some 2,500 Jews from Athens arrive in Auschwitz and 1,067 of these are immediately gassed while 320 men form part of the Sonderkommando and 328 Women are selected for work other details. Both Czeslaw Madrzyk and Grigori Orlov Maro choose today to escape from Birkenau. On April 13th. 1,500 Jews from Paris are transported to Auschwitz and the following day April 14th. the first transport of 5,200 of Athens’ Jews arrives at Auschwitz and Birkenau.
On April 15th. a Jewish revolt hampers action of 'Sonderkommando 1005' in Hitler’s attempt to destroy the evidence in Ponary Woods and 25 Jews are subsequently murdered. The exhumation at Ponary Woods had continued from the November of 1943. On April 16th. the Hungarian Government begins to register its Jews as the Hungarian Government seeks to confiscate all Jewish property.
Tuesday April 18th. 1944 "..heard ..all would die in Poland." Eva Heyman.
On April 20th. the last 70 Jews assigned to the 'Sonderkommando 1005' detail in Ponary Woods are murdered and on April 22nd. The Russians cross the Romanian border. On April 25th. Eichmann would illicit the 'Blood for Trucks' deal with Joel Brand, Reszo Kasztner and the Hungarian Jewish Leadership. On April 29th. 3,000 Jews from Backa-Topola are transported to Auschwitz as over 1,000 Jews from Paris are also dispatched to Auschwitz. During April 1945 stolen Art and other Valuables are discovered by Allied Forces in Salt Mines. On April 1st. the Allied Forces encircle the Ruhr and the following day April 2nd. Hitler announces that the world will be 'eternally grateful' for his eradication of the Jewish People.
"...Centuries will pass ..but from ..rubble of our city ..our hatred of those who are to blame ..international Jewry and its lackeys ..I have made it clear that if they treat ..nations of Europe as tools that may be bought and sold by these international swindlers for money and material support ..then that race ..Jewish race ..which is truly responsible for this murderous struggle ..shall bear ..consequences. ..Above all ..I oblige ..national leadership and its followers to observe ..racial laws scrupulously and subject ..poisoner of all nations ..international Jewry ..to merciless resistance." Adolf Hitler.
On April 6th. the evacuation of Buchenwald begins and on April 9th. Mauthausen is evacuated where over 38,000 Jews were murdered, some 10,000 in 'gassing vans' at the euthanasia Institute Hartheim, some in the Melk sub-Camp and other’s in Mauthausen’s own Gassing Chamber. On April 10th. 15,000 Jews are death marched from Buchenwald as the following day April 11th. the Americans liberate Buchenwald where some 56,500 Jews had been murdered. 15,000 Jews are subsequently freed as the Allies take Essen and American troops reach the Elbe River. On April 12th. the Camp at Belsen is liberated by the British Army and it is essential to be clear, that while all of Hitler’s Camps dealt in the Death’s and Destruction of the Jews he had assigned to them, these were not to be considered Death Camps in the way those like Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka had been designated.
President Roosevelt dies and Harry S. Truman succeeds and he asks Samuel Rosenman to approach Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson and inquire about his willingness to serve as chief US prosecutor in the forthcoming War Crimes Trials. The following day April 13th. Russian forces enter Vienna and on April 15th. British estimates of the liberated Belsen shows 13,000 are dead lie as they fell amongst whom are Anne and Margot Frank. It is now believed that Anne succumbed to the appalling conditions sometime prior to the end of March alongside some 50,000 other Jews who are Murdered or left to die here. While 40,000 are freed, Jews were still dying at the rate of 4,500 per week and the toll for all who died here, is incalculable!
On April 16th. Russian forces move on Berlin and on April 20th. American troops enter Nuremberg. On April 21st. Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp is evacuated of its 15,000 inmates and on April 23rd. 33,000 Sachsenhausen inmates begin their Death March leaving more than 35,000 Jews who had been murdered there. There 3,000 Survivors after a final SS massacre. Russian forces now stand before Berlin and some Ravensbrueck inmates are force marched to Schleswig while 7,000 Ravensbrueck Women inmates are handed over to the Swedish Red Cross and Mauthausen Concentration Camp is opened to Red Cross. On April 24th. Himmler hands peace proposal to Count Folke Bernadotte, the Nephew of the King of Sweden and Vice-President Swedish Red Cross.
On April 25th. Himmler's offer of surrender is declined as American and Russian Troops meet at Torgau on the Elbe while the United Nations hold talks in San Francisco. On April 28th. Dachau is liberated we recognise that some 35,000 Jews have been murdered here. Elsewhere, the Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini is killed and on April 29th. the Wehrmacht surrenders in Italy at Caserta as the Allies enter Milan. On April 30th. Ravensbrueck CC is liberated with 3,000 inmates still dying there. More than 132,000 Women had been interned. Hitler, rather than stand for his convictions, and his Wife, Eva Braun, commit suicide as does Goebbels and his Wife Magda, but not before they poison their own 6 Children.
"..hold a solemn requiem mass in memory of der Fuhrer." Cardinal Adolf Bertram.
Between April 1st. and April 2nd. 1946 Joachim von Ribbentrop, the former Foreign Reich’s Minister, testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals. On April 11th. SS Gruppenfuhrer Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the former Head of Hitler’s SD, testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals. On April 5th. SS Standartenfuhrer Rudolf Hoess, the former Kommandant at the Auschwitz/Birkenau Death Camp, provides graphic testimony of mass executions at his camp as he testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals. On April 18th. Hans Frank, the former Governor General of the Generalgouvernment in Poland, testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals. On April 26th. Julius Streicher, the former Gauleiter of Franconia and former editor of the virulently antisemitic der Sturmer, testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals. On April 30th. Hjalmar Schact former President of The Reichsbank, testifies before The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial of The Major Nazi Criminals.
On April 8th. 1947 The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 4, The Oswald Pohl or Economic and Administrative Office, the WVHA Case begins. SS Gruppenfuhrer Oswald Ludwig Pohl and seventeen other members of WVHA are charged with war crimes against POWs in concentration camps which WVHA controlled after spring of 1942.
1) SS Gruppenfuhrer Oswald Ludwig Pohl. Sentenced to Death. Hanged June 7th. 1951.
2) SS Oberfuhrer Johann Hans Baier. Sentenced to 10 years.
3) SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Hanns Bobermin. Sentenced to 20 years. Reduced to 15 years.
4) SS Standartenfuhrer Franz Eirenschmalz. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to 9 years.
5) SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Karl Enthey. Sentenced to Life in prison. Commuted to 20 years.
6) SS Brigadefuhrer Heinz Karl Fanslau. Sentenced to 20 years. Commuted to 15 years.
7) SS Gruppenfuhrer August Frank. Sentenced to life in prison. Commuted to 15 years.
8) Dr. Hans Hohberg. Sentenced to 10 years.
9) SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Max Kiefer. Sentenced to life in prison. Commuted to 20 years.
10) SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Horst Klein. Acquitted.
11) SS Gruppenfuhrer Georg Loerner. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to life, then 15 years.
12) SS Oberfurer Hans Loerner. Sentenced to 10 years.
13) SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Hermann Pook. Sentenced to 10 years.
14) SS Standartenfuhrer Rudolf Scheide. Acquitted.
15) SS Sturmbannfuhrer Karl Sommer. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to life then 20 years.
16) SS Standartenfuhrer Erwin Tschentscher. Sentenced to 10 years.
17) SS Standartenfuhrer Josef Vogt. Acquitted.
18) SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Leo Volk. Sentenced to 10 years, then 8 years.
On April 10th. Military Tribunal II-A sentences 20 convicted defendants in the Einsatzgruppen Trial. 14 of the defendants, members of the German mobile killing units, der Einsatzgruppe are sentenced to death. On April 15th. 31 Defendants of the Buchenwald Concentration Camp were arraigned before the Courts.
1) Josias Erbprinz zu Sentenced to Life. Commuted to 20 Years. Waldeck und Pyrmont.
2) Otto Barnewald. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
3) August Bender. Sentenced to 10 Years then 3 Years.
4) Anton Bergmeier. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
5) Dr Arthur Dietzsch. Sentenced to 15 Years.
6) Dr. Hans Eisele. Sentenced to Death. Pardoned 1952.
7) Werner Greunuss. Sentenced to Life. Commuted to 20 Years.
8) Phillip Grimm. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
9) Hermann Grossmann. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 19th. 1948.
10) Hermann Hackmann. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
11) Gustav Heigel. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
12) Hermann Helbig. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 19th. 1948
13) Dr Edwin KatzenEllenbogen. Sentenced to Life. Commuted to 12 Years.
14) Josef Kestel. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 19th. 1948.
15) Ilse Koch. Sentenced to Life. Commuted to 4 Years.
16) Richard Kohler. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 26th. 1948.
17) Hubart Krautwurst. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 26th. 1948.
18) Hans Merbach. Sentenced to Death. Hanged January 14th. 1949.
19) Peter Merker. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to 20 Years.
20) Wolfgang Otto. Sentenced to 15 Years.
21) Hermann Pister. Sentenced to Death. Died September 28th. 1948.
22) Emil Pleissner. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 26th. 1948.
23) Quido Reimer. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
24) Helmut Roscher. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
25) Hans Theodor Schmidt. Sentenced to Death. Hanged June 7th. 1951.
26) Max Schobert. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November19th. 1948.
27) Albert Schwartz. Sentenced to Death. Commuted to Life.
28) Dr. Walter Wendt. Sentenced to 15 Years. Commuted to 5 Years.
29) Friedrich Wilhelm. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 26th. 1948.
30) Hans Wolf. Sentenced to Death. Hanged November 19th. 1948.
31) Franz Zinecker. Sentenced to Life.
On April 16th. Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoess Hanged in Auschwitz 1 for his crimes against the Jews of Humanity. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 2 ends and Erhard Milch is convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for his crimes. On April 19th. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 5, The Friedrich Flick Case begins. Six members of the Flick Consortium, a group of industrialists whose enterprises included coal and steel are charged collectively with the use of Slave Labour including POWs. They are also charged with the deportation of people for that labour from all of the German occupied territories. They are further charged, on direction, of the plundering of privately owned property and the 'Aryanization' process of Jewish properties.
01) Friedrich Flick. Sentenced to 7 years.
02) Odilo Burkart. Acquitted.
03) Konrad Kaletsch. Acquitted.
04) Otto Steinbrinck. Sentenced to 5 years.
05) Hermann Terberger. Acquitted.
06) Bernhard Weiss. Sentenced to 30 months.
On April 9th. 1948 The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 9, ends. All 24 defendants are found guilty on one or more of the charges. 14 defendants are sentenced to death. 10 defendants have these sentences commuted later to varying terms of imprisonment. On April 10th. Sentence in der Einsatzgruppe Case is presented with the confirmation of the sentences passed in the United States Zone of Occupation by its Military Governor. On April 13th. 1949 The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 11, The Ministries Case ends with 19 defendants found guilty. On April 11th. 1961 The Trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
"..This is not a matter of revenge. ..Hebrew poet Bialik says ..Revenge for a small child ..devil has not yet devised." Golda Meir.
HolocaustPosted by P.A. Draigh Wed, March 29, 2017 21:35:28
There are some very strong reasons, morally, ethically and even philosophically why The Holocaust term belongs exclusively to the Jewish People. Specifically, there are 6,000,000 reasons. But this is not an accounting as Adolf Eichmann might have suggested but as Simon Wiesenthal would have us ensure that these 6,000,000 Jews were as us, Human Beings who were systematically sought out to be destroyed by Adolf Hitler. I am well aware that many Jews, particularly some Survivors, who do not wish an almost religious significance attributed or given to their definite catastrophe, but in assigning such a term, the Jewish People, Humanity, the World and History have a reference point in time. I understand that a seeming Biblical phenomena is not what Hitler sought for those Jews he urged those who followed him to bring to bear on innocent human beings, simply because they were Jews!
But, there are so many Jews who do not have that reference point which might even suggest where their loved ones are interred. Some might think it is Belzec! Some might consider it to be Babi Yar! But what is clear is that while the World looked the other way, The Holocaust term must focus all attention on what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, why it happened and even more accusingly, why it was allowed to happen. There has been this constant drip feeding of irreverence for this solid case to ensure 6,000,000 Jews are The Holocaust. So if the dilution of the term itself is allowed to continue, will the ‘Shoah’ become as equally diluted by a Worlds intention to deny further the Jews departed space which overcame the Jewish living space!
So if we commence with the inconceivable premise that nothing happened without Hitler's expressed or insinuated approval and we end with The Holocaust, it is totally conceivable the intervening period was constructed so as to consign even more Jews to its confining space. It is also reasonable to assess that all these matters centred around the progression of the Jewish People toward their eventual annihilation. There is no ambiguity in that assessment as History can clearly testify to its far reaching consequences. What some see as omitted, either in crossed t's or dotted i's is visually present in intention, demand and the expressed certainty of a rhetoric which never diminished. In this regard, a concealed page that was never to be written had been intimated.
"..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable." Raul Hilberg.
We have gone further back in History to lend the term, which Raphael Lemkin titled as Genocide, to what was happening to the Jews of Europe under Hitler. Lemkin, a Polish Jew, who had arrived in the United States in April 1941, was already well versed in the types and scale of mass Murder which Hitler was waging against the Jewish People, and other peoples. Lemkin, clearly engrossed in what was happening to his own People, which Hitler had always so clearly verbalised and would not remain purely as a rhetorical process, became wholly the Destruction of the Jewish People. There were more than 3,000,000 reasons why Poland had been scoured so as to set as an example of what was to occur.
Half of all Jews who were Murdered in The Holocaust would be Polish Jews and this was not lost on Hitler. At the conception of, or even the inauguration of his planned Final Solution became focused and fixed, Lebensraum ensured many would make way for the few. We can go all the way back to Hitler's rise to power to see Jewish Destruction emerge as a inestimable target. We can see with the Book Burning of May 10th. 1933, when ten's of thousands of Books are burned on the Unter den Linden, Berlin and across much of Germany, a confronting with Jewish Culture and Civilising ways was being stressed. This, the conflagration of the written word allowed for The Holocaust term to enter into the vernacular of Nazi aims. The book burning was aimed against Jewish Writers amongst many, and we are now mindful of what Heinrich Heine had already stated:
"..Those who begin by burning Books end by burning People." Heinrich Heine.
On March 13th. 1938 with Austria absorbed into the Reich, by means of the 'Anschluss', the Jewish People face a more real threat. Along with the systematic larceny of Jewish assets, all is set in motion within Austria for Jewish removal elsewhere. The presence of Adolf Eichmann, who was here and on hand to ensure that the Jewish People would be singled out from the rest of their Community, has become a defining marker in the progress of Hitler’s Final resolve for the Jews of Europe was largely coincidental. What followed under Eichmann’s direct administering, would reverberate through the last 80 years to damn all who perpetrated, participated in or stood idly by and watched the atrocity unfold.
" ..at ..reunion ..Austria with ..German Reich ..Heydrich gave ..order ..set ..Jewish emigration in motion from Vienna." Adolf Eichmann.
History now speaks of the destruction of more than 40,000 of Austria’s Jewish People, and amidst the terms of reference, which qualify the Jewish People as particular to The Holocaust itself, Abraham Brill saw its effects from afar. Brill’s observation was clearly in relation to those Jews of Europe now caught up in Hitler’s demands for Vienna, and those of all Austria. But he saw this terrible news in relation to Sigmund Freud and his Family in particular:
"..we have been startled by ..terrible news that ..Nazi Holocaust has suddenly encircled Vienna and in ..hands of civilisation’s greatest scourge." Abraham Arden Brill.
Then we can evidence Kristallnacht as what was coming as November 9th. 1938 was orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland. Here, where some 267 synagogues are ransacked and destroyed, with 7,500 Jewish Shops looted and over 50,000 Jews who are removed to Concentration Camps at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, there is an apparent escalation toward Jewish maltreatment. Also, and with over 240 Jews who are killed, this is more commensurate with what is set to become The Holocaust for all 6,000,000 of The Jews of Europe.
"..we know what happened yesterday. We do not know what tomorrow holds. However ..we have experienced what happened today. Outside ..synagogue burns. That is also a house of God." Father Bernhard Lichtenberg.
As the ink was clearly settling upon grandiose schemes for settlements East and with Hitler's endorsement of the so called Madagaskar Plan given a feasibility study, soon annihilation would emerge as the opportune goal. Once T4's Euthanasia programme was circulated on August 18th. 1939 with the Reich Interior Ministry 'Euthanasia' paper, a rubicon had been crossed. The T4 expertise would later re-emerge in the Death Camps, once Hitler had become the witness to what could be achieved. We then see, on the day after Hitler sought to wage War in Poland, 30 Jews of Piotrkow were Murdered, September 2nd. 1939. What would eventually emerge is The Holocaust of the Jewish People as Hitler now convinced would be achievable.
What we know as far back as August 1941, when Winston Churchill was merely alluding to, and Churchill was not only hinting at the emerging destruction within what became known as The Holocaust. He knew of its exact progression. Churchill knew the emergence of the mass murder and its very exacting detail from the offset. Both British and US 'intelligence' sources had clearly gained the information from the official communications relayed from der Einsatzgruppe to Hitler’s door. Clearly, what that acknowledged what was a marked destiny for the Jews of Europe and it was fully exterminatory.
Sunday August 24th. 1941. "..aggressor retaliates by ..most frightful cruelties. As his Armies advance ..whole districts are being exterminated. Scores of 1,000's ..literally scores of 1,000's ..executions in cold blood are being perpetrated by ..German Police Troops upon ..Russian patriots who defend their native soil. Since ..Mongol invasions of Europe in ..16th. Century ..there has never been methodical ..merciless butchery on such a scale ..or approaching such a scale. And this is but ..beginning. Famine and pestilence have yet to follow in ..bloody ruts of Hitler's tanks. We are in ..presence of a crime without a name. " Winston Churchill.
A little over 6 weeks prior to this statement, British cryptographers had deciphered the 'enigma code', which der Einsatzgruppe thought would deliver their Operational Situation Reports directly to Hitler, and in secret. However, what Winston Churchill called the German Police Troops were in fact the 3,000 members of those mobile killing units, der Einsatzgruppe. Here, barely 3 weeks after the commencement of Barbarossa, we knew Hitler's unfolding account of 'The Final Solution of The Jewish Question', and it was a clearly Jewish resolve Hitler had engendered and engineered. The very detail and exacting accounting of the Slaughter would be laid out before Churchill for him to peruse and withhold from the public domain.
In cold relief, these wires were to be seen as to the systematic nature of the Slaughter of ALL Jews. I will borrow here from Elie Wiesel when I state that while Hitler's aktionen was personally directed, and while not all victims were Jews, the Slaughter was waged against ALL the Jewish People. Here, the unmasking of Hitler as a cold and calculating Mass Murderer was already withheld from the public domain, and though somewhat intelligently contained or detained, whichever allows for a morally accepting view, History knows the deeds of those who allowed for perpetration to prosper. But then, after the knowledge fully emerged of what had happened to the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, it seemed appropriate that Raphael Lemkin had come up with the right name, that of Genocide.
For Lemkin to express his clear view and horror at what had happened and what was still happening to his own People, the incredulity of the World is a marked accusation. From that point in was borne the reference point in History we have ever since called The Holocaust Slaughter of The Jews of Europe.
Saturday December 5th. 1942. "..Holocaust ..Nothing else in Hitler's record is comparable to his treatment of ..Jews. ..word has gone forth that ..Jewish peoples are to be exterminated. ..conscience of humanity stands aghast." British News Chronicle.
Terms like The Holocaust can have no meaning if we are prepared to lose sight of the detailed tragedy contained within its grasp. If we then allow for this assessment, that has been made in order that 6,000,000 Jews of Europe who perished are given newer meaning to its reach, the Jewish People confined within its terminology must never become a secondary consideration. Lately too, the dilution of the term must be seen as a dishonourable way to remove the Jewish presence from the catastrophe. For these 6,000,000 Jewish People, we owe them the right to belong to a term we have given over to them. But if the term is anything less than the expression of the unparalleled and unprecedented assault upon the Jewish People, its misuse becomes a further slur even on all of Humanity.
Sunday December 27th. 1942 "..here ..where comfort lures people into ..camp of ..mighty ..it is of no interest to history. ..Holocaust will steal its way into world history." Zelig Kalmanovich.
Zelig Kalmanovich writes from the depths of the Vilna Ghetto, which is still struggling to remain viable. In the midst of this particular maelstrom, the Germans are determined to ensure that the Jews from here are totally obliterated and their presence is no longer to be felt in the World. But history has been told of these events and The Holocaust has presented to the World the worst of what Man can do to his fellow Jew. To this day the Jews prevail and we make strenuous efforts to Remember them and stand stoically to accuse those who perpetrated these crimes against them.
Sunday December 27th. 1942 "..History will cherish your memory ..people of ..ghetto. Your last expression will be studied ..your struggle for human dignity will inspire." Zelig Kalmanovich.
Of course we know that there are those like Zelig Kalmanovich who adopted such a term to ensure we were Always to Remember and Never to Forget, and not just these Jews of Vilna, but all 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. So while Raphael Lemkin lent the word 'Genocide' to the Destruction of any Peoples, and while he was enabling us to appreciate what was happening to 3,000,000 Polish Jews and the subsequent Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, can the Jewish Murdered be denied their space in a term after being denied their space in Life? In Lemkin's Book on Axis Rule in Europe, Raphael Lemkin did far more in stating the intention of what Churchill obviously knew, but only alluded to, when he prefaced the term on November 15th. 1943.
However, Raphael Lemkin had now introduced his new word after what Churchill had merely suggested that:
"..We are in ..presence of a crime without a name."
and while Lemkin himself was adamant that Hitler was systematically Slaughtering his people en-masse, Raphael gave that certainty to a name, 'Genocide' which gave rise to The Holocaust term for the Destruction of His Jewish People. Unmistakably, we cannot then reduce the term to invalidate its clear emergence as Lemkin sought to signify what Hitler was doing, achieving and establishing against the Jewish People. To simply dilute the term, to add reference to former 'Genocide’s, present 'Genocide’s or future 'Genocide’s is to seek to lessen the impact the atrocity against 6,000,000 Jewish People should bear down upon Civilisation, Humanity and even History!
Perhaps that is the intention of History then, to deny the Jewish 6,000,000 their rightful place, as the pointer to what extreme intolerance’s means for People when confronted by abject duplicity or indifference to their struggle. So while we are all too well aware that 6,000,000 Jewish People are no more, and maybe this is such a conservative estimate, Humanity is still reeling from its ramifications and realisation. Should we then lessen its impact by not allowing for its exclusively Jewish identity! I think not! I have 6,000,000 reasons to state this case and no other good reason to avoid stating it. Are we in need of the expressions of Wannsee to secure that Fact that The Holocaust belongs to the Jewish People. The Jews were not randomly sampled for death. The Jewish People were systematically chosen before, prior and immediately upon sight for their total elimination.
That x6 Death Camps were established by Hitler within Poland speaks for the very specific detail to be brought to bear on those Jews there and those Jews yet to be transported there. Treblinka, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor or even Auschwitz and Birkenau all resonate with a Jewish presence which is no more. We already have the hidden evidence of der Einsatzgruppe activities to explain The Holocaust as a Jewish Detail. The Death Camps too were detailed for the Slaughter of The Jewish People on a previously incomprehensibly mechanised and industrial scale. That does not dismiss the fact that many other peoples of various nations or creeds were done to death, even in these Death Camps.
But the non-Jews were always subsequent to the specific detail which had already identified 11,293,300 Jews for Destruction. The genesis of The Holocaust is neither in the function which Hitler's desire to annihilate the Jewish People fully delivered and nor is it in that intention which delivered 6,000,000 Jews to the Slaughter. But with a combined effort of all that Hitler imagined could be achieved and which would be finalised within The Holocaust term, the World knows the truth of what Hitler stage managed and achieved.
"..If of 10,300,000 we had killed 10,300,000 I would be satisfied and say ..Good. We have exterminated an enemy." SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
TestimonyPosted by P.A. Draigh Fri, March 17, 2017 19:06:23
On March 7th. 1904 Reinhard Heydrich, the organiser of The Holocaust is born followed 2 years later on March 19th. 1906 when Adolf Eichmann, the Chief Administrator of The Holocaust is born. Also 2 years after that on March 26th. 1908 Paul Franz Stangl, Kommandant of Treblinka is born. On March 10th. 1927 the Speaking ban on Hitler is lifted and on March 13th. 1932 in the German Presidential Election's, Adolf Hitler polled over 30% of the votes cast, with 13,700,000 votes. On March 1st. 1933 Rabbi Stephen Wise of the World Jewish Congress seeks to ensure the American President has Hitler's assault's upon the Jews of Europe as a Centre piece to America's Foreign Policy! On March 4th. United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt makes his inaugural address. Roosevelt will remain President throughout The Holocaust years.
On March 5th. the Nazis secure 44% of the votes cast, with 288 seats in the Reichstag Election and a coalition is formed with the Social Democrats who hold 18% of the vote. Hitler assumes total control in Germany as all Individual German States now have all power divested of them. On March 9th. Himmler becomes the Police President in Munich and on March 13th. Goebbels is appointed Reich Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. On March 17th. Hitler's SS Bodyguard Regiment Adolf Hitler, 'Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler' is formed under Josef 'Sepp' Dietrich. On March 19th. the Jewish War Veterans of America seek to boycott German goods and services. On March 20th. Dachau Concentration Camp is established on the outskirts of the Town and the SA and SS form the first Policing guards of the Camp system.
Here, in partnership with Hartheim, prisoners from Dachau will be gassed. On March 21st. Communist Deputies are banned from taking Reichstag Seats and Special Courts are established to deal with Hitler's political enemies. A threat is issued that any assassination attempt upon Hitler will result in all the Jews of Germany being put up against the wall and then shot. On March 22nd. Dachau Concentration Camp near Munich opens and on March 23rd. The Enabling Act, the Law for Removal of the Distress of People and the Reich, 'Ermaechtigungsgesetz,' is passed. With this, Hitler gains dictatorial powers as Germany's artistic growth will be fuelled by 'blood and race.' On March 27th. an anti-Nazi rally held in New York City, organised by The American Jewish Congress. 55,000 people attend and a boycott is proposed of German goods if Germany insists upon their own but permanent boycott of Jewish owned business.
On March 31st. Oranienburg Concentration Camp is established as all German States are denied individual power. On March 1st 1935 Germany retakes the Saarland and two weeks later on March 16th. Military Conscription in Germany is reconvened and this too is in contravention of the Versailles Treaty. A unilateral decision by America, Britain and France to not confront Hitler is reached which secures in Hitler’s mindset a free hand to do what he wishes and against those he views as his enemies. These are largely Jews, Communists, Poles, and as he sees it, any of those who look sideways at him. On March 3rd. 1936 Jewish doctors are prohibited from practising medicine in all public health institutions throughout Germany.
On March 7th. Hitler denounces The Locarno Pact as German troops re-militarise and occupy the Rhineland and while America, Britain, and France all condemn such an aggressive act, they do not actively respond. On March 9th. 2 Jews and a Pole are killed and more than 20 Jews are injured in Przytyk, a Town in Poland with more than 2,700 Jews, 90% of the Population, Those attacked during anti-Semitic riots saw more than 40 Jewish Homes and Business's ransacked, looted and destroyed. On March 17th. demonstrations are held by Jews and left-wing and liberal Poles protesting against these anti-Jewish riots in Poland. On March 29th. the SS Death's Head Division of Camp Guards is renamed SS Deaths Head Units 'Totenkopfverbande' and they are responsible for guarding The Concentration Camps. The SS is expanded to 3,500 men. In the Reichstag election, this sees Hitler's policies gain 98% approval.
On March 14th. 1937 Pope Pius XI’s encyclical 'With Burning Concern', 'Mit brennender Sorge' declares the Totalitarian State and Hitler’s racial hatred 'twin evils.' A question which persists is concerned with why this Pope remained so quiet on the question of the Jewish situation, as the growing frenzy of assault turned toward a more destructive phase. This Pope, and subsequently Pope Pius XII, were meant to be very vocal in the call of Christ, in the manner of humanity and in respect of all that Christ taught us about tolerance and the perpetuity of all life here on Earth. No one is saying that any Pope could have more readily interpreted Hitler's vile and vocal rants as other than political bluster. But with the accumulation of events, which could not deny the bold facts of a more than brutal response toward the Jewish People, silence was a pernicious and complicit acquiescence.
Surely too, with the scale of atrocity now being observed it could have been figured that there was a less than cursory link between Hitler and the proposed fate for the Jews within Hitler’s own domain. For every action against the Jews, which were growing in such ferocity, and with the apparent and systematic nature of the attacks, which were all being aimed at the eventual eradication of all Jews, all of this seemed in line with Hitler's expressed wish and countenanced demand! When we even consider that whether or not Jewish destruction came from enforced illness, food deprivation or the physical annihilation we were about to be introduced to, Hitler was lining the Jewish People up for a more permanent and calamitous resolve.
What can then be construed, from that same silence from Political and Religious leaders, and as it failed to accumulate any collective response, this can all be seen as duplicitous and fully conducive with Hitler's immediate and awakening conduct. Hitler must have heard heartily, an audible quiet and reflected on the silence as indifference or worse, approval. Hitler took full advantage of the omitted roar of protest to plan for the eventual destruction of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, All Men, Women and Their Children with no exception.
March 4th. 1938 "..Providence ..charged me with a mission to reunite ..German peoples with a mission to restore my homeland to ..German Reich. ..believed in this mission. ..lived for it ..and ..now fulfilled it." Adolf Hitler.
On March 12th. the German Army enters Vienna and on the following day, March 13th. Austria is fully absorbed into the Reich and by means of this 'Anschluss', Austria ceases to exist and the systematic larceny of Jewish assets is set in motion within Austria.
" ..at ..reunion ..Austria with ..German Reich ..Heydrich gave ..order ..set ..Jewish emigration in motion from Vienna." Adolf Eichmann.
On March 22nd. President Roosevelt issues invitations to 33 Nations to an Evian Congress meant to assist the escalating Jewish Refugee situation and on March 23rd. Jewish community organizations within Hitler’s Reich are no longer recognised. On March 26th. Goering makes 'aryanisation' a clear principle in Vienna and the extortion of anything the Jews own begins with everything possible to be confiscated. On March 28th. Law diminishing legal rights of Jewish cultural organizations is in place as Hitler incites Sudeten Germans to conform to his ultra State. On March 31st. the Polish government passed a law threatening to revoke all Polish citizenship of all Polish Jews residing in Germany and Austria. This would affect 30,000 Polish Jews living in Germany and a further 20,000 Polish Jews living in Austria.
On March 2nd. 1939 Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli becomes Pope Pius XII. On March 11th. Hungarian Labour Service System requires enforced Military construction duties of Jews. On March 14th. Josef Tiso declares Slovakian Independence and the following day, March 15th. Nazi's enter Prague, Czechoslovakia and Hitler Annexes Bohemia-Moravia which become a Reich Protectorate. On March 16th. German Troops enter Prague and as Czechoslovakia ceases to exist, Slovakia becomes a Reich Protectorate. On March 20th. there is the Nazi burning of over 5,000 drawings, paintings and sculptures in Berlin and the following day, March 21st. Jews seek refuge away from Memel, Lithuania, as hostile German troops enter the City. On March 31st. Chamberlain pledges Britain's and France's guarantee of Polish sovereignty.
On March 6th. 1940 Jewish Physicians in Poland barred from treating 'aryans' and on March 12th. all of Schneidemuehl's 160 Jews are deported to Lublin in freight cars. German Gypsies are now being deported from Western and Northern Germany and Russia and Finland sign a mutual nonaggression Pact. On March 22nd Goering halts all deportations of the Jewish People to Lublin. On March 29th. the German Foreign Office denies any move to expel Berlin's Jews. On March 1st. 1941 Himmler visits Auschwitz and Himmler plans ahead for the expansion of the Auschwitz group of Camps. Construction of Birkenau, Auschwitz II, now begins and Bulgaria allied to Germany. On March 2nd. Hitler outlines his plans for Operation Barbarossa, the defeat of Russian and his move toward further ‘Lebensraum’, the living space for the German people.
German troops now occupy Bulgaria and the following day, March 3rd. the Cracow Ghetto established. Cracow was the First Jewish Settlement of Polish soil and believed to have been in existence since the 13th. Century. Dr. Arthur Rosenzweig is the Chairman of the Judenrate and has over 56,000 Jews who are to be enclosed over the period of its existence, for some 2 years. On March 4th. the Bunawerk factory is authorised for the Auschwitz area. On March 7th. 1,000's of Polish and German Jews are forced into labour squads. On March 11th. the Lend Lease is enacted whereby America advances material support to Britain for War against Hitler. On March 13th. Hitler issues addition to War Directive No. 21 for the Barbarossa campaign.
On March 15th. the Planned expulsion of Vienna's Jews is halted although 5,000 Jews had already been displaced. In Bochnia, Poland a Ghetto is established with Symcha Weiss as the Judenrate Chairman and 15,000 Jews from the Town and the surrounding environs are Enclosed. Operation Barbarossa is now beckoning as a newer reckoning with The Jews of Europe was being formulated. On March 17th. Hitler convenes his Military meeting and restates to General Halder that with the Russian campaign, this calls for early successes with 'no reversals'. On March 18th. Witold Pilecki (aka Tomasz Serafinski) reports to Polish Government in Exile, London, on the Auschwitz Camp conditions. Information had previously been dispatched to Zwiazek Organizacji Wojskowej, ZOW and onto Warsaw throughout October 1940. In November 1940, with the first details of Exterminations emanating from within Poland, the West was being given the Evidence that would lead 6,000,000 Jews of Europe toward their eventual Destruction.
Wednesday March 19th. 1941 ".. Lithuania's liberation is close at hand. ..traitors will be pardoned ..if they provide certain proof ..liquidated at least one Jew. ..Jews must be informed ..their fate has been decided upon. ..At ..decisive moment ..seize their property ..nothing will be lost." Lithuania Activist Front.
These were the Lithuanian fascists, the LAF who had escaped to Germany to build a resistance movement against the Russian forces of occupation. The Jewish People of Lithuania, whom they sought to Destroy and purloin their possessions, would be duly destroyed! On March 24th. the Lublin Ghetto, Poland is established with 35,000 Jews who are enclosed. Chief Engineer Henryk Bekker is the Judenrate Chariman of Lublin and Mark Alten, the Zionist Leader, is its spiritual Head. All told there are over 200,000 Jews Enclosed in region called 'Lublinland.' On March 25th. Yugoslavia joins the Axis alliance and the following day March 26th. The German Army High Command, OKH, gives special powers to Heydrich's RSHA, on der Einsatzgruppe method’s of operations to be enacted upon arrival in Russia.
On March 27th. a coup in Yugoslavia alters the balance of power and away from any allegiance with Hitler. On March 30th. Hitler's 'Fuhrer Order' is given as he prepares to move 'East' and states his plans to his Generals and as Hitler declares his intention to murder all Jews as Wehrmacht troops murder 250 of Subotica’s Jewish Youths and are also active in the Murders of 250 Jews in Novi Sad. In France, the Vichy Government appoints a Commissioner for their own Jewish Question. On March 1st. 1942 the first deportation of 5,000 of Stanislawow's Jews are taken from the Ghetto there and 'resettled' at Belzec. This was the largest transport to reach Belzec during its first phase as Sobibor Death Camp comes under Construction.
Dr. Chaim Szoszkies assesses Jewish Ghetto losses at some 10,000 per month and the complete Extinction of Polish Jews within Poland is feared. This is headlined in The New York Times. On March 2nd. 5,000 Minsk Jews are murdered at Koidanovo and the following day March 3rd. 2,300 of Baranowicze’s Jews are murdered as are 1,500 of Dolginovov’s Jews are murdered as Belgian Jews are forced into labour gangs. Elsewhere, Vojtech Tuka declares a Slovak version of The Final Solution of their Jewish Problem is to be accomplished by Nazi Germany. On March 6th. a Nazi Sterilisation Conference convened.
Friday March 6th. 1942 "..greater ..number of Jews liquidated ..more consolidated will ..situation in Europe be after this war." Joseph Goebbels.
On March 7th. 100's of Mielec’s Jews are murdered and two days later, and while Jews are not expressly mentioned by a Vatican official, the identification with German actions against the Jewish People, 80,000 at this time, is being made.
Monday March 9th. 1942 "..deportation of 80,000 people to Poland at ..mercy of ..Germans is ..condemning ..great part of them to ..death." Monsignor Giuseppe Burzio.
On this day, March 9th. as 700 of Cihrin’s Jews are being murdered, Gieuseppe Burzio who is the Vatican’s representative in Slovakia reports the planned expulsion of all of Slovakia’s Jews to the 'East', and so condemning a great part of them to death. The following day Filippo Bernardini, the Swiss Nuncio to the Vatican declared the Churches intention should be to:
Tuesday March 10th. 1942 "..save ..so many people from atrocious suffering." Monsignor Filippo Bernardini.
On March 11th. 2,000 of Mielec’s Jewish Children and their Elderly are murdered while more than 1,000 Jews from the Theresienstadt Ghetto are transported to Belzec. On March 13th. 6,000 of Mielec's Jews are transported to Belzec and elsewhere 650 of Hulievca’s Jews are murdered. The Jewish Joint Distribution Committee statement issued an eyewitness report stating that:
"..Germans have already killed 240,000 Jews in Ukraine alone."
Archbishop Angelo Riotta, Papal Nuncio in Budapest seeks some form of protest from Pope Pius XII toward the Slovak Government on behalf of those Jews being deported. There was no Vatican intervention. On March 14th. over 900 of Ilja’s Jews are burned alive and Cardinal Luigi Maglione sends his protest to the Slovak Government over its treatment of their Jews which was ignored. On March 15th. Hitler predicts victory over Russia, by the coming Summer. On March 16th. the Lublin Ghetto clearance begins as 9,000 of Lublin’s Ghetto Jews are removed to Belzec. Here, Belzec seeks to adopt a more robust static gassing facility in a wooden hut as the move away from the 'gassing van' was being made. Elsewhere, over 1,800 of Pochep’s Jews are murdered and the murder of 100's more of Mielec's Jews proceeds. On March 17th. The Belzec Death Camp begins its extermination of Jews with the arrival of the 1,400 Jews of Lublin and 1,500 Jews of Lvov.
Wednesday March 18th. 1942 "..That there has been and is being considered in Hitler's headquarters a plan to exterminate all Jews from Germany and German controlled areas in Europe after they have been concentrated in ..East. ..numbers involved is said to be between 3,500,000 and 4,000,000 and ..object to permanently settle ..Jewish Question in Europe." Dr. Gerhart Riegner.
The following day, March 18th. Gerhard Riegner handed his report to Monsignor Filippo Bernardini. On March 19th. 2,000 of Rava Ruska’s Jews are murdered at Belzec while 500 of Belgrade’s Jews are murdered in 'gassing vans'. On March 20th. 2,000 of Rohatyn’s Jews are murdered and Ernst von Weizsacker, as the Nazi State Secretary at the Foreign Office approves removal 6,000 Parisian Jews to Auschwitz. On March 21st. 26,000 of Lublin’s Ghetto Jews are murdered at Belzec. On March 23rd. the Birkenau Women's Camp is established as Jewish and Gypsy Women arrive from Ravensbrueck. The first Slovak Jews also arrive at Birkenau.
On March 24th. the first deportation of Jews from Izbica Lubelska arrive at Belzec and its 2,200 Jews are immediately murdered there and it appears these Izbica Jews are aware of their fate, upon arrival at Belzec. Izbica Lubelska is ethnically cleansed of its Jews to make way for Theresienstadt Jewish transport. Also, the ‘resettlement’ of West European Jews to Belzec begins and the Belgian Government-in-Exile recognises that 10,000 of its Jewish Citizens had already been expelled toward Lodz. On March 25th. 1,000 of Tarnopol’s Jews are murdered as are 100 of Glebokie’s Jews, also murdered. On March 26th. 58,000 of Slovakias Jews are deported to Auschwitz and Majdanek and all Jewish homes within Germany are to have notices displayed, identifying their Jewish occupants.
On March 27th. Himmler formally declares the essential need for Sloavakia to be 'Judenrein', free of Jews! Goebbels notes and acknowledged in his Diary entry that 60% of all World Jews would be liquidated. When we look to what The Wannsee Protocol has targeted, with 11,293,300 Jews sought for annihilation, 60% of that Wannsee assessment clealry leaves us with a figure that represents 6,600,000 Jews murdered within The Holocaust?
Friday March 27th. 1942 "..Begining with Lublin ..Jews are now being deported ..East. ..a fairly barbaric process is being employed ..one not to be described more precisely ..and of ..Jews themselves ..not much is left over. On ..whole ..one can confirm that 60% of them have to be liquidated ..while only 40% are able to be put to work." Joseph Goebbels.
On March 28th. The first French Jews arrive at Auschwitz and Fritz Sauckel, the Gauleiter of Thuringia, becomes the Slave Labour Chief.
Saturday March 28th. 1942 "..If you did not finish your work properly
..And lost precious time
..Then once again take up your task
..And try harder than before.
..If others have reproached you
..For what you have done wrong
..Then be sure to amend your mistake.
That is ..best memory one can make." Signed, in memory Anne Frank.
Innocence is lost to Anne Frank as those who sought her destruction dealt in the terms of reference she could barely conceive of at this time. As we progress through her time, Atrocity upon Atrocity is heaped upon those Jews of Europe she lives beside, those Jews she shares a Nation with, those Jews she hides with within a Continent now seeking her and all those she knows for immediate destruction! This poem by Anne has just become available to the Public in 2016 but will be sold to the highest bidder. What profit the misery of a Young Jewish Girl and 6,000,000 of her People.
On March 1st 1943 the Nazi collaborationist Byelorussian Central Council was established and at Madison Square Garden, New York, a rally saw 20,000 protesters inside urging greater support for the Jews of Europe. A further 50,000 protesters remained outside the building. At Koriukivka, Ukraine the destruction of the entire village by SS troops took place. In much the same way as Lidice, the Town was raised to the ground with 6,700 locals murdered. der Einsatzgruppe forces had visitd the Town in 1942, killed all 300 of its Jews, 131 Villagers and the 12 Gypsies who had lived there.
On March 4th. over 800 Jews from Gurs are deported to Drancy and then onto Auschwitz while the Jews of Thrace are being deported to Treblinka. Also that same day, 1,500 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz where 1,350 of them are Murdered immediately upon arrival. On March 5th. 1,300 of Khmelnik's Jews are murdered.
Saturday March 6th. 1943 "..Auschwitz Krematorien II and III ..service agrees that cellar 1 should be preheated with ..air coming from ..rooms of ..3 forced draught installations. ..supply and installation of ..ductwork and blowers necessary to this end are to be effected as soon as possible. As you point out in your above-mentiond letter, execution should commence this week. We would ask you to send in triplicate detailed quote for supply and installation. ..same time ..send an additional quotation for ..modification of ..air-extraction installation in ..undressing room." Sturmbannfuhrer Jahrling.
On March 6th. a further 900 Jews from Gurs are deported to Drancy and then onto their destruction at Auschwitz. The Bishop of Berlin, Bishop Konrad von Preysing sent a message asking Pope Pius XII to intervene with Hitler on behalf of Berlin's Jews now being sent to their deaths.
Sunday March 7th. 1943 "..I wish I could leave all this behind and run away from Janek ..Jumek ..Mietek ..my house and all this grayish rottenness. Spread out wings and fly high and far away ..hear ..wind howling and run wild on my face ..feel its breeze. Fly to places where there are no ghettos ..shops ..no pretending." Rutka Laskier.
On March 7th. the Polish government-in-exile issues it most strident report on the executions of prisoners in a Nazi German 'murder camp'situated at Oswiecim, better known to us as Auschwitz/Birkenau.
March 8th. 1943 "..Because of whom or what am I crying. Because of Janek ..certainly not. Then because of whom. Probably because of freedom. I am sick and tired of these gray houses ..steady fear seen on everybody's faces. This fear clutches onto everyone and doesn't let go." Rutka Laskier.
On March 9th. SS forces returned to what was left of Koriukivka and burned alive those who had returned, mostly the elderly. On March 11th. the entire Jewish population. some 7,240 Jewish Citizens of 3 Yugoslavian Towns, Bitola, Skopje and Stip are transported to The Death Camp Treblinka.
Thursday March 11th. 1943 "..Polish people ..looks with horror ..deep sympathy on ..murder of ..remainder of ..Jewish population in Poland." Rzeczpospolita Polska.
March 12th. Grodno is now declared 'Judenrein' with 40,000 Jews having been resettled to Auschwitz and Treblinka. On March 13th. the Cracow Ghetto is being liquidated with many of the liquidated Jews, some 10,000 of them, shot to death in the Zgoda Square, along with the town of Wadowice's own Rabbi Seltenreich. This is significant in that Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope Paul II was from Wadowice and knew personally Rabbi Seltenreich, but knew nothing of this taking place on his doorstep! Meanwhile, the first of new design of crematoria opens at Auschwitz/Birkenau and the murder process will now be more complete, and the total removal of all evidence of the mass murder will near totality. There will be 5 purpose built Krematorium with their own gas chambers in operation here while 2 other extermination facilities are prepared at Bunker I, the little Red House, and Bunker II, the little White House.
Gassing did also commence from within Block 11. Auschwitz/Birkenau was a colossus in the mechanised and industrial scale of the Destruction of the Jewish People. It exemplified to the World what Hitler had clearly sought to achieve in his final resolve for The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. In total and during a 24 hour period, utilising all 46 ovens, between 12,000 and 15,000 Jewish Victims could be totally destroyed. There were designs also for a 6th. Krematorium, which never got off the drawing board. The ashes of the Victims too was a resource that Hitler's Germany sought to utilise. The ash of 6,000,000 Jewish Victims could be contained within a given space of some 25,470 Cubic Metres.
On March 14th. with the final phase of Cracow's Ghetto Jews' liquidation, 2,000 of Cracow’s Ghetto Jews are removed to Auschwitz and 700 of Cracow’s Ghetto Jews are murdered in situ. On March 15th. Jewish deportations begin from Greece with the deportations from Macedonia, Salonika and from Thrace. These Greek Jewish deportations have the assistance of forces from Bulgaria. On March 17th. 1,500 of Lvov’s Jews are murdered and on March 20th. those first deportations of Salonika’s Jews arrive at Auschwitz. On March 22nd. the new Krematoria in Birkenau is in operation. On March 23rd. over 900 of Marseilles Jews are deported to Auschwitz and on March 25th. 2,000 of Zolkiew’s Jews are murdered in the Borek Forest. Meanwhile, a further 1,000 Jews of Marseille are transported to Auschwitz/Birkeanu for annihilation.
Saturday March 29th. 1943. "..concerning ..delivery ..gas tight door celler I ..Krematoria III ..to be produced identical ..cellar door Krematoria II which is ..opposite ..with peepholes of double 8mm glass ..rubber sealing strip and frame." SS Sturmbannfuhrer Karl Bischoff.
On March 30th. more than 15,000 Jews of Lvov have been Murdered in Belzec and Himmler visits Treblinka. The following day, March 31st. some 5,000 of Stanislawow’s Jews are also murdered at Belzec. On March 3rd. 1944 over 700 Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On March 7th. the liquidation of the Family Camp at Auschwitz/Birkenau begins as more than 1,500 French Jews are transported to Auschwitz/Birkenau.
"..Day in ..day out ..in hundreds of cities throughout Poland ..Russia 1,000's upon 1,000's of Jews are ..systematically murdered according to a preconceived plan ..no one .takes our part." Emanuel Ringelblum.
Elsewhere, during March 7th. Emmanuel Ringelblum is murdered with His entire Family but not before His Oneg Shabbat Archives have been secreted within Warsaw for future evidence of what had been endured. This archive will allow Emmanuel Ringelblum’s name to ring throughout Eternity.
"..Comprehensiveness ..chief principle guiding our work ..objectivity was ..second principle." Emmanuel Ringelblum.
On March 9th. 3,796 Jews from the September Theresienstadt transport are liquidated at Auschwitz. 1,140 had already perished. Barely 70 have Survived. On March 11th. 300 of Gospic’s Jews are sent to Jasenovac. On March 15th. The Nazi’s comb through Greece for the future expellation of Jews to Auschwitz where some 69,221 Jews of Greece were murdered.On March 16th. Admiral Horthy accepts Hitler's Policing control as Hungary accedes to Jewish deportation. On March 18th. Hitler orders German troops into Hungary and the following day, March 19th. Germany fully occupies Hungary. On March 22nd. there is a Jewish Uprising at Koldyczewo and on March 23rd. over 1,600 of Yanina’s Jews are sent to Auschwitz as are more than 590 Dutch Jews, adding to a glut of transports in Auschwitz.
Also, as a partisan raid kills 33 German police in Rome, the City is set for a reprisal action. It came the following day on March 24th. when 335 Italians, from every walk of life, including 35 Jews were taken to the Ardeatine Caves and massacred. Roosevelt seizes his chance and warns Hungary to refrain from anti-Jewish measures, long since aware that Hitler had all but destroyed the 6,000,000 Jews of The Holocaust.
Sunday, 26th. March. "..All I think about is Marta. ..just a girl ..Germans killed her. ..I don't want them to kill me." Eva Heyman.
On March 27th. 1,800 of Kovno’s Jewish Women and Their Children are murdered and over 1,000 French Jews are sent to Auschwitz. On March 28th. 600 of Boryslaw’s Jews are sent to Plaszow Camp while the Nazi seizure of Elderly and Ill Jews from the Trieste City hospitals is acknowledged by Bishop Antonio Santini. On March 12th. 1945 SS Obergruppenfuhrer Ernst Kaltenbrunner meets President of International Red Cross, Professor Carl Jacob Burckhardt. On March 20th. Mauthausen sub-Camp Amstetten is Bombed. On March 28th. while Russian forces reach Austria, it is too late for some 65,000 Austrian Jews who have been murdered. On March 6th. 1946 as the Russian prosecutors at Nuremberg War Crimes Trials the finish their presentation and the prosecution rests, the news of Churchill's anti-Russian speech gives the guilty Nazi defendants renewed hope. On March 8th. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials defense begins its case. Three days later, on March 11th. Rudolf Hoess is arrested in Schleswig-Holstein. On March 13th. 1946 Goering begins his testimony and between March 18th. and March 22nd. Goering is cross examined.
On March 5th. 1947 The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 3, The Judges Justice Case begins. 9 members of the Reich Ministry of Justice and 7 members of the People's and Special Courts are charged with using their power as prosecutors and judges to commit War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity. On March 10th. 1948 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 8, The RuSHA or Main Race and Resettlement Office verdict is delivered. On March 3rd. 1951 Members of The Treblinka Death Camp staff are tried before a Court in Frankfurt. On March 3rd. 1957 Rudolf (Reszo) Kasztner was Murdered in Israel for his part in saving 1,000 Jews from The Holocaust. Depending upon which definition one wishes to aplly to the status of Holocaust Survivor, a ratio of 1 in 25 or 1 in 10 out of the overall 6,000,000 assessment of those who did not Survive might be made. The danger in playing with numbers, the figures of the destructive capacity Hitler applied to his very own Final Solution, de-humanises the Jewish People, both Victim and Survivor.
Wednesday March 27th. 1963 "..whole extent of ..Jewush persecutions ..number of 6,000,000 victims of ..extermination camps ..only ..verified after ..war." Father Robert Leiber.
On March 23rd. 2000 Pope John Paul II visits YadVashem.
Thursday March 23rd. 2000 "..In this place of memories ..mind ..heart ..soul feel an extreme need for silence. Silence in which to remember. Silence in which to try to make some sense of ..memories which come flooding back. Silence because there are no words strong enough to deplore ..terrible tragedy of ..Shoah. ..I remember my Jewish friends ..neighbors ..some of whom perished ..while others survived. I have come to Yad Vashem to pay homage to ..millions of Jewish people ..stripped of everything ..human dignity ..murdered in The Holocaust. ..memories remain. ..as at Auschwitz ..we are overcome by ..echo of ..heart rending laments of so many. Men ..Women ..Their Children ..cry out to us from ..depths of ..horror that they knew. How can we fail to heed their cry. No one can forget or ignore what happened. No one can diminish its scale. We wish to remember. ..we wish to remember for a purpose ..to ensure that never again will evil prevail. I assure ..Jewish People ..Catholic Church ..is deeply saddened by ..hatred ..acts of persecution ..displays of antisemitism directed against ..Jews by Christians at any time and in any place. Church rejects racism in any form as a denial of ..image of ..Creator inherent in every human being. In this place of solemn remembrance ..I fervently pray that our sorrow for ..tragedy which ..Jewish people ..will lead to a new relationship between Christians and Jews. Let us build a new future in which there will be no more anti Jewish feeling among Christians. ..world must heed ..warning that comes to us from ..victims of The Holocaust ..from ..testimony of ..Survivors. Here at YadVashem ..memory lives on ..burns itself onto our souls. It makes us cry out." Pope John Paul II.